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© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Pankos Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 7th edition © 2009 Pearson Education,

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Presentation on theme: "© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Pankos Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 7th edition © 2009 Pearson Education,"— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Pankos Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 7th edition © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall May only be used by adopters of the book Telecommunications Chapter 6

2 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) 6-2

3 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall : Elements of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) 1. Customer Premises Equipment 1. Customer Premises Equipment Customer premises Equipment (CPE) consists Of telephones, wires, And other infrastructure on the customer premises. It is owned by the customer.

4 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-2: Customer Premises Equipment at a Business Site 6-4 Most businesses have a PBX (private branch exchange). It acts like an internal switchboard Businesses use 4-pair UTP for in-building telephone wiring. Have long used 4-pair UTP for telephony. Only recently was 4-pair UTP used for data.

5 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall : Elements of the PSTN 2. & 3. End Office Switch (Class 5) 2. Access Line (Local Loop) 2. Access Line (Local Loop) The Access System consists of the access line to the customer (called the local loop) and termination equipment at the end office (nearest telephone office switch).

6 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall : Elements of the PSTN 3. Transport Core 3. Trunk Line 3. Switch The Transport Core connects end office switches and core switches. Trunk lines connect switches.

7 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall : Elements of the PSTN Telephone Company Switch

8 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall : Elements of the PSTN 4. Signaling System Transport is the actual transmission of voice. Signaling is the control of calling (setup, teardown, billing, etc.). SS7 in the United States, C7 in Europe

9 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Transport versus Signaling Transport –The carriage of voice during a conversation Signaling –Supervisory communication to set up a connection, monitor connection quality, collect billing information, closing a connection, etc. 6-9 A point of frequent confusion

10 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-3: Points of Presence (POPs) 6-10 Local, long-distance, and international carriers connect at POPs (points of presence) This permits their subscribers to call one another.

11 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Circuits 6-11

12 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-4: Circuit Switching 6-12

13 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall : Voice and Data Traffic Voice uses about 30% of capacity, on average. Data only uses about 5% of capacity, on average. Circuit switching is not too wasteful for voice, But it is very wasteful for data transmission.

14 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-6: Dial-Up Circuits versus Leased Line Circuits 6-14 Dial-Up CircuitsLeased Line Circuits Is it a circuit with reserved capacity? Yes OperationDial-up. Separate circuit for each call. Permanent circuit, always on Speed for Carrying Data Up to 33.6 kbps56 kbps to gigabit speeds Number of Voice Calls OneSeveral due to multiplexing

15 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6- 7: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) in T1 Lines 6-15

16 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6- 7: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) in T1 Lines 6-16

17 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6- 7: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) in T1 Lines 6-17

18 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6- 7: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) in T1 Lines Calculation –Each conversation gets an 8-bit time slot in each frame. –There are 8,000 frames per second –So each conversation gets 64 kbps 6-18

19 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Analog and Digital Transmission 6-19

20 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-9: Analog Telephone Transmission 6-20 Speaking creates pressure waves, which hit the microphone. The microphone generates an analogous electrical signal. This is called an analog signal.

21 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-10: The PSTN: Mostly Digital with Analog Local Loops 6-21 The PSTN today is almost entirely digital. This includes switches and trunk lines. It also includes digital leased access lines to businesses.

22 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-10: The PSTN: Mostly Digital with Analog Local Loops 6-22 Only the residential telephone and the 1-pair voice-grade UTP line going to residences are analog today. Digital subscriber lines (which we will see later) Send digital signals over these 1-pair VG UTP lines.

23 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-11: Codec at the End Office Switch 6-23 A codec at the end office switch translates between the analog customer signals and digital signals in the PSTN core ADC is analog to digital conversion. DAC is digital to analog conversion.

24 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-12: Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) in Microwave Transmission 6-24 Box Microwave provides Point-to-point Terrestrial Transmission

25 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-14: Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC) 6-25 Box Signals arriving from the PSTN are digital. The DAC converts the 8 bits of each sample into a loudness level. Not smooth, but sounds smooth at 8,000 samples/second.

