Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 2 TOOLS OF A HEALTHFUL DIET. RELATIONSHIP OF DRIS TO EACH OTHER AND % OF POPULATION COVERED."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 2 TOOLS OF A HEALTHFUL DIET
RELATIONSHIP OF DRIS TO EACH OTHER AND % OF POPULATION COVERED
ESTIMATED AVERAGE REQUIREMENTS (EAR) AND RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES (RDA) EARs Only set for nutrients that have functional markers Meets needs for 50% population group RDAs Based on EARs Meet 97-98% population group Prevent deficiency and chronic disease
ADEQUATE INTAKE (AI) AIs Insufficient data for an EAR Estimate of average nutrient intake that appears to maintain a defined nutritional state (bone health) Ideally meets more than RDA
UPPER LIMIT (UL) Uls Based on chronic intake of nutrients that are not likely to cause adverse effects in almost all individuals Based on nutrient intake from all sources Exceptions: niacin, magnesium, zinc and nickel are only nonfood sources
ESTIMATED ENERGY REQUIREMENT (EER) AND ADEQUATE MACRONUTRIENT DISTRIBUTION RANGES (AMDR) EERs Average daily caloric need for each life stage group AMDRs Range of intake, as a percentage of energy (for example fat is 20- 35% of kcal) Values are for Carbohydrates, Fat, Protein and Essential fatty acids
NUTRIENT DENSITY Divide the amount of the nutrient per serving by the recommended amount Divide the calories in a serving by daily caloric need Compare the two Empty calorie foods or junk foods have low nutrient density
DAILY VALUES (DVS) Nutrition standards on food labels created because DRIs are age and gender specific DV for food labels is standard set for over 4 years old Separate DV for foods designed for infants, toddlers, pregnancy and lactation Based on reference daily intakes (RDIs) and daily reference values (DRVs)
RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE (DRI) AND DIETARY REFERENCE VALUES (DRV)S RDIs Vitamins and Minerals Use highest value for any life stage group Based on 1968 RDA DRVs Energy nutrients- carbohydrates, protein and fat Based on a 2,000 calorie diet CHO 60%, fat 30%, sat fat 10%, protein 10%, fiber is 11.5g/1000 kcal Cholesterol, sodium and potassium do not vary with caloric intake
HOW DO I READ A NUTRITION FACTS PANEL?
NUTRITION FACTS PANEL Standardized serving size Based on typical American serving sizes Following nutrients must be listed Total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, protein, Vitamin A and C, calcium and iron Fortified or nutrients listed in health claims must also be included.
NUTRITION FACTS PANEL Helps put the MyPlate and Dietary Guidelines into action. Helps identify foods that are good sources of important nutrients and that may prevent disease.
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 1. Serving Size –Should be listed using familiar measurements: cups, pieces –Must be based upon the amount of food people usually eat
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 2. Servings Per Container –This is important to look at every time. –Servings are not the same as portions.
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 3. Calories and Calories from Fat –(Kilo)calories provide a measure of energy from one serving of the food –Kcal from fat provide a clue as to whether the food is high in fat
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 4. Total Fat, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat –Total Fat: Includes all fats –Saturated Fat < 10-14 g/day –Trans Fat No recommended amount; suggested amount is zero
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 5. Cholesterol Recommendation: < 300 mg/day Blood cholesterol levels are more closely related to intakes of saturated fat than to dietary cholesterol.
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 6. Sodium –Part of table salt –May increase blood pressure, water retention, and calcium loss –Recommendation: <1,100 - 2,300 mg/day How many miligrams of sodium are in 1 teaspoon of table salt? 1 tsp. salt = 2,000 mg
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 7. Total Carbohydrate –Fast-acting energy –Includes fibers sugars
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 8. Dietary Fiber –No calories (non digestible) –Recommendation: 11.5 grams per 1000 calories consumed
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 9. Sugars –Simple sugars: use sparingly –Include both naturally occurring sugars (fruit or milk sugars), as well as added sugars
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 10. Protein –Most Americans over the age of 4 get more than enough.
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 11. Vitamins A and C –Powerful antioxidants that may protect against cancer and heart disease –Best source are fruits an vegetables
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 12. Calcium –Important for bone and tooth health and healthy blood pressure levels
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 13. Iron –Adequate intake prevents iron deficiency anemia
WHATS INCLUDED IN THE NUTRITION FACTS PANEL? 14. Percent Daily Value –Tells which foods contribute lightly or heavily to total daily nutrient needs –> 20% = High in nutrient < 5% = Low in nutrient
FOOD LABEL CLAIMS 1. Nutrient Content Claims e.g. Fat-free and Low-in-fat 2. Health Claims Describe relationship between a disease and a nutrient, food, or ingredient Must use may or might in statement Cannot make your own, food manufacturers can only use permitted health claims like a diet with enough calcium may reduce risk of osteoporosis
FOOD LABEL CLAIMS 3. Preliminary Health Claims Regulated but limited scientific evidence, must include a disclaimer 4. Structure/Function Claims Can appear on labels but are not FDA-approved
FOOD LABEL CLAIMS In 2010 Dannon claimed in nationwide advertising campaigns that DanActive helps prevent colds and flu, and that one daily serving of Activia relieves temporary irregularity and helps with slow intestinal transit time. The Federal Trade Commission thought these claims were exaggerated and sued Dannon $21M http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2010/12/dannon.shtm
NUTRIENT DATABASES Many data bases exist to help estimate energy intake and nutrient intake Reflect average amounts found in analyzed samples Cannot account for: Farming conditions, Maturity and ripeness of plants, Food processing, Shipping conditions, Storage time, Cooking processes
ENERGY DENSITY Comparison of a foods caloric content per gram weight of the food High energy density foods (>4 kcal/g) Graham crackers, potato chips, peanuts, bacon Low energy density foods (<0.6 kcal/g) Lettuce, strawberries, grapefruit, carrots
THE DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, released on January 31, 2011, emphasize three major goals for Americans: 1. Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight 2. Consume more of certain foods and nutrients such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and seafood 3. Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains
THE DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 include 23 key recommendations for the general population and 6 additional key recommendations for specific population groups, such as pregnant women. The recommendations are intended to help people choose an overall healthy diet.
FOOD PYRAMID TO MY PLATE Based on Dietary Guidelines Intended for those over age 2 to provide advice about average intake and to encourage eating a wide variety of healthy foods in moderation Goal is to help people plan a diet that results in longer and healthier lives
BASIC 7 FOOD GUIDE (1943 - 1955)
BASIC 4 FOOD GUIDE (1956 - 1979)
HASSLE-FREE FOOD GUIDE (1979 - 1984)
FOOD WHEEL: A PATTERN FOR DAILY FOOD CHOICES 1984
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID 1992
MYPYRAMID FOOD GUIDANCE SYSTEM 2005
MYPLATE JUNE 2011
FOOD PLAN FOR 22 YO F
WHAT DOES A SERVING LOOK LIKE?
PORTION VS. SERVING A portion is the amount of food that you choose to eat for a meal or snack. It can be big or smallyou decide. A serving is a measured amount of food or drink, such as one slice of bread or one cup (eight ounces) of milk.