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Truth about Fad Diets Obesity, Health and the Student.

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Presentation on theme: "Truth about Fad Diets Obesity, Health and the Student."— Presentation transcript:

1 Truth about Fad Diets Obesity, Health and the Student

2 Goals FDetermine how to assess obesity and additional medical problems caused by excess weight. FUnderstand how to read a food label. FIdentify appropriate ways to incorporate healthy foods into your diet.

3 US Adults FHalf are overweight FOne-fourth are obese MenWomen African A. 56.5% 65.8% Mexican A.63.9%65.9% Caucasian A.61%49.2% Direct medical cost >$51 billion/yr for weight-related diseases

4 Dollars and Sense FU.S. spends 33 billion annually on wt loss (6 million Americans morbidly obese) â Adults trying to lose weight: 35-40% women, 20-24% of men â 22% of this population get regular physical activity F39.3 million work days lost/yr F11% of youth (6-17 yrs) overweight

5 Health risk of excess weight FHeart disease, HTN, Hyperlipidemia FCancer: colon, breast, endometrial, pancreas, prostate, uterine, cervical FInfertility FVaricose veins FStroke FSnoring

6 And the list goes on… FKidney stones FOsteoarthritis FGout F Diabetes Mellitus

7 Components of body weight FWater 60-65% FMuscle, Bones, Organs FAdipose tissue â Protection of organs/nerves, insulation, preserves body heat, maintains body temp, & vitamin absorption â Women 20-25%, essential 12% â Men 12-15%, essential 4-7%

8 Assessment of obesity FIdeal Body Weight â Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. Men: 106# for 5ft, 6# for each inch over Women: 100# for 5ft, 5# for each inch over FBody Mass Index (Quetelet index) â Weight in kg/Height in m2 â Caution with: increased muscle mass, edema FWaist-Hip ratio â > 88cm women, > 102cm men for those with BMI <40

9 Ideal Body weight classifications FUnderweight<100% FIdeal100% FOverweight110% FObese135% FMedically sig.160% FMorbidly obese200% FSuper obese225%

10 How to classify BMI FUnderweight<18 FNormal19-25 FOverweight26-29 FObesity130-35 FObesity 236-40 FMorbidly Obese>45.1

11 Fat distribution FGynoid type (pear) â Thigh/buttocks â Energy reserves FAndroid type (apple) â Waist/upper abdomen â HTN, Insulin resistance, Heart disease

12 Recent studies F20% increase in wt increases risk for Type 2 DM, HTN, CAD, Lipid NHANES: â Women BMI >28 had 2x risk for disability/mobility problems FNurses Health Study â BMI 23-25 had a four-fold increase in Diabetes â BMI >35 was associated with risk of 93.2% for Diabetes

13 Etiology of Obesity FLong-term imbalance between Energy intake and Energy expenditure Must be closely related: 2% over needs (50 kcal/d) for someone who required 2500 kcal/d If over one year weight gain: 1.5 kg

14 Role of Heredity FHormonal Factors determined genetically â Satiety signals â Feeding activity â Number/size fat cells â Resting metabolic rate FStudies of twins/adoptees â Evidence that a Genetic component accounted for 67% â 540 Danish adoptees were found to correlate with the weight of biological parent

15 Human vs. Animal FAnimal model of obesity are characterized by one single gene â Ob/ob mouse Genetic defect for coding the protein leptin Leptin normally produced in fat cells in proportion to fat mass. –Binds to receptors in hypothalamus and causes a decrease in food intake and increase in thermogenesis –Few leptin deficient obese adults have been identified –Obese adult usually has a higher levels of leptin indicating they are resistant to the hormone –Trials are underway

16 Bodys Fuel source FPrimarily CHO â Brain uses solely â Converts protein/fat into glucose Gluconeogenesis FHealthy diet: â CHO: 50-60% â Pro: 15-20% â Fat: 25-30%

17 Calories FCarbohydrate â 4 kcal/gm FProtein â 4 kcal/gm FFat â 9 kcal/gm FAlcohol â 7 kcal/gm


19 Food label

20 Common Weight Loss Methods

21 Attempts to lose the weight F Low fat diet â Body weight associated to fat intake â Tend to eat same amount of calories â Obese people tend to underreport their intake (30-47%) F Starvation diets â Break down muscle and fat â Tend to store more when begin to eat again

22 Setting the Record Straight: The Truth About Fad Diets

23 Obesity FOver 50 percent of Americans are overweight. FOne in three adults is obese. Why? â Sedentary lifestyle â Poor food choices â Obsession with dieting â Lack of time

