2 Latest nutrition recommendations from Food and Nutrition Board (US and Canada) that includes 5 sets of standards w/in the Dietary Reference IntakesEst energy requirementsIncludes all lifestages, does differ by lifestage (gender after age after 9, pregnancy, lactation) and are for average of few days, not single day
3 Relationship of DRIs to each other and % of population covered
4 Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) EARsOnly set for nutrients that have functional markersMeets needs for 50% population groupRDAsBased on EARsMeet 97-98% population groupPrevent deficiency and chronic diseaseFuntional marker- measure that can accurately evaluate if intake is adequate- ex measure enzyme activity or ability of cell to maintain physiological function- calcium does not have functional marker so no EAR, vit C you can measure max WBC saturation which is important for normal immune function to set EAROnly meets needs for 50% of pop so used for groups not individualsRDA only set if you have an EAR, typically EAR * 1.2 so it covers a higher % of population, it is goal for usual intake- take intake for week and add together, divide by 7- even if a little low it may not mean anything if person is healthy but farther they are from the RDA more likely to have deficiency and develp chronic disease
5 Adequate Intake (AI) AIs Insufficient data for an EAR Estimate of average nutrient intake that appears to maintain a defined nutritional state (bone health)Ideally meets more than RDAApplies to chronic daily use- ex of nutrient that someone may take too much of? For niacin if you have more than 35 mg/day everyday from supplements it is likely you will have AE- for many nutrients there is no UL
6 Upper limit (UL)UlsBased on chronic intake of nutrients that are not likely to cause adverse effects in almost all individualsBased on nutrient intake from all sourcesExceptions: niacin, magnesium, zinc and nickel are only nonfood sourcesApplies to chronic daily use- ex of nutrient that someone may take too much of? For niacin if you have more than 35 mg/day everyday from supplements it is likely you will have AE- for many nutrients there is no UL
7 EERs AMDRs Average daily caloric need for each life stage group estimated Energy Requirement (EER) and Adequate macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR)EERsAverage daily caloric need for each life stage groupAMDRsRange of intake, as a percentage of energy (for example fat is 20-35% of kcal)Values are for Carbohydrates, Fat, Protein and Essential fatty acidsToo much energy consumed is not excreted but is stored as body fat- EER as based on a math formula you will earn in chap 10 (ht, wt, gender, activity level)- estimates so need to adjust based on what your wt is doingAdequate macronutrient distribution ranges
8 Nutrient DensityDivide the amount of the nutrient per serving by the recommended amountDivide the calories in a serving by daily caloric needCompare the two“Empty calorie foods” or “junk foods” have low nutrient densityTool to assess nutrient quality of individual food
10 Daily Values (DVs)Nutrition standards on food labels created because DRIs are age and gender specificDV for food labels is standard set for over 4 years oldSeparate DV for foods designed for infants, toddlers, pregnancy and lactationBased on reference daily intakes (RDIs) and daily reference values (DRVs)
11 Recommended daily intake (DRI) and Dietary Reference Values (DRV)s Energy nutrients-carbohydrates, protein and fatBased on a 2,000 calorie dietCHO 60%, fat 30%, sat fat 10%, protein 10%, fiber is 11.5g/1000 kcalCholesterol, sodium and potassium do not vary with caloric intakeRDIsVitamins and MineralsUse highest value for any life stage groupBased on 1968 RDA
13 Nutrition Facts Panel Standardized serving size Based on typical American serving sizesFollowing nutrients must be listedTotal calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, protein, Vitamin A and C, calcium and ironFortified or nutrients listed in health claims must also be included.
14 Nutrition Facts PanelHelps put the MyPlate and Dietary Guidelines into action.Helps identify foods that are good sources of important nutrients and that may prevent disease.
15 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 1. Serving SizeShould be listed using familiar measurements: cups, piecesMust be based upon the amount of food people usually eat
16 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 2. Servings Per ContainerThis is important to look at every time.Servings are not the same as portions.
