Presentation on theme: "Wine Microbiology Centro de Estudios Enológicos Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Mendoza Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria Dra. Mariana."— Presentation transcript:
Wine Microbiology Centro de Estudios Enológicos Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Mendoza Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria Dra. Mariana Combina Cátedras de Enología y Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo Dr.Ing.Agr. Juan C. Formento Research projects
Research areas Basic research What happens in your vineyards and fermentations? Yeast and bacteria selection Applied research Co-inoculation yeast and bacteria Co-inoculation Saccharomyces and no-Saccharomyces Optimization of fermentation process and technology transfer Saccharomyces biodiversity Yeast native populations in grape and fermentations Yeast in winery Spoiler yeast contamination prediction and control
Basic research Native populations and biodiversity Knowledge about yeast and bacteria native populations in grape and fermentations, species identification and succession during fermentation, preservation of yeasts diversity. Yeasts associated to Malbec grape berries from Mendoza, Argentina. Combina M., Mercado L., Borgo P., El í a A., Jofr é V., Ganga A., Martinez C., Catania C. Journal of Applied Microbiology 98(5): (2005). ISSN Dynamics of indigenous yeast populations during spontaneous fermentation of wines from Mendoza, Argentina. Combina M., El í a A., Mercado L., Catania C., Ganga A., Martinez C. International Journal of Food Microbiology 99(3): (2005) ISSN
Basic research Native populations and biodiversity Access to Saccharomyces strains biodiversity to understand strains distribution in homogeneous ecosystem (production area) and into vineyards, phylogenetic relationships and preservation of genetic resources. Yeast population in winery, identification of perennial winery microflora, research on the origin (grape and winery) of Saccharomyces strains in spontaneous fermentations, detection of commercial strains living in winery, genetic relations between native and commercial Saccharomyces strains (PhD Mercado) Diversity of Saccharomyces strains on grapes and winery surfaces: analysis of their contribution to fermentative flora of Malbec wine from Mendoza (Argentina) during two consecutive years. Mercado L., Dalcero A., Masuelli R., Combina M. Food Microbiology 24: (2007). ISSN:
Applied research Spoiler microorganisms and contaminants Ochratoxin A incidence in Argentine grapes and wines (UNRC collaboration) Influence of agricultural practises in ochratoxigenic fungi incidence and ochratoxin A production Identification of Critical Control Point (CCP) to reduce ochratoxin A during grape processing Potencial ochratoxin A producers from tables grapes in Argentina and Brazil. Da Rocha Rosa C., Palacios V., Combina M., Fraga M., Oliveira Rekson A., Magnoli C., Dalcero A. Food Additives and Contaminants 19(4): (2002). Mycoflora and ochratoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri in wine grapes in Argentina. Magnoli C., Violante M., Combina M., Palacio G., Dalcero A. Letters in Applied Microbiology - 37(2):179-84(2003). ISSN Survey of mycoflora and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Argentina markets. Magnoli C., Astoreca A., Ponsone L., Combina M., Palacio G., Da Rocha Rosa C., Dalcero A.M. Letters in Applied Microbiology 39(4): (2004) ISSN Ochratoxin A and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species in Argentinean wine grapes cultivated under organic and non-organic systems. Ponsone L., Combina M., Dalcero A., Chulze S. International Journal of Food Microbiology 114: (2007) ISSN
Applied research Spoiler microorganisms and contaminants Prevention of Brettanomyces wine spoilage by modelling of main of factors that affect growth and volatile phenols production in wine (predictive microbiology). Control of Brettanomyces spoilage by others yeast with bio-control capacity (antagonism, killer toxins) (Comahue University collaboration)
Applied research Fermentation and sensorial profile improvement Improve the induction of malolactic fermentation by different bacteria inoculation time Wine flavour improvement by co-inoculation with Saccharomyces and no-Saccharomyces native strains in red wines (MSc Hernandez). Selection of yeast and bacteria native strains to improve wine regional characteristics, strain implantation and competence. INTA MzaMalbec fermentation, terroir character and flavour improvement RD-B and RD-TTable wine fermentation, secondary aroma profile improvement, competence and implantation Low temperatureCold fermentation in red wine (young wines) (PhD Massera)
Isolation, selection and commercial multiplication of native wine yeasts of the Mendoza viticultural and enological regions. FORMENTO, JUAN CARLOS; ERCOLI, EDUARDO; DIAZ-PERALTA, EDUARDO; SFREDDO, ELISABETH; NAZRALA, JORGE; GALIOTTI, HUGO; SÁNCHEZ, LAURA; LUQUEZ, CLAUDIA; BIERE, CARLOS; GOMEZ, FRANCISCO; PEREIRA, CAROLINA. Cátedras de Enología y Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Objectives General: Isolation, selection and multiplication of native, typical and predominant yeasts in the studied zone, whose express excellent enological traits in elaborated wines. Specific: -To isolate strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - To choose strains with enological aptitudes. -To define parameters of multiplication of selected strains. - To industrially multiplication of selected yeasts and to commercialize them. - To conserve strains in a regional collection of yeasts at the F.C.A Cátedras de Enología y Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
The following characteristics are studying: Alcohol resistance, film ring or sediment formation, power of fermentation, acids production and sulfur dioxide resistance. Of this study they are chosen, of preliminary way, those strains that shown the following characteristics: Resistance up to 12% of ethanol, fast sedimentation once finished fermentation, minimum acid production, sulfur moderate dioxide concentrations resistance and optimal profile of fermentation. Cátedras de Enología y Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Obtained strains are maintained in laboratory in agar slant to immediate tests and in 30% glicerol at -70º C to make later studies. Pre-selected yeasts are evaluated at pilot level in experimental units of 30 liters, with 4 repetitions by each yeast strain. In final wines it is made: Complete chemical analysis. Determination of taste characteristics. Preference and difference tests. Cátedras de Enología y Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Tests at semi-industrialist and industrialist level of more outstanding yeast strains in the previous selection. The experimental unit is of 2,000 and 5,000 liters of each one available lineage. It is made in experimental winery of the Agrarian Sciences Faculty and in warehouses of the studied zone. Cátedras de Enología y Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Complete microbiological study of the most important selected yeasts. Laboratory tests of the kinetic of multiplication to be able in the following stage to produce industrially them. Cátedras de Enología y Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Multiplication and tests of resistance to the industrial processes of production and conservation of selected yeasts. Industrial production and supply to the viticultural and enological industry. Cátedras de Enología y Microbiología Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias Universidad Nacional de Cuyo
Buds, main reserve of yeasts between vegetative and reproductive aerial organs of Vitis vinifera var. Malbec Autores: Lúquez Bibiloni, C. V.; Formento, J. C. Díaz Peralta, E.  Presentado en el XXIX Congreso Mundial de la Viña y el Vino – OIV 2006 – Logroño, España.
The objective of this investigation was to provide new evidence about the model of permanence of yeasts of the grapevine in the natural cycle. The results revealed two moments of maximum population of yeasts: In closed bud by the end of autumn and In opened terminal bud in the middle of summer.
Yeast Distribution in Grape Buds
Yeast Distribution in Leaf, Flower and Fruit
The evolution of yeasts in the fruit referred to the surface of the berry showed little relation between both variables, whereas the value to consider would be the amount of yeasts by berry as unit. Bark displayed very uniform values throughout the vegetative cycle, assuming from this perspective the role of reserve of moderate importance.