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Diets of different groupsJenny Ridgwell Series Editor: Louise T Davies Diets of different groups Lesson 7 © Folens 2009
Lesson objectives/aimsUnderstand the nutritional needs of different target groups. Learn about the application of nutritional and dietary requirements. Learn about vegetarians, diabetics, coeliacs, calorie controlled diets, nut allergies and lactose intolerance. To look at food labels and discuss how the labels provide for different needs. To learn about the nutritional requirements and dietary needs of different groups. © Folens 2009
Introduction Different target groups with different nutritional requirements include babies, toddlers, young children, teenagers, pregnant women and older people. Food products are designed to appeal to a target market such as the different age groups. Food products have to meet different dietary requirements for vegetarians, diabetics, coeliacs, calorie controlled diets, nut allergies and lactose intolerance. © Folens 2009
Starter Work in groups. Look at a collection of food labels and discuss how food products are designed to meet different food needs such as vegetarian, gluten or nut free. © Folens 2009
Target groups Babies require special food, and at the start of life breast milk is recommended. Toddlers require very nutritious food as they are growing fast. Young children require nutritious food to grow fast and need a variety of food. Teenagers require food that meets their energy needs and a variety of food that supplies a variety of nutrients. Adults require a varied diet and need to avoid eating too much food. Pregnant women require food containing folic acid, iron, calcium and vitamin D to help the developing baby. Older people tend to need less energy from foods but their food should supply a range of nutrients. © Folens 2009
Meeting the needs of different target groups (1)Babies Breast milk is best for at least four months, then food should have a smooth texture and be easy to eat. Toddlers and young children Need a variety of nutritious food with a range of tastes and flavours. Sweets and sugary food should be avoided. Older children Have increased requirements for iron, calcium and all vitamins, so their food should be nutritious and their diet well balanced. © Folens 2009
Meeting the needs of different target groups (2)Teenagers (1) Food products targeted at teenagers often include snacks and treats, as well as take-away food. Energy foods are needed for activities, and these can be provided by carbohydrate foods such as bread and potatoes. Calcium and vitamin D are very important for bone growth during the growing years. © Folens 2009
Meeting the needs of different target groups (3)Teenagers (2) Calcium is found in cheese, milk and yogurt and green leafy vegetables. Most of the vitamin D comes from sunlight but vitamin D is also found in margarine and oily fish. In a survey, 50% of teenage girls were not eating food with enough iron and calcium. Iron is needed for the formation of healthy blood cells. © Folens 2009
Meeting the needs of different target groups (4)Pregnant women Pregnant women need food that is a good source of folic acid, iron, calcium and vitamin D. A number of foods have to be avoided during pregnancy including liver and liver-containing foods. © Folens 2009
Meeting the needs of different target groups (5)Older people Older people vary greatly in their level of health and activity levels. They should eat a varied, balanced diet, but require less energy from food than younger people. Plenty of dietary fibre is important to keep the bowel functioning properly. Calcium and vitamin D help maintain the bone structure. © Folens 2009
What affects food choice? (1)Availability Most of our food is bought in supermarkets and these are supplied with food from around the world. Food used to be only available when it was in season, but in the UK we import food from all over the world so food such as strawberries are available all year. Fruit and vegetables should be cheaper when they are in season in the UK. © Folens 2009
What affects food choice? (2)Cost People often choose to eat what they can afford to buy. Families on a low budget must shop for food and buy within their limits. They look for products that are good value for money. Supermarkets may reduce foods at the end of the day, and make special offers of buy one get one free (BOGOF). People may choose to buy foods with special price coupons or money-off offers. © Folens 2009
What affects food choice? (3)Lifestyle The way people live affects their food choice. People who are very busy during the day may want to buy easy-to-cook food in the evening. People who have a short lunch break may buy easy-to-eat snack food. Some people eat their main meal at lunchtime and some eat it in the evening, so food choices vary. Storage People may not have much space to store large quantities of food so they can only buy what they can keep in the cupboard or refrigerator. © Folens 2009
Food choices for vegetarians (1)Three to four per cent of adults in the UK are vegetarian. Why do people become vegetarian? They may not like the thought of animals being killed. Certain religious groups eat a vegetarian diet. People are concerned about the environment and meat production is expensive. © Folens 2009
Food choices for vegetarians (2)Types of vegetarian Lacto ovo vegetarians don’t eat meat, poultry or fish. Lacto vegetarians don’t eat meat, poultry or fish or eggs but will eat dairy products. Vegans don’t eat meat, poultry or fish or eggs, or dairy products. © Folens 2009
Food choices for vegetarians (3)Many food producers have designed symbols to show that their food products are suitable for vegetarians. The Vegetarian Society uses the V symbol to show that the product has been approved by them. Some labels state ‘suitable for vegetarians’. There is a wide range of vegetarian food products for sale. © Folens 2009
Food choices for vegetarians (4)The following ingredients need to be avoided in vegetarian food products: Gelatine is made from animal products. Fats for cakes and pastries (vegetable fats can be used instead). Cheeses must be suitable for vegetarians. Some foods such as chocolate contain non-vegetarian products. © Folens 2009
Diabetics Diabetes is a condition where the glucose level in the blood is too high because the body is not able to use it properly. Nearly ¾ million people in the UK are diabetic. People with diabetes do not need to eat a special diet or special foods. They can follow the dietary guidelines for healthy eating that are recommended for everyone. Their food should be high in fibre low in sugar and fat. © Folens 2009
Coeliacs Coeliac disease is a disease where the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues. It is triggered by gluten (a collective term for protein found in cereals, wheat, rye and barley). Gluten free products are widely available and they have a special symbol. © Folens 2009
Nut allergies and lactose intolerancePeanuts and other nuts can cause severe illness. People with nut allergies should avoid foods with peanuts and nuts. Food labels need to be followed carefully. Lactose intolerance means that the person must avoid cow’s milk. They can replace milk with other milks or soya milk. All this information is found on food labels. © Folens 2009
Calorie controlled food productsMany people are overweight and need to limit the amount of energy that their food provides. Since energy is measured in calories we use the term ‘calorie controlled’ food products. You can see the calorie information for these food products on the food labels. © Folens 2009
Task 1 Look at the collection of food labels and find examples of:food suitable for different age groups foods that provide a range of nutrients foods that are suitable for a range of dietary needs. © Folens 2009
Task 2 List the ingredients that you would use to make a food product for someone that: is on a calorie-controlled diet is a coeliac. is lactose intolerant. has a nut allergy. © Folens 2009
Plenary List five special dietary needs that food producers must be aware of. Draw two symbols to show different dietary needs. © Folens 2009
Extension Investigate how foods are designed to meet special dietary needs. Use the Internet to discover the different organisations that specialize in foods for: young children people on calorie controlled diets people who are gluten intolerant lactose intolerant nut intolerant. © Folens 2009
Homework Visit your supermarket or use the Internet.Look at ten finished food products and describe how they meet dietary needs. Present your results effectively. © Folens 2009
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