24 The U.S. Diet Industry Almost $40 billion per year industry, includes: FDiet books FDiet foods FDiet programs FWeight-loss gimmicks

25 Do You Remember? F1960 Drinking Mans Diet Steak and Wine F1967 Dr. Stillmans Diet F1972 Dr. Atkins Diet F1973 Richard Simmons Fitness Guru F1978 Scarsdale Diet F1979 Pritikin Diet F1980 Beverly Hills Diet F1981Cabbage Soup Diet F1988 Optifast Liquid Diet F1991 Protein Power F1991Fen Phen Diet Pill F1995 Enter the Zone F1997 Fen Phen pulled from market

26 Dr. Bob Arnots Revolutionary Weight Control Program The Cabbage Soup Diet Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution Sugar Busters! Enter the Zone Protein Power The Anti-Aging Zone

27 Fad diets: The Zone F Claim : Boost protein, cut carbs achieve peak athletic performance F Why you lose : very low calorie F Downfall : few carbs can cause fatigue, weakness in athlete and few fiber foods F Most useful tip : Choose low fat protein sources, Eat several meals/snacks per day

28 Fad diet: Sugar Busters F Claim : Break sugar starch habit and enjoy eggs, cheese, wine F Why you lose : Reduced total calorie, not CHO F Downfall : Deprivation can set up binge mentality, low in calcium and zinc F Digestive downside : constipation F Most useful tip : cut back on added sugar

29 Tips for evaluating fad diets FDoes it exclude major food groups FDoes it promote supplement or pill use FDoes it suggest to avoid any one certain food

30 How to Recognize a Fad Diet Is the author credible? Diets that advocate: FMagic or miracle foods FRapid weight loss/quick fix FNo exercise FRigid menus, good vs. bad foods, specific food combinations FRecommendations based on a single study or studies published without a peer review FSounds too good to be true

31 Fad Diet Alert! Steer clear of these claims: FFast, easy weight loss FBreakthrough miracle FBanish fat FSecret formula, new discovery FCure FBalances hormones FEnzymatic process

32 DIETS DONT WORK 50% of Americans Diet Annually FAverage diet lasts 42 days FOnly 5 -10 percent maintain a significant weight loss (= 10 percent or more of starting weight) FNo scientific data from commercial programs FNo scientific data from any diet-book programs FSome cause significant health problems Source: John Foreyt, Baylor College of Medicine

33 Dieter Beware: Current Fad Diets FEnter the Zone FDr. Atkins Diet Revolution FProtein Power FDr. Arnots Revolutionary Weight Control Program FSugar Busters! FEat 4 Your Blood Type

34 NO RESEARCH TO SUPPORT DIETS FAll six diets reviewed: â Lack Research â Use testimonials â Base validity on opinions not facts â Lack any peer review

35 ENERGY 101 F Calories are supplied by: â Carbohydrates â Fat â Protein F Calories In > Calories Out = Weight Gain F Calories In < Calories Out = Weight Loss

36 CARBOHYDRATES F Carbohydrate Intake Glucose + Insulin = Energy F Extra glucose: â Glycogen stores â Fat stores

37 High Protein Diets Common Claims F Lose weight quickly F Never be hungry F Carbohydrate intake creates: â Increased appetite â Addiction to sugar â High blood sugar â Insulin resistance â Increased body fat

38 INSULIN: A Closer Look F Insulin Resistance: The cells are resistant to absorbing insulin and glucose to use for energy so glucose must be stored as fat.

39 INSULIN: A Closer Look FInsulin Resistance: The cells are resistant to absorbing insulin and glucose to use for energy so glucose must be stored as fat. F High Protein Diet Theory: 75% of dieters are insulin resistant. A high carbohydrate intake leads to a dramatic surge of insulin. Because of insulin resistance, the glucose cannot be used for energy so it is stored as fat. Therefore carbohydrates make you FAT!

40 INSULIN: The Reality F 10-25% of dieters are insulin resistant F Most with insulin resistance are: â Obese â Sedentary (insulin receptor sites and glycogen stores are full. Glucose stored as fat.) F Treatment: â Increase activity and decrease weight. This will deplete glycogen stores and increase blood glucose absorption. Less insulin is needed.