26 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Cellular Telephony 6-26

27 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15: Cellular Technology 6-27 Customer has a mobile phone. A city is divided into small geographic regions called cells. Each cell has a cellsite with an antenna and equipment to serve mobile phones in the cell

28 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall : Cellular Telephony Cellsites

29 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15: Cellular Technology 6-29 A mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) coordinates activity among the cellsites. The MTSO also connects mobile customers with wired PSTN customers via a POP.

30 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15: Cellular Technology Cellsites connect to the MTSO using a landline or a point-to-point radio system called microwave. Here is a microwave dish. It is covered with cloth, which does not interfere with radio transmission New

31 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15: Cellular Technology 6-31 Channels can be reused in different cells. This permits more customers to be served. Serving more customers through channel reuse Is the whole reason for cellular service.

32 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15: Cellular Technology 6-32 GSM cellular technology cannot use the same channel in adjacent cells CDMA can use the same channel in adjacent cells, providing more channel reuse and so more customers.

33 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15: Cellular Technology 6-33 When a mobile phone travels between cells, it is handed off to the cellsite in the new cell. In this figure, there is handoff between the cellsite in Cell O and the cellsite in Cell P.

34 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-15: Cellular Technology 6-34 In handoff, a mobile moves from one cell to another cell in the same city. In roaming, a mobile is taken to a different city. In handoff, a mobile moves from one cell to another cell in the same city. In roaming, a mobile is taken to a different city.

35 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-16: Handoff and Roaming in Wireless Networking and Cellular Telephony WLANsCellular Telephony RelationshipHandoff and roaming mean the same thing Handoff and roaming mean different things Handoffs (means the same in both) Wireless host travels between access points in an organization Mobile phone travels between cellsites in the same cellular system Roaming (means different things) Wireless host travels between access points in an organization Mobile phone travels to a different cellular system

36 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Voice over IP (VoIP) 6-36

37 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-17: Voice over IP (VoIP) 6-37 In voice over IP (VoIP), calls are transported over an IP network: either an internal IP network or the Internet. In voice over IP (VoIP), calls are transported over an IP network: either an internal IP network or the Internet. In VoIP, sound is digitized and sent in packets.

38 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-17: Voice over IP (VoIP) 6-38 The user either has a PC with multimedia hardware and VoIP software or An IP telephone that can be plugged into an IP network via a wall jack. The user either has a PC with multimedia hardware and VoIP software or An IP telephone that can be plugged into an IP network via a wall jack.

39 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-17: Voice over IP (VoIP) 6-39 A media gateway connects a VoIP network to the PSTN. This gives VoIP users access To PSTN users. The media gateway must translate between both signaling technology and transport technology. A media gateway connects a VoIP network to the PSTN. This gives VoIP users access To PSTN users. The media gateway must translate between both signaling technology and transport technology.

40 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall VoIP VoIP means that a firm does not have to maintain two networksan IP network for data and a circuit- switched voice network. –This should reduce costs considerably by only requiring the maintenance of a single network. In addition, VoIPs packet switching should be more efficient than the PSTNs circuit switching. But companies have concerns about sound quality and the high availability expected of telephone service. 6-40

41 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Wired Last Mile Services Telephone Modems ADSL Modem Service Cable Modem Service 6-41

42 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile The Last Mile –The access line to your home –Traditionally, a 1-pair VG UTP line from the telephone company –In the 1960s, a few businesses started getting 2-pair data-grade UTP and optical fiber –Given the cost of upgrading the 1-pair VG UTP plant, it seemed eternal 6-42

43 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile Telephone Service and Cable TV –1950s brought cable television Used coaxial cable with a central wire and a coaxial conductive ring or mesh Thick coax trunk lines past homes Thin coax drop lines to homes 6-43

44 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile Telephone Service and Cable TV –Television services soon went beyond delivering over- the-air signals –A static situation emerged Telephone companies controlled telephone service Cable companies controlled television delivery service 6-44

45 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile Telephone modems –Convert digital computer signals to analog and send these over the telephone access line –They also convert incoming analog signals into digital signals for the computer 6-45 Telephone Modem Telephone Line Digital Computer Signal: Analog Telephone Signal:

