Presentation on theme: "Nutrition for TRITON Athletes: Fueling for Optimal Performance"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nutrition for TRITON Athletes: Fueling for Optimal Performance Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RDUCSD Student Health Service
2 Topics to be covered Everyday nutrition Pre-/post- workout meals Protein and carbohydrate needsMeal planning basicsPre-/post- workout mealsPre-/post- competition mealsEating on the roadFluid needsSupplementsAlcohol“Disordered eating” concerns
3 Everyday Nutrition Calorie Needs Sample meals plans (handouts) Healthy, active college women need approximately Calories/dayHealthy, active college men need approximately Calories/dayIndividual needs may be higher or lower depending on metabolic rate and level of physical activitySample meals plans (handouts)
4 Everyday Nutrition continued Calorie Composition~55-65% Calories from high-quality carbohydrates~15-20% Calories from lean proteins~20-30% Calories from mostly unsaturated fats
5 Everyday Nutrition continued What is a high-quality carbohydrate?Whole grain breads, bagels, English muffins, tortillasWhole-wheat pastaBrown riceWhole-grain cerealsFruitsVegetables
6 Everyday Nutrition continued “Mostly unsaturated fats”Limit saturated fats to less than 20 grams per day or less than 10% of Total CaloriesAvoid trans fats whenever possibleObtain majority of fats from vegetable oils, nuts, lean proteins and non-/low-fat dairy
7 Everyday Nutrition continued What is lean protein?Grilled chicken breastTuna and other fishTurkeyLean cuts of beefLean ground turkey or beefEggs/egg-whitesNon-fat/low-fat milks and cheesesCottage CheeseNon-fat/low-fat yogurtBeansTofuHummusEdamame
8 Protein NeedsAthletes require more protein than sedentary individuals.Strength athletes require 1.6 to 1.7 g/kg/dayAdequate caloric intake is more important than elevated protein intake.One pound of muscle per week requires only 14 additional grams of protein per day.Endurance athletes require 1.2 to 1.5 g/kg/dayThe high carbohydrate diet recommended for endurance athletes spares protein.
9 Three Basic Keys to Healthful Eating Variety – there is no one magic foodModeration – all foods can fit into a well-balanced dietWholesomeness – choose natural or lightly processed foods as often as possible
10 Breakfast?A balanced breakfast provides a significant amount of Calories and other nutrients in the daily diet of the physically active person.A breakfast high in fiber with an average amount of protein will also help prevent the onset of mid-morning hunger.Skipping breakfast could produce hypoglycemia with resultant symptoms of weakness and possible impairment of training.
11 Meal Planning Basics Athletes MUST eat breakfast! Spread Calories out throughout the day for maximum energy – ideally, 3 meals plus 2-3 snacks a day.Planning is paramount.Frozen fruits and vegetables can come in handy during times when getting to the store is impossible.Canned goods like tuna, fruit in juice, no-salt added vegetables, and beans are also good staples to have on hand.
12 Pre-Workout MealEating balanced meals and snacks throughout the day will result in adequate energy during workouts.To avoid cramping or stomach problems during workouts, athletes should avoid eating immediately before a workout.This is the time to experiment with meals and snacks, not right before a game or match.
13 Post-Workout Meal / Snack Goal of post-workout meal/snack: to replenish glycogen stores and provide adequate protein to repair muscle tissuesShould be consumed within minutes of a heavy workoutMostly carbohydrate with a small amount of protein. Examples include:Yogurt and fruitBagel with peanut butterEnergy barFollow the post-workout snack with a balanced meal (lunch or dinner) within minutes
14 Night Before Competition The meal eaten the night before (or even two nights before) competition is more important than the meal eaten right before competition.The meal the night before competition should be heavy on carbohydrates, light to moderate in protein and low in fat.Examples include:Stir-fry with chicken over ricePasta with lean ground meat sauce
15 Pre-Competition MealIt is a well-established fact that the ingestion of food just prior to competition will not benefit physical performance in most athletic events.However, the pre-competition meal should do the following:allow for the stomach to be relatively empty at the start of competitionhelp to prevent or minimize gastrointestinal stresshelp avoid sensations of hunger, lightheadedness, or fatigueprovide adequate fuel supplies, primarily carbohydrate, in the blood and musclesprovide an adequate amount of body water
16 Pre-competition Meal cont. In general, a solid meal should be eaten about 3 to 4 hours prior to competition.Composition of meal:high in carbohydrate, low in fat, and low to moderate in protein, providing for easy digestibilityavoid gas formers (beans), spicy foods, and bulk foods (bran products)CaloriesMeals other than the pre-competition meal eaten on the same day should not be skipped.
17 Pre-competition Meal and the use of liquid meals and sports bars Advantages of liquid meals over solid meals for pre-competition nutrition:well balanced in nutritional valuehigh carbohydrate contentno bulk, easily digestedpractical, may be taken closer to competitionAdvantages of sports bars:good source of carbohydrateconvenientLiquid meals and sports bars should not be used on a regular basis to replace healthy meals and snacks.
