Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Fad Diets: Do They Work? Medical Considerations Jessica McCourt Masters Project Spring 2008 Gilbert Boissonneault.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Fad Diets: Do They Work? Medical Considerations Jessica McCourt Masters Project Spring 2008 Gilbert Boissonneault."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fad Diets: Do They Work? Medical Considerations Jessica McCourt Masters Project Spring 2008 Gilbert Boissonneault

2 Outline Introduction Introduction How to spot a fad diet How to spot a fad diet Discussion of different fad diets Discussion of different fad diets Why fad diets work Why fad diets work Why fad diets dont work and medical considerations Why fad diets dont work and medical considerations Healthy eating and exercise Healthy eating and exercise

3 Introduction American Obesity Association reports (AOA 2005) American Obesity Association reports (AOA 2005) 127 million US adults are overweight 127 million US adults are overweight 60 million are obese 60 million are obese 9 million are severely obese 9 million are severely obese Totaling over one-third of the adult American population Totaling over one-third of the adult American population Obesity is associated with more than 30 medical conditions. Obesity is associated with more than 30 medical conditions. Including diabetes, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, respiratory problems, and hypertension. Including diabetes, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, respiratory problems, and hypertension. Weight loss of about 10% of body weight can improve some obesity-related medical conditions. Weight loss of about 10% of body weight can improve some obesity-related medical conditions.

4 Introduction American Obesity Association American Obesity Association genetics genetics environmental exposure to an energy-rich food supply environmental exposure to an energy-rich food supply a tendency to reduce physical activity and personal behavior a tendency to reduce physical activity and personal behavior The American Dietetics Association The American Dietetics Association increased per capita caloric consumption increased per capita caloric consumption larger portion sizes larger portion sizes lack of adequate physical activity lack of adequate physical activity

5 Introduction National obsession National obsession Americans spend an astonishing $33 billion a year on weight loss plans and services Americans spend an astonishing $33 billion a year on weight loss plans and services Consequently, fad diet plans that promise dramatic results have become very popular. Consequently, fad diet plans that promise dramatic results have become very popular. More than two-thirds of Americans are either dieting to lose weight or watching what they eat to keep from gaining weight More than two-thirds of Americans are either dieting to lose weight or watching what they eat to keep from gaining weight More than one in five dieters used fad diets More than one in five dieters used fad diets

6 How to spot a fad diet Fad diets can be quite convincing to the average person Fad diets can be quite convincing to the average person Offer a quick solution to a long term problem Offer a quick solution to a long term problem Author or creator presents what appear to be scientifically valid explanations to support the dieting theory. Author or creator presents what appear to be scientifically valid explanations to support the dieting theory. The individual marketing or promoting the diet may be tertiary educated, although frequently has no formal nutrition or dietetic qualifications. The individual marketing or promoting the diet may be tertiary educated, although frequently has no formal nutrition or dietetic qualifications. The theory is often explained using scientific terminology, which may or may not be understood by the consumer The theory is often explained using scientific terminology, which may or may not be understood by the consumer Most of the "evidence" for fad diets is based on theories and testimonials of short term results. Most of the "evidence" for fad diets is based on theories and testimonials of short term results.

7 Discussion of fad diets: Atkins Limit the intake of starchy, high carbohydrate foods Limit the intake of starchy, high carbohydrate foods Consuming more carbohydrate than can be used by the body it will store this excess in fat cells Consuming more carbohydrate than can be used by the body it will store this excess in fat cells Without carbohydrates however, fat is not burned completely and substances called ketones are formed Without carbohydrates however, fat is not burned completely and substances called ketones are formed According to Dr. St. Jeor abnormally high ketone levels in the body, or ketosis, may indeed make dieting easier since they typically decrease appetite and cause nausea. Ketosis also increases the levels of uric acid in the blood, which is a risk factor for gout and kidney disease in susceptible people (Jeor 2000). According to Dr. St. Jeor abnormally high ketone levels in the body, or ketosis, may indeed make dieting easier since they typically decrease appetite and cause nausea. Ketosis also increases the levels of uric acid in the blood, which is a risk factor for gout and kidney disease in susceptible people (Jeor 2000). Atkins diet could lead to halitosis, constipation, heart disease, bone loss, colon cancer, and kidney damage Atkins diet could lead to halitosis, constipation, heart disease, bone loss, colon cancer, and kidney damage