46 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile Telephone modems –Limited to 33.6 kbps sending / 56 kbps receiving –Cannot use your telephone for calls while using the telephone modem 6-46

47 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) 6-47 Like telephone modems, ADSL also uses the existing 1-pair voice-grade UTP line going to the home; But it offers higher speeds than telephone modems. ADSL

48 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Telephone Modems and ADSL Both use the 1-pair VG UTP line running to the subscribers home –Already installed, so no extra cost of running a new line Telephone modems send analog signals –This is what the traditional telephone system expects ADSL –Send digital signals for data (digital subscriber line) –Requires special equipment at the end office switch (DSLAM) 6-48

49 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) 6-49 Unlike telephone modem services, ADSL provides simultaneous voice and data. The phone line is not tied up

50 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) 6-50 Speed is asymmetric. Faster downstream (to home) speed than upstream (from the home) speed. This is ideal for World Wide Web downloads. Speeds are increasing rapidly in both directions.

51 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) 6-51 Home user needs a splitter for each telephone outlet. Connects a phone to the splitter voice port. Connects an ADSL modem To the splitter data port

52 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) 6-52 End office switch needs a DSLAM (DSL access multiplexer) Connects voice calls to the PSTN Connects data calls to a data network

53 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-22: Cable Modem Service 6-53 Cable modem service is provided by the cable television company, not by a telephone company. Generally is faster than ADSL but also more expensive Cable Modem

54 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-22: Cable Modem Service 6-54 Optical fiber brings signals to and from the neighborhood. Thick coaxial cables carry signals in the neighborhood.

55 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-22: Cable Modem Service 6-55 Thin coaxial drop cables carry signals from the trunk cable to individual residences. Subscriber needs a cable modem to receive data service.

56 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall ADSL versus Cable Modem Service Generally, cable modem service is somewhat faster and more expensive than ADSL service –However, price and performance ranges overlap –And performance is increasing rapidly In cable modem service, all subscribers in a neighborhood must share the speed –However, cable modem speed to the neighborhood is very high, so cable modem subscribers usually still get higher-than-ADSL speeds –And other subscribers cannot read a subscribers transmissions 6-56

57 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Wireless Access Service Figure 6-23: Wireless Technologies for the Last Mile 6-57

58 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile G Cellular Data Transmission –2G cellular service is for voice, texting, and photographs Can send data via a cellular modem, but only at 10 kbps –3G cellular was created to send data faster Most current services offer low DSL speeds at higher prices 2 Mbps to 3 Mbps speeds are arriving but will be even more expensive Consumer usage is dominating with downloading music, videos, and games

59 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile 6-59 WiMAX Metropolitan Area Networks –Designed to compete with DSL and cable modem service –Designed to serve a metropolitan area –Users can get service anywhere, not just at hotspots.

60 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile 6-60 WiMAX Metropolitan Area Networks –Promises to be faster than 3G service at lower cost Beginning with 1 to 4 Mbps and will be faster Mobile subscribers with omnidirectional antennas will receive speeds at the lower end Fixed subscribers in homes will have directional antennas and speeds will be at the higher end

61 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile 6-61 Satellite Access Service –Very expensive because of long transmission distance to satellites Hundreds to thousands of miles from the user site One-way transmission, which is used in television delivery, is not too expensive Two-way data transmission is complex and therefore expensive

62 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Market Situation 6-62

63 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-24: The Market Situation The Triple Play –The goal of access carriers Telephony companies Cable television companies Wireless access companies –Provide telephony, data, and video in a package –Video is the hardest People want multiple incoming TV signals They also want HDTV 6-63

64 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-24: The Market Situation Very High Speed Access Is Coming –Fiber to the home (FTTH) –Speeds of up to 100 Mbps or more –The backhaul issue: the entire network must be upgraded in capacity 6-64

65 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-24: The Market Situation The International Situation –United States ranks 16th internationally in broadband speed and availability –Korea and Japan provide 50 Mbps speeds or faster at prices comparable to U.S. prices (for lower speeds) –Leadership in speed brings leadership in applications. 6-65


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