17 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 3. Calories andCalories from Fat(Kilo)calories provide a measure of energy from one serving of the foodKcal from fat provide a clue as to whether the food is high in fat
18 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 4. Total Fat, Saturated Fat, and Trans FatTotal Fat: Includes all fatsSaturated Fat < g/dayTrans FatNo recommended amount; suggested amount is zero
19 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 5. CholesterolRecommendation:< 300 mg/dayBlood cholesterol levels are more closely related to intakes of saturated fat than to dietary cholesterol.
20 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 6. SodiumPart of table saltMay increase blood pressure, water retention, and calcium lossRecommendation:<1, ,300 mg/dayHow many miligrams of sodium are in 1 teaspoon of table salt?1 tsp. salt = 2,000 mg
21 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 7. Total CarbohydrateFast-acting energyIncludesfiberssugars
22 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 8. Dietary FiberNo calories (non digestible)Recommendation:11.5 grams per 1000 calories consumed
23 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 9. SugarsSimple sugars: use sparinglyInclude both naturally occurring sugars (fruit or milk sugars), as well as added sugars
24 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 10. ProteinMost Americans over the age of 4 get more than enough.
25 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 11. Vitamins A and CPowerful antioxidants that may protect against cancer and heart diseaseBest source are fruits an vegetables
26 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 12. CalciumImportant for bone and tooth health and healthy blood pressure levels
27 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 13. IronAdequate intake prevents iron deficiency anemia
28 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel? 14. Percent Daily ValueTells which foods contribute lightly or heavily to total daily nutrient needs> 20% = High in nutrient< 5% = Low in nutrient
29 Food Label Claims 1. Nutrient Content Claims e.g. “Fat-free” and “Low-in-fat”2. Health ClaimsDescribe relationship between a disease and a nutrient, food, or ingredientMust use “may” or “might” in statementCannot make your own, food manufacturers can only use permitted health claims like “a diet with enough calcium may reduce risk of osteoporosis”
30 Food Label Claims 3. Preliminary Health Claims Regulated but limited scientific evidence, must include a disclaimer4. Structure/Function ClaimsCan appear on labels but are not FDA-approved
31 Food Label ClaimsIn 2010 Dannon claimed in nationwide advertising campaigns that DanActive helps prevent colds and flu, and that one daily serving of Activia relieves temporary irregularity and helps with “slow intestinal transit time.” The Federal Trade Commission thought these claims were exaggerated and sued Dannon $21M
32 he approved health claim about heart disease is supposed to mention fiber, fruits, vegetables, and a low-fat diet -- not just whole-grain foods. And the FDA warned General Mills about another statement on that same web site that linked whole grains, as part of a low-fat diet, to reduced risk of stomach and colon cancers. That's not an approved health claim.
33 Nutrient databasesMany data bases exist to help estimate energy intake and nutrient intakeReflect average amounts found in analyzed samplesCannot account for: Farming conditions, Maturity and ripeness of plants, Food processing, Shipping conditions, Storage time, Cooking processes
34 Energy DensityComparison of a food’s caloric content per gram weight of the foodHigh energy density foods (>4 kcal/g)Graham crackers, potato chips, peanuts, baconLow energy density foods (<0.6 kcal/g)Lettuce, strawberries, grapefruit, carrotsWater, fullness, weight
35 The Dietary Guidelines for Americans The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, released on January 31, 2011, emphasize three major goals for Americans:1. Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight2. Consume more of certain foods and nutrients such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and seafood3. Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grainsWater, fullness, weight
36 The Dietary Guidelines for Americans The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 include 23 key recommendations for the general population and 6 additional key recommendations for specific population groups, such as pregnant women. The recommendations are intended to help people choose an overall healthy diet.Water, fullness, weight
38 Food Pyramid to My Plate Based on Dietary GuidelinesIntended for those over age 2 to provide advice about average intake and to encourage eating a wide variety of healthy foods in moderationGoal is to help people plan a diet that results in longer and healthier lives
50 Portion Vs. ServingA portion is the amount of food that you choose to eat for a meal or snack. It can be big or small—you decide.A serving is a measured amount of food or drink, such as one slice of bread or one cup (eight ounces) of milk.