8 Discussion of fad diets: Zone 40% carbohydrates, 30% protein, 30% fats 40% carbohydrates, 30% protein, 30% fats For many individuals this precise ratio is not feasible to follow for every meal of the day and would take a lot of preparation time For many individuals this precise ratio is not feasible to follow for every meal of the day and would take a lot of preparation time The diet is also a low calorie diet, so you can't help but lose weight. The diet is also a low calorie diet, so you can't help but lose weight. According to Samuel Cheuvront, PhD, RD the precise protein to carbohydrate ratio required with each meal is promoted to ultimately produce a cascade of events leading to a reduction in chronic disease risk, enhanced immunity, increased longevity and permanent weight loss. According to Samuel Cheuvront, PhD, RD the precise protein to carbohydrate ratio required with each meal is promoted to ultimately produce a cascade of events leading to a reduction in chronic disease risk, enhanced immunity, increased longevity and permanent weight loss. A review of the literature suggests that there are scientific contradictions in the Zone Diet hypothesis that cast unquestionable doubt on its potential efficacy (Cheuvront 2003). A review of the literature suggests that there are scientific contradictions in the Zone Diet hypothesis that cast unquestionable doubt on its potential efficacy (Cheuvront 2003).

9 Discussion of fad diets: Blood Group This diet depends on having a blood test and determining your blood type This diet depends on having a blood test and determining your blood type Different blood groups can eat different food groups. Different blood groups can eat different food groups. For example the A group diet excludes dairy and meat products. Removing dairy products completely from the diet can lead to a calcium deficiency, which can put you at risk of osteoporosis. Avoiding meat can result in low intakes of iron, which can lead to anemia. In the long run, removing any food group entirely can result in a poor intake of nutrients which are needed for good health (Kellow 2007). For example the A group diet excludes dairy and meat products. Removing dairy products completely from the diet can lead to a calcium deficiency, which can put you at risk of osteoporosis. Avoiding meat can result in low intakes of iron, which can lead to anemia. In the long run, removing any food group entirely can result in a poor intake of nutrients which are needed for good health (Kellow 2007). By eliminating whole food groups important nutritional deficiencies are likely associated with long term health problems. By eliminating whole food groups important nutritional deficiencies are likely associated with long term health problems.

10 Discussion of Fad Diets: Hay Do not eat protein and carbohydrates together. Do not eat protein and carbohydrates together. Combination of eating these two foods together appears to prevent protein from being digested in the gut and can lead to an accumulation of toxins. Combination of eating these two foods together appears to prevent protein from being digested in the gut and can lead to an accumulation of toxins. A study performed at the University of Rostock in Germany was to evaluate the metabolic effect of the Hay diet on protein turnover, fat oxidation, respiratory quotient, body fat and weight loss. Twelve healthy adults received an individually regular diet and thereafter a 10-day Hay diet. The Hay diet did not reduce total body water, lean body mass, body fat and body weight (Wutzke 2001). A study performed at the University of Rostock in Germany was to evaluate the metabolic effect of the Hay diet on protein turnover, fat oxidation, respiratory quotient, body fat and weight loss. Twelve healthy adults received an individually regular diet and thereafter a 10-day Hay diet. The Hay diet did not reduce total body water, lean body mass, body fat and body weight (Wutzke 2001).

11 Discussion of fad diets: Cabbage soup/Grapefruit Basically the same Basically the same Consume a specific food everyday for each meal. Consume a specific food everyday for each meal. Both have weight loss, but mainly because of the strict calorie restriction. Both have weight loss, but mainly because of the strict calorie restriction. Weight loss is mostly 'water' weight. Weight loss is mostly 'water' weight. The thing is who can stick to just eating cabbage soup or grapefruit for an extended period of time? The thing is who can stick to just eating cabbage soup or grapefruit for an extended period of time? Once the diet is discontinued the weight will immediately be regained. Once the diet is discontinued the weight will immediately be regained.

12 Why fad diets work Work short term because calorie intake as a result of the diet is usually lower than the person's basal metabolic requirements. Work short term because calorie intake as a result of the diet is usually lower than the person's basal metabolic requirements. This is the only way to lose weight: to consume less energy than the body needs. This is the only way to lose weight: to consume less energy than the body needs. The rate of weight loss varies depending on the relative proportions of the three major nutrients in the diet: carbohydrate, fat and protein. The rate of weight loss varies depending on the relative proportions of the three major nutrients in the diet: carbohydrate, fat and protein. This also includes shift in water weight. This also includes shift in water weight. The rate of anticipated weight loss will vary according to the age, sex, weight, basal requirements, and activity level of an individual. The rate of anticipated weight loss will vary according to the age, sex, weight, basal requirements, and activity level of an individual.

