9Examples of Nutrition Studies The need to develop standardized diets to support zebrafish (Danio rerio) research is supported by theknowledge that specific dietary ingredients, nutrients, or antinutritional factors in diets have been shown toaffect development and growth of adult D. rerio and their offspring. In this study, there were seven dietarytreatments consisting of five commercially available diets and two laboratory-prepared diets, three replicatesper treatment. Fish were fed ad libitum twice daily for 9 weeks. At 9 weeks, both weight and length wererecorded to determine condition indices. D. rerio fed one of the laboratory-prepared diets had significantlyhigher weights than individuals fed any of the other diets and exhibited significantly higher lengths than thosefed five of the six remaining diets. Although there were significant differences in general growth demographics(length=weight) after the 9-week feeding trial, no significant differences in overall health of D. rerio wereobserved for the different dietary treatments as determined by statistical analysis of condition factor indices(K¼[weight100]=length3). The success achieved with the laboratory-prepared diets represents the foundationfor establishing an open-formulation nutritional standard to ensure that the D. rerio model for research does notgenerate confounding research results caused by nutritional vagaries.Sadasivam Kaushik,1 Ioanna Georga,2 and Giorgos Koumoundouros2,3 (France & Greece)Although zebrafish is used as a major model species for understanding a number of biological functions andmechanisms involved, there is practically no information on the nutritional requirements of this cyprinid. Therearing practices, especially with regard to feeds and feeding, also vary considerably. To obtain base lineinformation on the nutrient requirements and to develop a standard diet, we initiated the present work offeeding zebrafish larvae with a formulated feed right from first feeding onward. Growth of zebrafish fed thecompound feed was very good, reaching a total length of 23 ± 4mm in 9 weeks with a survival rate of 89% ± 4%.We present the first ever published data on whole-body composition in terms of essential amino acids (idealprotein profile), total, neutral and polar fatty acid profiles, minerals, and trace elements. Results obtained hereshow clearly that zebrafish can be reared with formulated feed right from mouth opening without resorting toany live prey.
10Considerations in the Use of Formulated Diets Age: Larval vs juvenile vs adult (breeding)Physical form of the dietFeed FrequencyProtein source/qualityCarbohydrateLipid and Fatty AcidsGut Retention TimeBacteriaCulture Container
11MethodsFish were co-cultured with enriched rotifers for the first 5 days post hatch and fed Artemia for 11 days prior to stocking.At 21 days post hatch 15 fish were stocked randomly into 2.8 liter tanks and maintained on a recirculating zebrafish system.For each diet, fish were fed a ration in excess of 5% of their body weight per day, divided into two feedings.Fish were photographed and weighed every two weeks to measure growth and adjust feed rations.
24ConclusionsAll diets supported growth and survival. However, commercial diets contain undefined ingredients.The consequence: Nutrients and nutrient source affect outcomes.Any health or disease-related outcomes will be affected by diet.Interpretation of experimental results must be made within the context of a defined nutritional history, or lack thereof.Microbiome?
25AcknowledgmentsUAB NORC Aquatic Animals Research Core (NIH P30DK056336).Jeff Barry, Adele Fowler, Chris Taylor, Michael Williams, Karen Jensen, Marlee HayesACLAM