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Nutrition Guidelines: Tools for a Healthful Diet Chapter 2

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Guidelines: Tools for a Healthful Diet Chapter 2"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition Guidelines: Tools for a Healthful Diet Chapter 2

2 Nutrition Guidelines Who are “they”?
Advertisement News Head lines Federal Government A healthy population is a more productive population Nutrition policy Under nutrition Over nutrition © Ginasanders/ 2

3 Linking Nutrients, Foods, and Health
Continuum of nutritional status Point of continuum What we eat affects our health Over nutrition Chronic consumption of more than is necessary for good health Linked to leading causes of deaths in the United States 3

4 Heart Disease:

5 Cancer:

6 Stroke:

7 Diabetes:

8 Under Nutrition: Some foods are being consumed
Not nutritionally adequate Nutritional deficiency diseases Malnutrition Rare in the United States

9 Scurvy: Vitamin C deficiency

10 Pellegra: Vitamin B Niacin deficiency

11 Osteoporosis: Calcium deficiency

12 Linking Nutrients, Foods, and Health
Choosing a healthful diet Moderation Not taking anything to extremes Variety Include a lot of different foods in your diet Balance Choose a variety of foods and eat a moderate amount 12

13 Dietary guidelines: Improve over all health
Many countries have developed their own food guidelines Help with food choices Healthy population is more productive and less strain on health care resources

14 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2005)
First released in 1980 Science-based advice Promote health; reduce chronic disease risk Recommendations encourage Americans to eat fewer calories, be more active, and make wiser food choices 14

15 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Adequate nutrients within calorie needs Consume a variety of foods Eat a balanced diet Weight management Maintain weight Prevent gradual weight gain over time 15

16 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans Physical activity
Engage in regular physical activity Achieve physical fitness Food groups to encourage Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk 16

17 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans Fats
Limit total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol Carbohydrates Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, and whole grains Limit added sugars Consume sugar- and starch-containing foods and beverages less frequently 17

18 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Sodium and potassium Consume less than or equal to 1 teaspoon of salt/day Alcoholic beverages If used, do so sensibly and in moderation 18

19 Dietary Guidelines Dietary Guidelines for Americans Food safety Clean
Separate Cook Chill Avoid raw milk and raw milk products 19

20 Barriers to the Dietary guidelines
Developed mainly for policy makers Health Care Providers Nutritionists Nutrition Educators

21 Dietary Guidelines Using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Does not identify food to consume or to avoid Gives advice about the overall consumption of one’s diet 21

22 Dietary Guidelines Canada’s Guidelines for Healthy Eating
Set of positive, action-oriented messages for healthy Canadians Canada’s Physical Activity Guide Build 30–60 minutes of moderate physical activity/day for adults Build 90 minutes of activity/day for children 22

23 Food Groups and Food Guides
History of food guides first published in 1916 Basic Four (1950’s to 1970’s) USDA Food Guide Pyramid (1992) © 23

24 Food Guide Pyramid

25 MyPyramid (2005) Source: USDA 25

26 MyPyramid Basic concepts Web site Variety Moderation
Proportionality Physical activity Gradual improvement Personalization Web site 26

27 Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide
Based on dietary reference intakes (DRIs) Diversity of food available in Canada Incorporates recommended eating pattern and associated dietary guidance From Eating Well With Canada’s Food Guide, Health Canada, © Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Governmental Services Canada, 2009. 27

28 Using MyPyramid or Canada’s Food Guide in Diet Planning (page 46)
Types of food Number of recommended servings Approximate serving size 28

29 Exchange Lists Help people with diabetes plan meals
Foods grouped by macronutrient (carbohydrate, protein and fat) content Starches Fruits Milks Other carbohydrates Vegetables Meats and meat substitutes Fats See Appendix B 29

30 Recommendations for Nutrient Intake: The Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs)
Understanding dietary standards Recommendations for nutrient intake Developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (Canada RNI and US RDA) Apply to healthy people in the United States and Canada Four basic elements 30

31 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Amount that meets the nutrient requirements of 50% of people in a life-stage and gender group Based on functional indicator of optimal health 31

32 Dietary Reference Intakes
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Amount that meets the needs of most people in a life stage and gender group 32

33 Contd: RDA is based on the EAR
General population can use RDA as a target goal of dietary intake Remember this is a general target and not individualized

34 Dietary Reference Intakes
Adequate Intake (AI) Amount thought to be adequate for most people AI is used when EAR and RDA can’t be determined Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) Intake above the UL can be harmful 34

35 Dietary Reference Intakes
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) Energy intake needed for energy balance Determined by using weight, height, age, and physical activity Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) Recommended balance of energy sources 35

36 Dietary Reference Intakes
Use of dietary standards Population groups (military, WIC, school) Assess adequacy of intake Plan diets Set policy and guidelines Individuals Use RDA and AI as target levels for intake Avoid intake greater than the UL 36

37 Food Labels Food and drug Administration (FDA)
1990 Nutrition labeling and education ACT (NLEA) Mandatory information on food labels Statement of identity “Appropriately descriptive term” Net contents of the package Name and address of manufacturer, packer, and distributor 37

38 Food Labels Mandatory information on food labels List of ingredients
Listed by common or usual name Listed in descending order by weight Nutrition information Nutrition Fact panel (most important information) 38

39 Food Labels Nutrition Facts panel – Standard format 39

40 Food Labels Daily Values Nutrient content claims
Compare amount in one serving to amount recommended for daily consumption Based on recommended amounts of 2,000 calorie diet Nutrient content claims Descriptive terms (e.g., low fat, high fiber) Defined by FDA 40

41 Food Labels Health claims Structure/function claims
Link one or more dietary components to reduced risk of disease Must be supported by scientific evidence Approved by FDA Structure/function claims Describe potential effects on body structure or function 41

42 Food Labels Using labels to make healthful food choices
Can compare products 42

43 Good night!

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