13 Why fad diets dont work and medical considerations David Roberts, professor of Nutrition and Dietetics, says that fad diets are generally nutritionally unbalanced and lack essential nutrients (Roberts 2001). David Roberts, professor of Nutrition and Dietetics, says that fad diets are generally nutritionally unbalanced and lack essential nutrients (Roberts 2001). When weight loss is too fast, especially the loss of lean body mass, this can cause obesity in the longer run. When weight loss is too fast, especially the loss of lean body mass, this can cause obesity in the longer run. One large study reported an overall increased risk of major weight gain in the long term in those who undertook weight-loss attempts (dieting) at baseline (Roberts 2001). One large study reported an overall increased risk of major weight gain in the long term in those who undertook weight-loss attempts (dieting) at baseline (Roberts 2001). By omitting certain foods, and sometimes even entire food groups, these diets are deficient in major nutrients By omitting certain foods, and sometimes even entire food groups, these diets are deficient in major nutrients Some of the diets are also out of balance Some of the diets are also out of balance

14 Why fad diets dont work and medical considerations All fad diets tend to promote the loss of water weight. All fad diets tend to promote the loss of water weight. If an imbalanced diet is maintained, the body soon reverts to a fasting state called ketosis If an imbalanced diet is maintained, the body soon reverts to a fasting state called ketosis The body is actually tricked into thinking it is a starvation mode. The body is actually tricked into thinking it is a starvation mode. Authors of many of these fad diets actually advocate "taking advantage" of ketosis to hasten weight loss. Authors of many of these fad diets actually advocate "taking advantage" of ketosis to hasten weight loss. Deliberately inducing ketosis can lead to muscle breakdown, nausea, dehydration, headaches, light-headedness, irritability, bad breath, and kidney problems. Deliberately inducing ketosis can lead to muscle breakdown, nausea, dehydration, headaches, light-headedness, irritability, bad breath, and kidney problems. In a randomized weight loss study comparing ketogenic and non-ketogenic low-calorie diets, the subjects on the ketogenic diet had impairments in higher order mental processing than those on the nonketogenic diet (Denke 2001). In a randomized weight loss study comparing ketogenic and non-ketogenic low-calorie diets, the subjects on the ketogenic diet had impairments in higher order mental processing than those on the nonketogenic diet (Denke 2001).

15 Why fad diets dont work and medical considerations In the long run fad diets make a person fatter instead of leaner, because each time the diet is stopped it is easier to regain fat that was originally lost. In the long run fad diets make a person fatter instead of leaner, because each time the diet is stopped it is easier to regain fat that was originally lost. Perhaps what is most concerning about fad diets, regardless of whether they work, is that they could ultimately encourage unhealthy attitudes towards food and eating. Perhaps what is most concerning about fad diets, regardless of whether they work, is that they could ultimately encourage unhealthy attitudes towards food and eating.

16 Healthy eating and exercise Very simple dietary changes can produce effective weight loss at a healthy rate that can be maintained over the longer term. Very simple dietary changes can produce effective weight loss at a healthy rate that can be maintained over the longer term. Your starting weight, exercise level, and basal metabolic rate determine the total amount of calories that is right for your diet program. Your starting weight, exercise level, and basal metabolic rate determine the total amount of calories that is right for your diet program. Patients and their health care providers must be conscious of health concerns when choosing a plan for weight loss because dietary change is meant to be a long-term process (Ma 2007). Patients and their health care providers must be conscious of health concerns when choosing a plan for weight loss because dietary change is meant to be a long-term process (Ma 2007). A gradual and balanced approach is best for those who really want to lose weight, said Vivian Crisman a nutritionist (Miller 2003) A gradual and balanced approach is best for those who really want to lose weight, said Vivian Crisman a nutritionist (Miller 2003) Healthy lifestyle habits will help maintain long-term weight control, which includes regular aerobic and weight training exercise, behavior modification, and a healthy, nutritious diet with a wide variety of foods. Healthy lifestyle habits will help maintain long-term weight control, which includes regular aerobic and weight training exercise, behavior modification, and a healthy, nutritious diet with a wide variety of foods.

