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GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship.

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Presentation on theme: "GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship."— Presentation transcript:

1 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information People exercise to Foster a healthy lifestyle Improve fitness and/or sporting performance A BALANCED DIET is essential for this to take place. However, individuals will choose a diet which is SPECIFIC to their needs.

2 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information Any physical activity requires: ENERGY EXPENDITURE The amount of energy needed depends on: The type of sport exercise Duration of the activity Intensity of the activity Three other factors which contribute to Energy Needs are:

3 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information AGE As you age your metabolism slows down – You need to eat less or you will gain weight SEX Males usually need more energy than females LIFESTYLE The more active you are, the more energy you need Three other factors which contribute to Energy Needs are: BODY TYPE

4 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B GCSE Physical Education UNIT 1 - Information BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR) The amount of energy needed just to keep you alive. BMR varies from one person to the next. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL (PAL) OR WORKING ENERGY The amount of energy needed for physical activity/ sport TOTAL ENERGY NEEDS = BMR + PAL (measured in kilojoules/ kilocalories)

5 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information FOOD FUELS THE BODY Provides ENERGY for physical activity REPAIRS injured tissue Helps in GROWTH of body tissue Contributes to GOOD HEALTH

6 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information 1.ENERGY BALANCE Energy in = Energy out Taking in (eating) = Using up (physical activity) caloriescalories WEIGHT STAYS CONSTANT

7 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information 2. Energy in Energy used WEIGHT GAINED 3. Energy in Energy used WEIGHT LOST

8 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information BALANCED DIET A balanced diet is based around GOOD FOODS e.g. eating 5 vegetables/fruits per day A balanced diet consists of 7 components A balanced diet should meet the needs of the individual

9 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information BALANCED DIET Carbohydrates Fats Protein Fibre MineralsVitamins Water Carbohydrates 55% - 60% Protein 15% Fats 30% - 25%

10 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information CARBOHYDRATES Main source of ENERGY for working muscles Broken down into GLUCOSE and stored as GLYCOGEN in the liver and muscles Carbohydrates are an IMMEDIATE energy source SIMPLE carbohydrates : SUGAR – biscuits, cakes, sugar COMPLEX carbohydrates : STARCH – pasta, potatoes, bread It is important to stock up on carbohydrate after exercise to replace that which has been used Excess carbohydrate is stored in the body as FAT

11 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information FATS Fats are a form of STORED ENERGY, released SLOWLY when there is a lack of carbohydrates (glycogen) Extra fat is stored just under the skin Extra fat can lead to: OBESITYHIGH CHOLESTROL LEVELS (HEART / CIRCULATORY PROBLEMS) Fats are used during AEROBIC work (O 2 is present) SATURATED fats: milk, meat, biscuits POLY UNSATURATED fats: fish, nuts

12 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information PROTEINS Used as an energy source only when carbohydrates and fat stores have depleted PROTEINS needed for the REPAIR and GROWTH of body tissues

13 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information WATER Water allows the body to maintain a CONSTANT temperature when undertaking physical activity Water absorbs heat produced during physical activity which is then carried to the skin where it is lost in the air Water as SWEAT helps to cool the body when it EVAPORATES on the surface of the skin The more activity, the more water is lost This can lead to 1) DEHYDRATION, 2) HEATSTROKE Performance in physical activity is seriously affected by water loss

14 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information VITAMINS Only small amounts needed Vitamins regulate the chemical reactions of the body They help with growth and repair of tissue They help to resist infections

15 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information MINERALS Minerals are found in a variety of foods Calcium strengthens bones Other minerals help with growth

16 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B GCSE Physical Education UNIT 1 - Information SECTION B FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance FIBRE Fibre keeps the digestive system working correctly Fibre helps in food absorption Fibre makes you feel full, so you eat less Information/Discussion Practical Application

17 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Carbohydrates provide QUICK ENERGY. They supply energy for both AEROBIC and ANAEROBIC physical activity Used for physical activity of a comparatively SHORT length of time and HIGH INTENSITY

18 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Fats provide SLOW ENERGY The provision is too slow to be used when used when working hard Used for walking and low-impact exercise Used for exercise of a longer duration, and MODERATE INTENSITY Energy used will come from fats and carbohydrates in equal measures Physical activity of LONG DURATION and HIGHER INTENSITY is fuelled more from fat stores in the body because the glycogen store becomes depleted

19 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY WATER – drink plenty of water BEFORE, DURING and AFTER your physical activity PROTEIN – a little more may be needed for muscle growth and repair if training hard for long periods CARBO LOADING – The aim of carbo-loading is to build up stores of carbohydrate so that energy can be produced for longer periods of time. This is achieved by eating up to 60% more carbohydrate and reducing physical activity on three days leading up to a competition

20 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS The Food Standards Agency gives guidance on correct weight for heightFood Standards Agency However, being the correct weight does not necessarily mean being fit (amount of fat in the weight is crucial) BODY COMPOSITION – The proportion of fat in the body is compared to muscle and bone – stated as a percentage SKINFOLD TESTS are used to estimate body composition Too much body fat puts a strain on the body – heart and muscle condition can badly affect performance

21 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS To control body weight: HEALTGHY BALANCED DIET + REGULAR EXERCISE Energy balance all important FOOD INTAKE = ENERGY OUTPUT There is a direct link between HEALTH, FITNESS, and EXERCISE. OVER WEIGHT – heavier than the Food Standards Agency guide. However, some of that extra weight might be muscle not fat. OVER FAT – a high level of fat in comparison with their body composition – can lead to obesity related diseases and also cause poor sporting performances.

