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1 Nutrition for TRITON Athletes: Fueling for Optimal Performance Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RD UCSD Student Health Service.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Nutrition for TRITON Athletes: Fueling for Optimal Performance Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RD UCSD Student Health Service."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Nutrition for TRITON Athletes: Fueling for Optimal Performance Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RD UCSD Student Health Service

2 2 Topics to be covered Everyday nutrition Everyday nutrition –Protein and carbohydrate needs –Meal planning basics Pre-/post- workout meals Pre-/post- workout meals Pre-/post- competition meals Pre-/post- competition meals Eating on the road Eating on the road Fluid needs Fluid needs Supplements Supplements Alcohol Alcohol Disordered eating concerns Disordered eating concerns

3 3 Everyday Nutrition Calorie Needs Calorie Needs –Healthy, active college women need approximately Calories/day –Healthy, active college men need approximately Calories/day –Individual needs may be higher or lower depending on metabolic rate and level of physical activity Sample meals plans (handouts) Sample meals plans (handouts)

4 4 Everyday Nutrition continued Calorie Composition Calorie Composition –~55-65% Calories from high-quality carbohydrates –~15-20% Calories from lean proteins –~20-30% Calories from mostly unsaturated fats

5 5 Everyday Nutrition continued What is a high-quality carbohydrate? What is a high-quality carbohydrate? –Whole grain breads, bagels, English muffins, tortillas –Whole-wheat pasta –Brown rice –Whole-grain cereals –Fruits –Vegetables

6 6 Everyday Nutrition continued Mostly unsaturated fats Mostly unsaturated fats –Limit saturated fats to less than 20 grams per day or less than 10% of Total Calories –Avoid trans fats whenever possible –Obtain majority of fats from vegetable oils, nuts, lean proteins and non-/low-fat dairy

7 7 Everyday Nutrition continued –Grilled chicken breast –Tuna and other fish –Turkey –Lean cuts of beef –Lean ground turkey or beef –Eggs/egg-whites –Non-fat/low-fat milks and cheeses –Cottage Cheese –Non-fat/low-fat yogurt –Beans –Tofu –Hummus –Edamame What is lean protein?

8 8 Protein Needs Athletes require more protein than sedentary individuals. Athletes require more protein than sedentary individuals. Strength athletes require 1.6 to 1.7 g/kg/day Strength athletes require 1.6 to 1.7 g/kg/day –Adequate caloric intake is more important than elevated protein intake. –One pound of muscle per week requires only 14 additional grams of protein per day. Endurance athletes require 1.2 to 1.5 g/kg/day Endurance athletes require 1.2 to 1.5 g/kg/day –The high carbohydrate diet recommended for endurance athletes spares protein.

9 9 Three Basic Keys to Healthful Eating Variety – there is no one magic food Variety – there is no one magic food Moderation – all foods can fit into a well- balanced diet Moderation – all foods can fit into a well- balanced diet Wholesomeness – choose natural or lightly processed foods as often as possible Wholesomeness – choose natural or lightly processed foods as often as possible

10 10 Breakfast? A balanced breakfast provides a significant amount of Calories and other nutrients in the daily diet of the physically active person. A balanced breakfast provides a significant amount of Calories and other nutrients in the daily diet of the physically active person. A breakfast high in fiber with an average amount of protein will also help prevent the onset of mid-morning hunger. A breakfast high in fiber with an average amount of protein will also help prevent the onset of mid-morning hunger. Skipping breakfast could produce hypoglycemia with resultant symptoms of weakness and possible impairment of training. Skipping breakfast could produce hypoglycemia with resultant symptoms of weakness and possible impairment of training.

