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© Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 35 Diet & Nutrition © Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 3 The Digestive System
© Boardworks Ltd 20062 of 35 Diet and nutrition Like a car, our bodies rely on the fuel that we put into our tank. A good diet helps our bodies to stay healthy and gives us the energy that we need to exercise. The amount and type of food that we eat on a daily basis is very important to both health and performance. Using the wrong type or amount of fuel can seriously affect how our bodies perform.
© Boardworks Ltd 20063 of 35 Diet and nutrition Participation in sport or exercise requires energy. This energy is obtained from the food that we eat. In order to optimize our performance, it is important that we have an appropriate and balanced diet.
© Boardworks Ltd 20064 of 35 A balanced diet Everyone, should try to eat a healthy, balanced diet. To achieve this, you need to eat a range of different types of food in the right proportions. If you eat a balanced diet, you will get the energy and nutrients required to participate in exercise and to recover from it quickly. This food plate shows the various different food groups in their recommended proportions.
© Boardworks Ltd 20065 of 35 A balanced diet In order to eat a balanced diet think about food in terms of what nutrients it contains, rather than where it comes from. Energy in food comes in three main forms: The body also requires vitamins & minerals, fiber and, of course, water in order to function properly. Fats Proteins Carbohydrates
© Boardworks Ltd 20066 of 35 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the bodys main source of energy. They come in two kinds: Simple carbohydrates (sugars) These can provide a lot of energy for immediate use, but contain no other useful nutrients. Starchy foods often also contain lots of useful vitamins, minerals and fiber. Complex carbohydrates (starches) These are good sources of energy. The body can easily store energy from carbohydrates for rapid use by the muscles, so they are particularly important for athletes.
© Boardworks Ltd 20067 of 35 Carbohydrates Foods containing carbohydrates Fruit Breads Biscuits Rice Breakfast cereals Pasta Potatoes Root vegetables
© Boardworks Ltd 20068 of 35 Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates should provide around half of your daily energy needs. If you are performing strenuous exercise, this should increase to 60–70%. glucose oxygen energy respiration If you eat too much carbohydrate, however, the body will store it as fat. Energy from carbohydrates is converted to a substance called glycogen. This is stored in the liver and the muscles. When energy is needed, the body changes the glycogen to glucose which is used by the muscles during respiration.
© Boardworks Ltd 20069 of 35 Energy stores
© Boardworks Ltd 200610 of 35 Fats Fats are also used for energy, but only when stores of carbohydrate run low. Fat contains more than twice as much energy as carbohydrates or proteins. However, lots of oxygen is required to release this energy. This means that energy can only be released slowly from fats. Fats supply the energy we need for endurance activities.
© Boardworks Ltd 200611 of 35 The two types of fat There are two types of fats: Unsaturated fats – these are usually found in foods such as fish oils, cooking oils and sunflower seed oil. Saturated fats – these are usually found in foods such as milk, butter, cheese and meat. Saturated fats can be converted into cholesterol by the liver. High blood cholesterol is linked to heart disease. For this reason, no more than 10% of your energy should come from eating saturated fat.
© Boardworks Ltd 200612 of 35 Fats Because fat contains so much energy, you can easily eat more than your body needs. Excess fat is stored as body fat, causing weight gain. If your body weighs more, it is more difficult to move. Sportspeople who need to move fast, like runners and games players, should limit the amount of fat in their diet.
© Boardworks Ltd 200613 of 35 Fats Foods containing fats Butter Margarine Cooking oil Meat Sausages Cakes Cheese Cream
© Boardworks Ltd 200614 of 35 Proteins Proteins are used to generate energy only when the body has exhausted its stores of carbohydrates and fats. The protein you eat is broken down into amino acids and used by the body to build cells, make blood and repair and replace tissue. Your body cannot make all of the different types of amino acid that it needs – you have to consume some of them in the food that you eat. Proteins are very important in the body for other reasons. Our muscles and other tissues are made from proteins. The body manufactures proteins from amino acids. Proteins are made from sequences of amino acids.
© Boardworks Ltd 200615 of 35 Proteins Proteins are especially important for sportspeople who need to build up large, powerful muscles. Performers in sports like weightlifting, rugby and sprinting can benefit from a protein-rich diet. Proteins are also needed by performers who are recovering from injury in order to repair damaged tissue.
© Boardworks Ltd 200616 of 35 Proteins Foods containing proteins Meat Eggs Lentils Chick peas Nuts Fish
© Boardworks Ltd 200617 of 35 Carbohydrates, fats and proteins
© Boardworks Ltd 200618 of 35 Vitamins Your body does not get any energy from vitamins but they are needed to help it work normally. Vitamins are needed for many functions including: releasing energy from food repair and growth of tissues resisting infection and disease regulating chemical reactions in the body. Fruit and vegetables contain a lot of vitamins.
© Boardworks Ltd 200619 of 35 Vitamins VitaminFound inWhy is it needed Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin D This table gives information about some important vitamins: Eyesight, healthy skin Healthy teeth and gums, avoiding scurvy Breaking down carbohydrates Absorbing calcium and phosphorous, avoiding rickets Animal products. Also made in the body when the sun shines on the skin Whole-grain foods, nuts and meat Fruit (especially citrus fruits) and vegetables Fish, milk, vegetables, eggs and cheese
© Boardworks Ltd 200620 of 35 Minerals Minerals are basic elements that are found in the air and the earth. The body needs small amounts of certain minerals in order to stay healthy. MineralFound inWhy is it needed Calcium Iron Iodine Vegetables, dairy products and dried fish Red meat, liver, beans, lentils and green vegetables Seafood and dairy products Keeping bones and teeth hard Making blood, preventing tiredness and anaemia Maintaining the thyroid gland
© Boardworks Ltd 200621 of 35 Vitamin and mineral deficiencies
© Boardworks Ltd 200622 of 35 Fruit, vegetables and whole- grain cereals are good sources of dietary fiber. Fiber Fiber is actually a substance called cellulose. It is found in the cell walls of plants. Fiber cannot be digested, but it is required to aid the smooth working of our digestive system. People who eat too little fiber often suffer from constipation and may run a higher risk of bowel cancer.
© Boardworks Ltd 200623 of 35 Water The body is mainly composed of water. Approximately 60% of an adults weight and approximately 80% of a childs weight is made up of water. It is vitally important that you drink enough water. Dehydration by as little as 2% of body weight can seriously damage performance. 60% 80%
Sports Nutrition Macronutrients. Sports Nutrition The amount and type of food that we eat on a daily basis is very important to both health and performance.
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