41 High Protein Diets The Inefficient Energy Machine FProtein breakdown = Energy + Nitrogen FFat breakdown (no glucose) = Energy + Ketones â Increased fluid requirements â Increased electrolyte loss â Increased strain on kidneys and liver â Increased uric acid in blood (gout) â Ketosis

42 Ketones in Blood = Ketosis Acidic waste from fat breakdown in the absence of carbohydrate. F Ketosis: â Dizziness â Nausea â Decreased appetite â Dehydration â Electrolyte Imbalance â Lethargy â Bad Breath: acetone evaporation in lungs â Bone Loss: Calcium buffers changes in blood pH

43 High Protein Diets: A Closer Look FLow in calories; 1200 or less FHigh in protein / low in carbohydrate FLow in vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals FHigh in saturated fat and cholesterol FIncreased risk for: Cardiovascular disease Cancer Osteoporosis

44 High Protein Diets Common Claims F Lose weight quickly F Never be hungry F Carbohydrate intake creates: â Increased appetite â Addiction to sugar â High blood sugar â Insulin resistance â Increased body fat

45 Dr. Bob Arnots Revolutionary Weight Control Program The Cabbage Soup Diet Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution Sugar Busters! Enter the Zone Protein Power The Anti-Aging Zone

46 Sugar Busters! H. Leighton Steward; Morrison C. Berthea, M.D.; Sam S. Andrews, M.D.; and Luis A. Balart, M.D. Premise: Sugar is toxic, causing the body to release insulin and store excess glucose as body fat. High glycemic index foods should be eliminated. Minimal fluids with meals so digestive juices are not diluted. (1200 kcal) Negative Health Implications: Kidney and liver damage, fatigue, weakness and irritability. Vitamin and mineral deficiency. Risk for heart disease.

47 Sugar Busters! H. Leighton Steward; Morrison C. Berthea, M.D.; Sam S. Andrews, M.D.; and Luis A. Balart, M.D. High Glycemic Index Foods: Carrots Potatoes Beets Pasta Bread (refined flour) Rice (white) Fruit (must be eaten by itself)

48 Enter the Zone Barry Sears, Ph.D. Premise: Zone: A metabolic state where the mind is relaxed and focused and the body is fluid and strong. Follow rigid, obscure rules, such as eating in macronutrient blocks and limiting carbohydrates. Negative Health Implications: Nutrient deficiency, increased risk of coronary heart disease, high cholesterol.

49 Enter the Zone Barry Sears, Ph.D. Claims: â Weight easy to lose on 40:30:30 plan â Carbohydrates make you fat because 75% of Americans are genetically defective and over produce insulin. We must achieve an insulin zone. â Diet lowers risk for disease by decreasing production of bad eicosanoids (hormones).

50 Protein Power Michael Eades, M.D. and Mary Eades, M.D. Premise: Low in fiber, high in fat, claims human body has no physical need for carbohydrates; should be completely avoided. Success of diet is demonstrated by the sales and popularity of the book. Negative Health Implications: Increased risk for coronary heart disease, high cholesterol, nutrient deficiency.

51 Dr. Bob Arnots Revolutionary Weight Control Program Robert Arnot, M.D. Premise : Foods are drugs: Some make you feel good and others make you feel bad (crack). Refined carbohydrates can cause rapid weight gain. A diet low in carbohydrates and high in protein will decrease hunger and lead to weight loss. Negative Health Implications: May take a psychological toll on its followers by labeling foods good and bad. Avoiding these foods causes a person to miss out on valuable nutrients.

52 Fad diet: Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution F Claim : Cut out Carbs, go into ketosis and drop the pounds F Why you lose : Leads to fluid loss, CHO is store with water F Downfalls : Associated with osteoporosis, impaired renal function, kidney stones, Colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease (legal liability) F Most useful tip : None

53 Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution Robert Atkins F Premise: Carbohydrates make you fat, limit intake to 20g/day. Eat as much meat as you want. Never be hungry, lose weight fast. F Negative Health Implications : Increased risk for heart disease and nutrient deficiency, ketosis. Decreased benefits from plant based nutrients.

54 Eat 4 Your Blood Type Peter DAdamo F Premise: Blood type is an evolutionary marker of which foods each person will process well and which will be useless calories or lead to illness and death. F Negative Health Implications: Promotes good foods/ bad foods. Nutrient deficient diet lacking carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals.

