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Nutrition for TRITON Athletes: Fueling for Optimal Performance

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition for TRITON Athletes: Fueling for Optimal Performance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition for TRITON Athletes: Fueling for Optimal Performance
Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RD UCSD Student Health Service

2 Topics to be covered Everyday nutrition Pre-/post- workout meals
Protein and carbohydrate needs Meal planning basics Pre-/post- workout meals Pre-/post- competition meals Eating on the road Fluid needs Supplements Alcohol “Disordered eating” concerns

3 Everyday Nutrition Calorie Needs Sample meals plans (handouts)
Healthy, active college women need approximately Calories/day Healthy, active college men need approximately Calories/day Individual needs may be higher or lower depending on metabolic rate and level of physical activity Sample meals plans (handouts)

4 Everyday Nutrition continued
Calorie Composition ~55-65% Calories from high-quality carbohydrates ~15-20% Calories from lean proteins ~20-30% Calories from mostly unsaturated fats

5 Everyday Nutrition continued
What is a high-quality carbohydrate? Whole grain breads, bagels, English muffins, tortillas Whole-wheat pasta Brown rice Whole-grain cereals Fruits Vegetables

6 Everyday Nutrition continued
“Mostly unsaturated fats” Limit saturated fats to less than 20 grams per day or less than 10% of Total Calories Avoid trans fats whenever possible Obtain majority of fats from vegetable oils, nuts, lean proteins and non-/low-fat dairy

7 Everyday Nutrition continued
What is lean protein? Grilled chicken breast Tuna and other fish Turkey Lean cuts of beef Lean ground turkey or beef Eggs/egg-whites Non-fat/low-fat milks and cheeses Cottage Cheese Non-fat/low-fat yogurt Beans Tofu Hummus Edamame

8 Protein Needs Athletes require more protein than sedentary individuals. Strength athletes require 1.6 to 1.7 g/kg/day Adequate caloric intake is more important than elevated protein intake. One pound of muscle per week requires only 14 additional grams of protein per day. Endurance athletes require 1.2 to 1.5 g/kg/day The high carbohydrate diet recommended for endurance athletes spares protein.

9 Three Basic Keys to Healthful Eating
Variety – there is no one magic food Moderation – all foods can fit into a well-balanced diet Wholesomeness – choose natural or lightly processed foods as often as possible

10 Breakfast? A balanced breakfast provides a significant amount of Calories and other nutrients in the daily diet of the physically active person. A breakfast high in fiber with an average amount of protein will also help prevent the onset of mid-morning hunger. Skipping breakfast could produce hypoglycemia with resultant symptoms of weakness and possible impairment of training.

11 Meal Planning Basics Athletes MUST eat breakfast!
Spread Calories out throughout the day for maximum energy – ideally, 3 meals plus 2-3 snacks a day. Planning is paramount. Frozen fruits and vegetables can come in handy during times when getting to the store is impossible. Canned goods like tuna, fruit in juice, no-salt added vegetables, and beans are also good staples to have on hand.

12 Pre-Workout Meal Eating balanced meals and snacks throughout the day will result in adequate energy during workouts. To avoid cramping or stomach problems during workouts, athletes should avoid eating immediately before a workout. This is the time to experiment with meals and snacks, not right before a game or match.

13 Post-Workout Meal / Snack
Goal of post-workout meal/snack: to replenish glycogen stores and provide adequate protein to repair muscle tissues Should be consumed within minutes of a heavy workout Mostly carbohydrate with a small amount of protein. Examples include: Yogurt and fruit Bagel with peanut butter Energy bar Follow the post-workout snack with a balanced meal (lunch or dinner) within minutes

14 Night Before Competition
The meal eaten the night before (or even two nights before) competition is more important than the meal eaten right before competition. The meal the night before competition should be heavy on carbohydrates, light to moderate in protein and low in fat. Examples include: Stir-fry with chicken over rice Pasta with lean ground meat sauce

15 Pre-Competition Meal It is a well-established fact that the ingestion of food just prior to competition will not benefit physical performance in most athletic events. However, the pre-competition meal should do the following: allow for the stomach to be relatively empty at the start of competition help to prevent or minimize gastrointestinal stress help avoid sensations of hunger, lightheadedness, or fatigue provide adequate fuel supplies, primarily carbohydrate, in the blood and muscles provide an adequate amount of body water

16 Pre-competition Meal cont.
In general, a solid meal should be eaten about 3 to 4 hours prior to competition. Composition of meal: high in carbohydrate, low in fat, and low to moderate in protein, providing for easy digestibility avoid gas formers (beans), spicy foods, and bulk foods (bran products) Calories Meals other than the pre-competition meal eaten on the same day should not be skipped.

