2Section 1 The Beginning of the Cattle Kingdom Beginning in the Spanish era of Texas, cattle were raised on the grassy prairies of the state. These roaming herds were the beginning of the cattle kingdom.
3The Cattle IndustryThe Texas climate and geographic features were perfect for raising cattleCattle could graze on the grass of the prairiesCattle industry grew rapidly in late 1800sWhen Native Americans were forced onto reservations, settlers began to move into West Texas…cattle industry grew also
4Spanish OriginsWhen Spanish explorers and priests came from Mexico into Texas, they brought cattle with themIn 1700s, Spanish explorer, Jose de Escandon, set aside land for peopleStarted a charro culture (kind of a cattle culture)Charros = Mexican cowhands who used horses and ropes to round up cattleThey would brand the cattleBrand = a mark burned on the hide of cattle to show ownership
5Cattle Brands See Page 363 for Cattle Brand Info See Page 363 for Cattle Brand Info
6Longhorns Spaniards brought cattle with them Some of this cattle roamed wild in Texas and multipliedA new breed was formed—the Texas LonghornLonghorns hadHuge horns (used horns to protect themselves)Could easily adapt to environmentLittle water and food and could handle hot and cold weather
8Texas Longhorn Cattle Video Westward Expansion for Students: Old Texas and the Trail Drivers. CLEARVUE & SVE, 1997. Full Video. 7 April 2011. <http://www.discoveryeducation.com/>.
9Early RanchersWhen Mexico controlled Texas, Mexican government would give settlers land if they would raise cattleCowhands developed own way of working with cattleJames Taylor White = first cattle baron in Texas
10Early Ranchers, contBy 1850s, cattle was “driven” to railroads to be shipped to marketOn path of cattle drives, farmers were mad…cows ruined crops, etcCattle carried disease called Texas Fever…caused by ticksRanchers learned to “dip” cattle in chemicals to kill ticksBecause it was expensive to transport cattle to markets, ranchers started having cattle killed for the cattle hide (for leather) and for fat from meat to make soap and candles
11Texas Herds During the Civil War Texas cattle should have been used for food for Confederate soldiersBut, Union controlled the Mississippi River so cattle couldn’t cross river to get to soldiersCattle industry declined in Texas during Civil WarRanchers fighting in warCattle roamed free and numbers multipliedCattle wasn’t worth much because people couldn’t afford to buy them…value of cattle decreased
12Section 2 The Cattle Trails As railroads expanded westward across the United States, markets for beef opened. Texas cattle owners drove their herds along cattle trails to the railroads.
13A Market for Beef Demand for beef increased after Civil War Beef was shipped to markets in North & EastStockyards: a pen where livestock is kept before being butchered or shipped to marketPackinghouses: a warehouse where beef is prepared for shipment
14A Market for Beef, con’tRanchers made a lot of money selling the cattle. Needed a way to get cattle to stockyardsJoseph McCoy built first cowtown in Abilene, KansasCowtown: a town that serves as market or shipping point for cattleLet ranchers know that they could drive cattle through Indian territory to Abilene, KansasCattle would be put in holding pens there till the herds could get on trains for north and east
15The Development of Cattle Trails See map on page 367First great cattle trail = Chisholm TrailStarted in 1867 by Cherokee trader named Jesse ChisholmBetween about 6 million herd of cattle were driven from Texas to Abilene, KSMore trails developed as more railroads were builtWestern Trail (aka Dodge City Trail)San Antonio across the Red River to Dodge City, KansasPecos Trail (aka Goodnight Loving Trail)Followed the Pecos River into New Mexico and then went into Wyoming
18Life on the Trail Trail Drive Began with a Roundup: the process of herding together cattle that are scatteredCattle rounded up and branded (took several weeks)Scouts rode ahead to find best route and to alert trail boss of dangers, etcTrail Boss —in charge of everythingCowhand DutiesPointers: rode at side of lead cattle to direct herdFlankers: rode beside herd to keep cattle from strayingOther cowhands rode in rear of herd to keep cattle from falling behind
19Life on the Trail, con’t Cowhand duties, con’t Wranglers: took care of the extra saddle horsesEach cowboy had several horses; they would switch out horses several times/day to keep horses restedCamp Cook: cooked all mealsSourdough biscuits, beef, beans and coffeeAfter a meal, he would take Chuck Wagon: a wagon that carries cooking equipment and food for the cowhandsAt night, the cowhands would gather around campfire and singRead A Real Life Story on page 366
23An Expanding Cattle Range Usually cattle were driven each spring to railroad and soldThe ones that got there earliest got the most money for their cattleSo, they started having cattle drives in the fall and staying through winter to spring to be first to sell cattleThese winter herds expanded cattle kingdom out of Texas into other parts of US…usually Wyoming and Montana
24Read Old Yeller excerpt Video BibliographyWestward Expansion for Students: Old Texas and the Trail Drivers. CLEARVUE & SVE, 1997. Full Video. 7 April 2011. <http://www.discoveryeducation.com/>.Read Old Yeller excerptPage
25Section 3 The End of the Open Range The expansion of large ranches multiplying herds of livestock, and barbed wire all served to close the open range in Texas.