55 Im Still Looking for the Magic!

56 Lifelong Healthy Weight Lifelong Healthy Weight F Positive attitude F Are you ready to change? F Motivation: Internal not external â Health: Healthy weight not lowest weight â Increased energy â Self esteem â Personal control F Eat for the long haul; Choose a life-long plan

57 Take an Honest Look: Why You Weigh what You Weigh Take an Honest Look: Why You Weigh what You Weigh F Activity: What and how much? F Food: What and how much? F Stress: Is food your answer to lifes problems? F Physiologic and genetic make-up F Age and health status

58 Heres the Magic!!! Eating for good health and eating to control weight are virtually the same. Heres the Magic!!! Eating for good health and eating to control weight are virtually the same. FIncorporate regular physical activity into your schedule. FEnjoy a variety of foods from the Food Guide Pyramid. FMaintain a positive attitude.

59 Physical Activity = Success! Physical Activity = Success! F Choose something you enjoy F Combined total of 30 minutes most days F Benefits: â Healthy weight! â Healthy heart! â Strong bones! â Great sleep! â Stress relief! â Increased energy! â Positive and confident outlook!

60 Food Guide Pyramid

61 High Carbohydrate Diet F Increases intake of: â Fiber â Calcium â Vitamins â Minerals â Antioxidants â Phytochemicals F Lowers risk for: â Heart Disease â Cancer â Osteoporosis â Diabetes â High Blood Pressure

62 Diets that Work F Weight Watchers F Intuitive Eating by Evelyn Tribole F Outsmarting the Midlife Fat Cell by Debra Waterhouse F Outsmarting the Female Fat Cell by Debra Waterhouse F Thin for Life. 10 Keys to Success from People Who Have Lost Weight and Kept it Off by Anne Fletcher F The Solution: Winning Ways to Permanent Weight Loss by Laurel Mellin

63 Lifestyle Change Lifestyle Change FBe realistic - Small changes over time FBe adventurous - Expand your tastes FBe flexible - Balance food and activity over several days FBe sensible - Enjoy all food in moderation FBe active - Walk the dog, dont just watch the dog walk

64 The Student Diet

65 Problems with student diet FStudy long hours FNo time to cook healthy meals FDo not have time to grocery shop FEasier to eat out or drive thru FVery little exercise = Sedentary lifestyle

66 Eating out F1 of 3 meals F Drinks : High kcal F Appetizer : Onion mum (1/2 = 20 oz steak with 80 gm fat & 1000 kcal) F Salad : Caesar salad â 300 kcal, 25 gm fat F Steak : 16 oz prime rib â 1300 kcal, 94 gm fat F Dessert : Cheese cake â 500 kcal, 30 gm fat â 3100 kcal, 229 gm fat ( not counting drinks)

67 Alcoholic Beverages F70-200 kcals/drink â 12 oz serving â Mainly fat & some CHO FLinked to many forms of Cancer â Esophageal â GI cancer FRed pigmentation â Anthocyanin â Antioxidant â Same pigment in grape skins

68 How to eat out sensibly FAvoid all-you-can eat buffets FChoose baked or grilled FAvoid white or cheese sauces FAsk for dressing or condiments on the side FRequest a take-home container FLook for light or heart healthy menu FOrder calorie free beverages FWatch for key words signaling high kcal: â Fried, creamed, pan-fried, sautéed, alfredo, or gravy

69 Caffeine and Calcium FCaffeine beverages â High Mg & Phos â Pulls Vit D from bones â Increases heart rate â Limit to 1-2 per day FCalcium (1000mg/d) â Required for Nerve conduction, muscle contraction, blood clotting, Prevent osteoporosis â Impairs absorption Fiber, high protein diets, High Na diets, soybeans Take separately from MVI b/c impairs iron & zinc

70 Ideas at home FPrepare meals and freeze FGo in with a friend FDont keep trigger foods in the house FAlways eat at the table FSlow down

71 Myths about dieting FEating late at night is sure to pack on the pounds FYou can lose weight by eating fewer calories FNever have seconds FDeny cravings; they are all in your head FDont eat between meals FEating breakfast makes you hungry all day FTo lose weight, become a vegetarian FYou can eat anything you want as long as it is fat free

72 Tips for success FRegular exercise FPermanent changes FAvoid skipping meals FDo not eat while studying/watching t.v FEat only when hungry FDo not use food as a reward FDrink only calorie-free beverages FDo not grocery shop when hungry FNO fad diets FChoose a variety of foods

73 Goals FDecrease Regular soda intake FDecrease caffeine FLimit meat servings FIncrease fruits/vegetables â fiber FIncrease calcium FMultivitamin

74 Healthy snacks when you have the munchies FFresh, frozen, canned fruit FLight or low fat yogurt FString cheese FLow fat cheese and wheat crackers FVanilla wafers & skim milk FBaked chips FLow fat popcorn FSugar free hard candy FFrozen fruit bars

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