17 Healthy eating and exercise The word diet originally comes from the Greek root meaning, "way of life." The word diet originally comes from the Greek root meaning, "way of life." Scientists and nutritionists agree that any long-term program of weight loss and maintenance must be more than a matter of for example removing carbohydrates and counting calories. It must extend to the entire "way of life." Scientists and nutritionists agree that any long-term program of weight loss and maintenance must be more than a matter of for example removing carbohydrates and counting calories. It must extend to the entire "way of life."

18 References Ahrens, Joseph and Daryl Thompson. The Grapefruit Solution: Lower Your Cholesterol, Lose Weight and Achieve Optimal Health with Natures Wonder Fruit. Great Falls, VA: Li Corp Ahrens, Joseph and Daryl Thompson. The Grapefruit Solution: Lower Your Cholesterol, Lose Weight and Achieve Optimal Health with Natures Wonder Fruit. Great Falls, VA: Li Corp Americans Fed Up With Diet Advice. New York Times Jan 2, Americans Fed Up With Diet Advice. New York Times Jan 2, American Obesity Association, Health Effects of Obesity. May 2, 2005, Available at: Accessed January 25, American Obesity Association, Health Effects of Obesity. May 2, 2005, Available at: Accessed January 25, Apovian, CM, Lenders CM. A Clinical Guide for Management of Overweight and Obese Children and Adults. CRC Series in Modern Nutrition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press: Part VI, Chapter 18, 223, Apovian, CM, Lenders CM. A Clinical Guide for Management of Overweight and Obese Children and Adults. CRC Series in Modern Nutrition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press: Part VI, Chapter 18, 223, Atkins, Robert C. Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution. New York, New York: Bantam Books Atkins, Robert C. Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution. New York, New York: Bantam Books Bolen, Debby. Fad Diets Can Be Ineffective and Dangerous. October 30, 2007, Available at: Accessed January 25, Bolen, Debby. Fad Diets Can Be Ineffective and Dangerous. October 30, 2007, Available at: Accessed January 25, Cheuvront, Samuel PhD, RD. The Zone Diet Phenomenon: A Closer Look at the Science behind the Claims. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 22 (1): 9-17, Cheuvront, Samuel PhD, RD. The Zone Diet Phenomenon: A Closer Look at the Science behind the Claims. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 22 (1): 9-17, Cunningham, Eleese RD and Marcason, Wendy RD. Is it Possible to Burn Calories by Eating Grapefruit or Vinegar? Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 101 (10): 1198, Cunningham, Eleese RD and Marcason, Wendy RD. Is it Possible to Burn Calories by Eating Grapefruit or Vinegar? Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 101 (10): 1198, DAmada, Peter and Catherine Whitney. Eat Right For Your Type: The Individualized Diet Solution to Staying Healthy, Living Longer, and Achieving Your Ideal Weight. New York, New York: Penguin Putan Inc DAmada, Peter and Catherine Whitney. Eat Right For Your Type: The Individualized Diet Solution to Staying Healthy, Living Longer, and Achieving Your Ideal Weight. New York, New York: Penguin Putan Inc Denke, Margo A. Dr. Metabolic Effects of High Protein, Low Carbohydrate Diets. The American Journal of Cardiology. 88: 56-61, Denke, Margo A. Dr. Metabolic Effects of High Protein, Low Carbohydrate Diets. The American Journal of Cardiology. 88: 56-61, Donbrot, Margaret. The New Cabbage Soup Diet. New York, New York: St. Martins Press Donbrot, Margaret. The New Cabbage Soup Diet. New York, New York: St. Martins Press Eisenga, BH. PhD, MD, Judge BS MD. Disorders of Fuel Metabolism: Medical Complications Associated with Starvation, Eating Disorders, Dietary Fads, and Supplements. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 23 (3): 797, Eisenga, BH. PhD, MD, Judge BS MD. Disorders of Fuel Metabolism: Medical Complications Associated with Starvation, Eating Disorders, Dietary Fads, and Supplements. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 23 (3): 797, Goldberg, Jeanne P. PhD, RD. The obesity crisis: dont blame it on the pyramid. Journal of American Dietetic Association. 104(7): , Goldberg, Jeanne P. PhD, RD. The obesity crisis: dont blame it on the pyramid. Journal of American Dietetic Association. 104(7): , Goldberg104 Goldberg104