26The Great Spreads 4 Large Ranches King Ranch JA Ranch Founded by Richard King and Mifflin KennedyIn South TexasThey split up the ranch and King, his wife and his son-in-law expanded the ranch to over a million acres in sizeJA RanchFounded by Charles Goodnight and John AdairIn Palo Duro CanyonUsed canyon walls as part of ranch and got water from Red RiverOne million acres and 100,000 head of cattleCharles Goodnight’s wife, Moll’, was first white woman to live on the Texas Plains
27The Great Spreads, con’t Large Ranches, con’tMatador RanchFounded by A.M. Britton and H. H. CampbellIn Motley County (in Panhandle)Scottish company, Matador Land and Cattle Company, bought it and expanded itXIT RanchLargest ranch in TexasIn Panhandle, along New Mexico borderOver 3 million acres”, covered ten countiesXIT stands for “Ten in Texas” or just straight lines made it hard for cattle rustlers to change brandCattle Rustler: a cattle thief
28Sheep and Goat Ranching Sheep and goats were also raised on ranchesSheep brought by Spanish explorersRancher, George Wilkins Kendall, started raising sheep for woolAfter Civil War, big demand for wool…more sheep ranches started
29Sheep and Goat Ranches, con’t GoatsRanchers started raising goats for mohair…from silky coats of Angora goatsMohair used for yarn for clothesGoat ranching mostly on Edwards Plateau…still producing mohair today
30Barbed Wire and Windmills As more Texans were raising cattle, the grass supply diminishedAlso, ranchers couldn’t keep their cattle separatedAnd, farmers started farming land the ranchers neededResult: conflicts over land
31Barbed Wire & Windmills, con’t Open Range Ranching: no fencesBut, there was a growing need for fencesIn 1873, Joseph Glidden invented barbed wireSo, ranchers started using barbed wire for fencesFYI: XIT Ranch used 6000 miles of barbed wire for fencesMany people were against fences and started wire cutting…eventually became illegal to cut fences
33Barbed Wire & Windmills, con’t With invention of windmills, ranchers could pump water from underground…used this water for animalsBy 1890s…old ways of cattle industry were going awayToo many cattle and not enough grassCattle industry became way to make money rather than a way of life
37The Myth and Reality of the Cowhand Myth: it was glamorous and exciting…Wild West Shows exaggerated how it really was to be a cowboyReality: very differentNot glamorous but a hard way of lifeMany cowhands were African Americans, Tejanos, and even women….they were ignored
39Range of Cultures Many cultures contributed to ranching industry African AmericansDaniel Webster Wallaceformer slaveformer trail bossOwned ranchBose IkardWorked as JA Ranch for Charles GoodnightVaquerosTejano cowhands (1 out of 10 cowhands was a vaquero)Many vaqueros also owned ranches in South TexasWomenSome worked ranches alongside husbandsSome became independent ranchers*Margaret Borland: had 10,000 acre ranch near Victoria*Lizzie Johnson Williams: owned ranch and well respected for ranching knowledge(see page 376)*Both of these women rode on cattle drives
40Daniel Webster Wallace Lizzie Johnson WilliamsDaniel WebsterWallaceMargaret BorlandRead Bill Pickett, Bulldogger (page 377)