11 11 Meal Planning Basics Athletes MUST eat breakfast! Athletes MUST eat breakfast! Spread Calories out throughout the day for maximum energy – ideally, 3 meals plus 2-3 snacks a day. Spread Calories out throughout the day for maximum energy – ideally, 3 meals plus 2-3 snacks a day. Planning is paramount. Planning is paramount. Frozen fruits and vegetables can come in handy during times when getting to the store is impossible. Frozen fruits and vegetables can come in handy during times when getting to the store is impossible. Canned goods like tuna, fruit in juice, no-salt added vegetables, and beans are also good staples to have on hand. Canned goods like tuna, fruit in juice, no-salt added vegetables, and beans are also good staples to have on hand.

12 12 Pre-Workout Meal Eating balanced meals and snacks throughout the day will result in adequate energy during workouts. Eating balanced meals and snacks throughout the day will result in adequate energy during workouts. To avoid cramping or stomach problems during workouts, athletes should avoid eating immediately before a workout. To avoid cramping or stomach problems during workouts, athletes should avoid eating immediately before a workout. This is the time to experiment with meals and snacks, not right before a game or match. This is the time to experiment with meals and snacks, not right before a game or match.

13 13 Post-Workout Meal / Snack Goal of post-workout meal/snack: to replenish glycogen stores and provide adequate protein to repair muscle tissues Goal of post-workout meal/snack: to replenish glycogen stores and provide adequate protein to repair muscle tissues Should be consumed within minutes of a heavy workout Should be consumed within minutes of a heavy workout Mostly carbohydrate with a small amount of protein. Examples include: Mostly carbohydrate with a small amount of protein. Examples include: –Yogurt and fruit –Bagel with peanut butter –Energy bar Follow the post-workout snack with a balanced meal (lunch or dinner) within minutes Follow the post-workout snack with a balanced meal (lunch or dinner) within minutes

14 14 Night Before Competition The meal eaten the night before (or even two nights before) competition is more important than the meal eaten right before competition. The meal eaten the night before (or even two nights before) competition is more important than the meal eaten right before competition. The meal the night before competition should be heavy on carbohydrates, light to moderate in protein and low in fat. The meal the night before competition should be heavy on carbohydrates, light to moderate in protein and low in fat. Examples include: Examples include: –Stir-fry with chicken over rice –Pasta with lean ground meat sauce

15 15 Pre-Competition Meal It is a well-established fact that the ingestion of food just prior to competition will not benefit physical performance in most athletic events. It is a well-established fact that the ingestion of food just prior to competition will not benefit physical performance in most athletic events. However, the pre-competition meal should do the following: However, the pre-competition meal should do the following: –allow for the stomach to be relatively empty at the start of competition –help to prevent or minimize gastrointestinal stress –help avoid sensations of hunger, lightheadedness, or fatigue –provide adequate fuel supplies, primarily carbohydrate, in the blood and muscles –provide an adequate amount of body water

16 16 Pre-competition Meal cont. In general, a solid meal should be eaten about 3 to 4 hours prior to competition. In general, a solid meal should be eaten about 3 to 4 hours prior to competition. Composition of meal: Composition of meal: –high in carbohydrate, low in fat, and low to moderate in protein, providing for easy digestibility –avoid gas formers (beans), spicy foods, and bulk foods (bran products) – Calories Meals other than the pre-competition meal eaten on the same day should not be skipped. Meals other than the pre-competition meal eaten on the same day should not be skipped.

17 17 Pre-competition Meal and the use of liquid meals and sports bars Advantages of liquid meals over solid meals for pre- competition nutrition: Advantages of liquid meals over solid meals for pre- competition nutrition: –well balanced in nutritional value –high carbohydrate content –no bulk, easily digested –practical, may be taken closer to competition Advantages of sports bars: Advantages of sports bars: –good source of carbohydrate –convenient Liquid meals and sports bars should not be used on a regular basis to replace healthy meals and snacks. Liquid meals and sports bars should not be used on a regular basis to replace healthy meals and snacks.