22 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS OBESE – normally 20% over the Food Standards Agency guide of weight for height. Health risks – Heart disease, cancer, diabetes, osteoarthritis and other problems are likely if obese. UNDER WEIGHT – ANOREXIA NERVOSA – where people do not eat as the see themselves as fat – leads to excessive weight loss. BULIMIA – people eat a lot but the vomit – weight loss which needs addressing immediately. Athletes quite often are concerned about their weight for the physical activity they take part in. This can lead to eating disorders.

23 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS BODY TYPE – BODY SHAPE – BODY COMPOSITION Determine how effective you are at a physical activity There are 3 SOMATO TYPES: MESOMORPHENDOMORPHECTOMORPH Each of the somato types can be changed by DIET, EXERCISE and TRAINING

24 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS ECTOMORPH Little muscle Very thin and lean Long arms/legs Little fat Narrow shoulders/hips RELATIVE LINEARITY

25 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS MESOMORPH Wedge- shaped body Heavily muscled arms/legs Very little body fat Wide shoulders/ Narrow hips RELATIVE MUSCULARITY

26 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS ENDOMORPH Pear-shaped body Lot of fat on body, arms and thighs Wider front to back than side to side Wide shoulders and hips RELATIVE FATNESS

27 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS Sprinter As Usain Bolt illustrates, the perfect sprinter is tall with a muscular (mesomorphic) body, slim lower legs and narrow hips. You also need a developed nervous system, which you can develop with short (e.g. 30m) sprints at maximum effort. Middle Distance In middle-distance events, youre after a high-aerobic threshold (i.e. plenty of stamina) as well as high speed. In training, volume should drop, and intensity rise, as race season approaches – but keep in mind that sudden changes cause injury. Long Distance Like Paula Radcliffe, marathon runners tend to be ectomorphs, i.e. lean and lightweight with slim bodies and legs. Their calf muscles are also pretty skinny, too dense a muscle mass and the strain could lead to injuries like shin splints.

28 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Information EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS Most people are somewhere in between these 3 extremes People with different Body Shapes and Types tend to be good at different sports The Body Type can give an individual of what work has to be carried out in terms of Fitness, Exercise and Training. ECTOMORPHMESOMORPHENDOMORPH EndurancePowerWeight HeightStrengthLimited movement Type of activityContactType of activity

29 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application What is a balanced diet? Class Discussion

30 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B GCSE Physical Education SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application What is the importance of each of the components of a balanced diet? Class Discussion

31 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application Choose 3 physical activities and discuss their requirements in terms of nutrition. Class Discussion 1.2.3.

32 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 – Practical Application Body composition and Height/Weight testing Somatotyping – photographs of different persons involved in physical activity Ask class to work in groups and sort out photos/cuttings into 3 body types Describe the characteristics. Are there any which are difficult to categorise? Why? Use Rugby as an activity and look at the demands/positions of the game. Why body types would be most suitable for each position and why

33 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Links Health – Physical, Social, Mental Fitness Exercise Lifestyle Individual needs

34 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 1.What are the 3 food groups and what percentage should they contribute to our diet? 2.Which components of our diet supply energy? 3.Why are carbohydrates referred to as the main energy supplier? 4.How are carbohydrates stored in the body? 5.Give 3 factors which affect water loss.

35 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 6.To balance the energy equation what must we do? 7.Give 3 ways of losing weight? 8.What happens to the carbohydrate and fat we take in but dont use for energy? 9.What is the energy equation and what does it tell us?

36 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B GCSE Physical Education ENDOMORPH UNIT 1 - Activity 10.Move the images below to match them with the appropriate body type. MESOMORPHECTOMORPH

37 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 11.Describe the main characteristics of each body type. MESOMORPH ECTOMORPH ENDOMORPH Activity

38 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 12.Define the terms health and fitness. 13.Explain the relationship between health and fitness. 14.How might exercise affect your weight? 15.How can lifestyle affect the energy needs of a person? 16.Why is fluid intake an important consideration for a sportsperson? 17.Explain what is meant by diet.

39 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 18.Explain why some sportspeople carbohydrate-load before endurance events, such as marathons. 19.Briefly describe the meaning of the term energy balance. 20.Why is knowledge of the energy balance equation important for a sportsperson? 21.What nutrient in our diet supplies energy during intense exercise? 22.What term is used to describe the amount of energy needed to keep a person alive and healthy?

40 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 - Activity 23.Name three factors which could affect water loss taking part in sporting activity. 24.Why is it generally undesirable for sportspersons to have a high percentage of body fat? 25.How can the level of body fat be controlled? 26.Explain why CARBOHYDRATE is the major energy fuel used during vigorous exercise.

41 GCSE Physical Education Information/Discussion Practical Application Links Diagram/Table Activity Revision MAIN MENU FUEL FOR EXERCISE: The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performance SECTION B UNIT 1 – Key Facts/Glossary HEALTH - LIFESTYLE - PERFORMANCE Vitamins, minerals, fibre Water, dehydration, heatstroke High protein diet PAL BMR Energy balance Obesity Somatotyping Bulimia Balanced diet Over fat Good foods Anorexia Over weight Carbo-loading Exercise Fitness Energy providers Carbohydrate Fats Protein


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