17 Pre-competition Meal and the use of liquid meals and sports bars
Advantages of liquid meals over solid meals for pre-competition nutrition: well balanced in nutritional value high carbohydrate content no bulk, easily digested practical, may be taken closer to competition Advantages of sports bars: good source of carbohydrate convenient Liquid meals and sports bars should not be used on a regular basis to replace healthy meals and snacks.

18 Nutrition During Competition
There is no need to consume anything during most types of athletic competition with the possible exception of carbohydrate and water (events lasting greater than 60 minutes). Carbohydrate may provide additional supplies of the preferred energy source during prolonged exercise (ex. glucose in Gatorade, energy gels, etc.) Water intake may be critical for regulation of body temperature when exercising in warm environments.

19 Post-competition Nutrition
In general, a balanced diet is all that is necessary to meet your nutrient needs and restore your nutritional status to normal following competition, or daily hard physical training. Simple sugars eaten immediately after a hard workout may help restore muscle glycogen fairly rapidly, but the addition of protein to the carbohydrate source may be even more effective.

20 Eating on the Road Planning, planning, planning!
Decide ahead of time when and where the meals are going to be during the road trip. Call ahead and order so the meals are ready when you arrive. Most chain restaurants have online menus. Place breakfast order the night before from local bagel shop and deliver them to the athletes’ rooms.

21 Eating on the Road continued
Good examples of healthful restaurant choices: Sandwich shops (Subway, Quiznos, Togos) Encourage lean protein with lots of vegetables, baked chips Bagel shops (Bruegger’s, Einstein Bros., Noah’s) Bagel with cream cheese or egg for breakfast with fresh fruit or juice Salad bar restaurants (Souplantation, Fresh Choice, Sweet Tomato) Encourage non-creamy soups, pasta, salads, breads, low-fat muffins Italian eateries Encourage pasta dishes with non-creamy sauces, non-fried items Supermarkets Salad bars, bagels, fruit, delis, yogurt, lunch meat, bread and peanut butter

22 Introduce a “Team Cooler”
For long bus rides, purchase a team cooler and assign one or two athletes to purchase food for the team before you leave UCSD. Fill the cooler with healthy snacks such as apples, bananas, bread, peanut butter, carrots, hummus, edamame, lunch meat, string cheese, gogurts, pretzels, rice cakes, dried fruit, nuts, bagels. This same cooler can be re-filled for days where there are multiple games/matches throughout the day/weekend (tournaments).

23 Fluid Requirements for Performance
Water’s most critical function for athletes is the regulation of body temperature. Thirst is not an adequate guide to hydration. Most athletes only replace 50% of their fluid losses during exercise. Regulate fluid intake by drinking according to schedule rather than by perceived thirst.

24 Hydration Guidelines for Athletes
12-20 oz 2-3 hours prior to exercise 6-12 oz every minutes during exercise 16-24 oz for every lb of body weight lost after exercise Add glucose and electrolytes (ex. Gatorade) to increase absorption and replenish losses (anything over 60 minutes). Dehydration is not to be tolerated!

25 Supplements Not regulated or standardized
“Natural” does not mean “safe” Possible side effects Know what substances are banned!!! Only recommended supplements: Multivitamin and mineral supplement Additional calcium if needed

26 Alcohol Normal part of the college experience???
It may not be realistic to eliminate the use of alcohol altogether; however, intensive efforts should be made to reduce the amounts of alcohol consumed and to educate students about the possible deleterious side effects.

27 Side Effects of Alcohol
Dehydration Diuretic, severe dehydration due to excess alcohol can require several days to a week for full recovery Testosterone Decrease serum testosterone levels which can lead to a decrease in lean muscle mass Performance Impair reaction time and mental acuity for up to several days after consumption; increased risk of injury

28 Side Effects of Alcohol continued
Increase in body fat Increase in excess calories, increase in body fat, decrease in performance Social Central nervous system depressant, can lead to injuries Sleep Detrimental effect on both the quality of sleep and on daytime attention

29 Disordered Eating Concerns
A spectrum of harmful and ineffective methods of weight control, which occur on a continuum of severity Eating Issues & Body Image Continuum (handout) Inadvertently failing to meet caloric needs for activity level Voluntary starvation/fasting Binging and purging Use of diet pills, laxatives or diuretics Excessive exercise (above and beyond practice)

30 Female Athlete Triad What is it? Why? Who is at risk?
Disordered eating Amenorrhea Osteoporosis Why? Cultural pressures to be thin Belief that low weight = higher performance Who is at risk? Any physically active woman Individuals with a competitive nature and strong self-discipline

31 Campus Resources Student Health Service
(858) Psychological & Counseling Services (858) Heather McCracken Cohen, MPH, RD (858) Matt Kritz, MS, CSCS – Director of Athletic Performance (858) , Triton Training Room (858)

32 Next Steps… Return to the Triton Nutrition Programming webpage.
Use the calorie calculator to figure out your daily caloric needs Refer to the meal plan that corresponds to your daily caloric needs Start your Triton Sport Nutrition Program Today

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