18 18 Nutrition During Competition There is no need to consume anything during most types of athletic competition with the possible exception of carbohydrate and water (events lasting greater than 60 minutes). There is no need to consume anything during most types of athletic competition with the possible exception of carbohydrate and water (events lasting greater than 60 minutes). Carbohydrate may provide additional supplies of the preferred energy source during prolonged exercise (ex. glucose in Gatorade, energy gels, etc.) Carbohydrate may provide additional supplies of the preferred energy source during prolonged exercise (ex. glucose in Gatorade, energy gels, etc.) Water intake may be critical for regulation of body temperature when exercising in warm environments. Water intake may be critical for regulation of body temperature when exercising in warm environments.

19 19 Post-competition Nutrition In general, a balanced diet is all that is necessary to meet your nutrient needs and restore your nutritional status to normal following competition, or daily hard physical training. In general, a balanced diet is all that is necessary to meet your nutrient needs and restore your nutritional status to normal following competition, or daily hard physical training. Simple sugars eaten immediately after a hard workout may help restore muscle glycogen fairly rapidly, but the addition of protein to the carbohydrate source may be even more effective. Simple sugars eaten immediately after a hard workout may help restore muscle glycogen fairly rapidly, but the addition of protein to the carbohydrate source may be even more effective.

20 20 Eating on the Road Planning, planning, planning! Planning, planning, planning! Decide ahead of time when and where the meals are going to be during the road trip. Decide ahead of time when and where the meals are going to be during the road trip. Call ahead and order so the meals are ready when you arrive. Most chain restaurants have online menus. Call ahead and order so the meals are ready when you arrive. Most chain restaurants have online menus. Place breakfast order the night before from local bagel shop and deliver them to the athletes rooms. Place breakfast order the night before from local bagel shop and deliver them to the athletes rooms.

21 21 Eating on the Road continued Good examples of healthful restaurant choices: Good examples of healthful restaurant choices: –Sandwich shops (Subway, Quiznos, Togos) Encourage lean protein with lots of vegetables, baked chips Encourage lean protein with lots of vegetables, baked chips –Bagel shops (Brueggers, Einstein Bros., Noahs) Bagel with cream cheese or egg for breakfast with fresh fruit or juice Bagel with cream cheese or egg for breakfast with fresh fruit or juice –Salad bar restaurants (Souplantation, Fresh Choice, Sweet Tomato) Encourage non-creamy soups, pasta, salads, breads, low-fat muffins Encourage non-creamy soups, pasta, salads, breads, low-fat muffins –Italian eateries Encourage pasta dishes with non-creamy sauces, non-fried items Encourage pasta dishes with non-creamy sauces, non-fried items –Supermarkets Salad bars, bagels, fruit, delis, yogurt, lunch meat, bread and peanut butter Salad bars, bagels, fruit, delis, yogurt, lunch meat, bread and peanut butter

22 22 Introduce a Team Cooler For long bus rides, purchase a team cooler and assign one or two athletes to purchase food for the team before you leave UCSD. For long bus rides, purchase a team cooler and assign one or two athletes to purchase food for the team before you leave UCSD. Fill the cooler with healthy snacks such as apples, bananas, bread, peanut butter, carrots, hummus, edamame, lunch meat, string cheese, gogurts, pretzels, rice cakes, dried fruit, nuts, bagels. Fill the cooler with healthy snacks such as apples, bananas, bread, peanut butter, carrots, hummus, edamame, lunch meat, string cheese, gogurts, pretzels, rice cakes, dried fruit, nuts, bagels. This same cooler can be re-filled for days where there are multiple games/matches throughout the day/weekend (tournaments). This same cooler can be re-filled for days where there are multiple games/matches throughout the day/weekend (tournaments).