19 References Habgood, Jackie. The Hay Diet Made Easy: A Practical Guide to Food Combining. London: Souvenir Press Ltd Habgood, Jackie. The Hay Diet Made Easy: A Practical Guide to Food Combining. London: Souvenir Press Ltd Hendricks, KM, Herbold N, et al. Diet and other lifestyle behaviors in young college women. Nutritional Research. 24 (12): , Hendricks, KM, Herbold N, et al. Diet and other lifestyle behaviors in young college women. Nutritional Research. 24 (12): , Jeor, St. Dr. Fad Diets: Look Before You Leap. International Food Information Council Jeor, St. Dr. Fad Diets: Look Before You Leap. International Food Information Council Kellow, Juliette RD. The Blood type Diet Under the Spotlight, Available at: Accessed February 15, Kellow, Juliette RD. The Blood type Diet Under the Spotlight, Available at: Accessed February 15, Kushner, Robert M.D. Where the Atkins Diet Started Available at: www. Diets.com, Accessed January 25, Kushner, Robert M.D. Where the Atkins Diet Started Available at: www. Diets.com, Accessed January 25, Last, AR and Wilson MA. Low-Carbohydrate diets. American Family Physician. 73 (11): , Last, AR and Wilson MA. Low-Carbohydrate diets. American Family Physician. 73 (11): , Ma, Yunsheng MD. PhD., et al. A Dietary Quality Comparison of Popular Weight Loss Plans. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107 (10): , Ma, Yunsheng MD. PhD., et al. A Dietary Quality Comparison of Popular Weight Loss Plans. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107 (10): , McCord, Molly. The Peanut Butter Diet. New York, New York: St. Martins Press McCord, Molly. The Peanut Butter Diet. New York, New York: St. Martins Press McKeith, Dr. Gillian. You are What You Eat: The Plan That will change your life. London, England: Penguin Group. 16, McKeith, Dr. Gillian. You are What You Eat: The Plan That will change your life. London, England: Penguin Group. 16, Miller, Francine. Do Fad Diets Really Help People Lose Weight? The Sanford Daily. April 30, Miller, Francine. Do Fad Diets Really Help People Lose Weight? The Sanford Daily. April 30, Miller Roberts, D.C. Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact. The Medical Journal of Australia. 175 (11-12): , Dec Roberts, D.C. Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact. The Medical Journal of Australia. 175 (11-12): , Dec Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact.Quick weight loss: sorting fad from fact. Rose, Natalia. The Raw Food Diet: The 5 Step Plan for Vibrant Health and Maximum Weight Loss. New York, New York: Harper Collins Books Rose, Natalia. The Raw Food Diet: The 5 Step Plan for Vibrant Health and Maximum Weight Loss. New York, New York: Harper Collins Books Salinsky, E. and Wakina, S. Obesity in America: A growing Threat. NHPF Background paper. July 11, Available at: Accessed January 18, Salinsky, E. and Wakina, S. Obesity in America: A growing Threat. NHPF Background paper. July 11, Available at: Accessed January 18, 2008.http://www.nhpf.org/pdfs_bp/BP_Obesity_7-03.pdf Sears, Barry. The Zone: A Dietary Road Map to Lose Weight Permanently. New York, New York: Harper Collins Publisher, Sears, Barry. The Zone: A Dietary Road Map to Lose Weight Permanently. New York, New York: Harper Collins Publisher, Serdula MK, Mokdad AH, et. al. Prevalence of Attempting Weight Loss and Strategies for Controlling Weight. JAMA. 282 (18): , Serdula MK, Mokdad AH, et. al. Prevalence of Attempting Weight Loss and Strategies for Controlling Weight. JAMA. 282 (18): , Shah, P M.D. and Isley, W M.D. Ketoacidosis during a low-carbohydrate diet. N Engl J Med. 354(1):97-8, Shah, P M.D. and Isley, W M.D. Ketoacidosis during a low-carbohydrate diet. N Engl J Med. 354(1):97-8, Wutzke KD, Heine WE, et al. Metabolic effects of Hays diet. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 37(3): , Wutzke KD, Heine WE, et al. Metabolic effects of Hays diet. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 37(3): , 2001.


Download ppt "Fad Diets: Do They Work? Medical Considerations Jessica McCourt Masters Project Spring 2008 Gilbert Boissonneault."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google