18 Nutrition During Competition There is no need to consume anything during most types of athletic competition with the possible exception of carbohydrate and water (events lasting greater than 60 minutes).Carbohydrate may provide additional supplies of the preferred energy source during prolonged exercise (ex. glucose in Gatorade, energy gels, etc.)Water intake may be critical for regulation of body temperature when exercising in warm environments.
19 Post-competition Nutrition In general, a balanced diet is all that is necessary to meet your nutrient needs and restore your nutritional status to normal following competition, or daily hard physical training.Simple sugars eaten immediately after a hard workout may help restore muscle glycogen fairly rapidly, but the addition of protein to the carbohydrate source may be even more effective.
20 Eating on the Road Planning, planning, planning! Decide ahead of time when and where the meals are going to be during the road trip.Call ahead and order so the meals are ready when you arrive. Most chain restaurants have online menus.Place breakfast order the night before from local bagel shop and deliver them to the athletes’ rooms.
21 Eating on the Road continued Good examples of healthful restaurant choices:Sandwich shops (Subway, Quiznos, Togos)Encourage lean protein with lots of vegetables, baked chipsBagel shops (Bruegger’s, Einstein Bros., Noah’s)Bagel with cream cheese or egg for breakfast with fresh fruit or juiceSalad bar restaurants (Souplantation, Fresh Choice, Sweet Tomato)Encourage non-creamy soups, pasta, salads, breads, low-fat muffinsItalian eateriesEncourage pasta dishes with non-creamy sauces, non-fried itemsSupermarketsSalad bars, bagels, fruit, delis, yogurt, lunch meat, bread and peanut butter
22 Introduce a “Team Cooler” For long bus rides, purchase a team cooler and assign one or two athletes to purchase food for the team before you leave UCSD.Fill the cooler with healthy snacks such as apples, bananas, bread, peanut butter, carrots, hummus, edamame, lunch meat, string cheese, gogurts, pretzels, rice cakes, dried fruit, nuts, bagels.This same cooler can be re-filled for days where there are multiple games/matches throughout the day/weekend (tournaments).
23 Fluid Requirements for Performance Water’s most critical function for athletes is the regulation of body temperature.Thirst is not an adequate guide to hydration.Most athletes only replace 50% of their fluid losses during exercise.Regulate fluid intake by drinking according to schedule rather than by perceived thirst.
24 Hydration Guidelines for Athletes 12-20 oz 2-3 hours prior to exercise6-12 oz every minutes during exercise16-24 oz for every lb of body weight lost after exerciseAdd glucose and electrolytes (ex. Gatorade) to increase absorption and replenish losses (anything over 60 minutes).Dehydration is not to be tolerated!
25 Supplements Not regulated or standardized “Natural” does not mean “safe”Possible side effectsKnow what substances are banned!!!Only recommended supplements:Multivitamin and mineral supplementAdditional calcium if needed
26 Alcohol Normal part of the college experience??? It may not be realistic to eliminate the use of alcohol altogether; however, intensive efforts should be made to reduce the amounts of alcohol consumed and to educate students about the possible deleterious side effects.
27 Side Effects of Alcohol DehydrationDiuretic, severe dehydration due to excess alcohol can require several days to a week for full recoveryTestosteroneDecrease serum testosterone levels which can lead to a decrease in lean muscle massPerformanceImpair reaction time and mental acuity for up to several days after consumption; increased risk of injury
28 Side Effects of Alcohol continued Increase in body fatIncrease in excess calories, increase in body fat, decrease in performanceSocialCentral nervous system depressant, can lead to injuriesSleepDetrimental effect on both the quality of sleep and on daytime attention
29 Disordered Eating Concerns A spectrum of harmful and ineffective methods of weight control, which occur on a continuum of severityEating Issues & Body Image Continuum (handout)Inadvertently failing to meet caloric needs for activity levelVoluntary starvation/fastingBinging and purgingUse of diet pills, laxatives or diureticsExcessive exercise (above and beyond practice)
30 Female Athlete Triad What is it? Why? Who is at risk? Disordered eatingAmenorrheaOsteoporosisWhy?Cultural pressures to be thinBelief that low weight = higher performanceWho is at risk?Any physically active womanIndividuals with a competitive nature and strong self-discipline
31 Campus Resources Student Health Service (858)Psychological & Counseling Services(858)Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RD(858)Matt Kritz, MS, CSCS – Director of Athletic Performance (858) ,Triton Training Room (858)
32 Next Steps… Return to the Triton Nutrition Programming webpage. Use the calorie calculator to figure out your daily caloric needsRefer to the meal plan that corresponds to your daily caloric needsStart your Triton Sport Nutrition Program Today