23 23 Fluid Requirements for Performance Waters most critical function for athletes is the regulation of body temperature. Waters most critical function for athletes is the regulation of body temperature. Thirst is not an adequate guide to hydration. Thirst is not an adequate guide to hydration. Most athletes only replace 50% of their fluid losses during exercise. Most athletes only replace 50% of their fluid losses during exercise. Regulate fluid intake by drinking according to schedule rather than by perceived thirst. Regulate fluid intake by drinking according to schedule rather than by perceived thirst.

24 24 Hydration Guidelines for Athletes oz 2-3 hours prior to exercise oz 2-3 hours prior to exercise 6-12 oz every minutes during exercise 6-12 oz every minutes during exercise oz for every lb of body weight lost after exercise oz for every lb of body weight lost after exercise Add glucose and electrolytes (ex. Gatorade) to increase absorption and replenish losses (anything over 60 minutes). Add glucose and electrolytes (ex. Gatorade) to increase absorption and replenish losses (anything over 60 minutes). Dehydration is not to be tolerated! Dehydration is not to be tolerated!

25 25 Supplements Not regulated or standardized Not regulated or standardized Natural does not mean safe Natural does not mean safe Possible side effects Possible side effects Know what substances are banned!!! Know what substances are banned!!! Only recommended supplements: Only recommended supplements: –Multivitamin and mineral supplement –Additional calcium if needed

26 26 Alcohol Normal part of the college experience??? Normal part of the college experience??? It may not be realistic to eliminate the use of alcohol altogether; however, intensive efforts should be made to reduce the amounts of alcohol consumed and to educate students about the possible deleterious side effects. It may not be realistic to eliminate the use of alcohol altogether; however, intensive efforts should be made to reduce the amounts of alcohol consumed and to educate students about the possible deleterious side effects.

27 27 Side Effects of Alcohol Dehydration Dehydration –Diuretic, severe dehydration due to excess alcohol can require several days to a week for full recovery Testosterone Testosterone –Decrease serum testosterone levels which can lead to a decrease in lean muscle mass Performance Performance –Impair reaction time and mental acuity for up to several days after consumption; increased risk of injury

28 28 Side Effects of Alcohol continued Increase in body fat Increase in body fat –Increase in excess calories, increase in body fat, decrease in performance Social Social –Central nervous system depressant, can lead to injuries Sleep Sleep –Detrimental effect on both the quality of sleep and on daytime attention

29 29 Disordered Eating Concerns A spectrum of harmful and ineffective methods of weight control, which occur on a continuum of severity A spectrum of harmful and ineffective methods of weight control, which occur on a continuum of severity –Eating Issues & Body Image Continuum (handout) Inadvertently failing to meet caloric needs for activity level Inadvertently failing to meet caloric needs for activity level Voluntary starvation/fasting Voluntary starvation/fasting Binging and purging Binging and purging Use of diet pills, laxatives or diuretics Use of diet pills, laxatives or diuretics Excessive exercise (above and beyond practice) Excessive exercise (above and beyond practice)

30 30 Female Athlete Triad What is it? What is it? –Disordered eating –Amenorrhea –Osteoporosis Why? Why? –Cultural pressures to be thin –Belief that low weight = higher performance Who is at risk? Who is at risk? –Any physically active woman –Individuals with a competitive nature and strong self- discipline

31 31 Campus Resources Student Health Service Student Health Service (858) Psychological & Counseling Services Psychological & Counseling Services (858) Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RD Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RD (858) Matt Kritz, MS, CSCS – Director of Athletic Performance (858) , Matt Kritz, MS, CSCS – Director of Athletic Performance (858) , Triton Training Room (858) Triton Training Room (858)

32 32 Next Steps… Return to the Triton Nutrition Programming webpage. Return to the Triton Nutrition Programming webpage. Use the calorie calculator to figure out your daily caloric needs Use the calorie calculator to figure out your daily caloric needs Refer to the meal plan that corresponds to your daily caloric needs Refer to the meal plan that corresponds to your daily caloric needs Start your Triton Sport Nutrition Program Today Start your Triton Sport Nutrition Program Today


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