Presentation on theme: "Diverting MSW – Part Two – Plastic, Metal, and Everything Else"— Presentation transcript:
1Diverting MSW – Part Two – Plastic, Metal, and Everything Else
2Recycling Plastic Quick Facts The first PET (plastic) bottle was recycled in 1977 (The National Association of PET Container Resources)Energy savings per tonne of finished plastic bottles is enough to fill a 20-gallon gas tank every week for ten years.10 plastic soft drink bottles are required to make the fiberfill for one ski jacket (Greater Vancouver Regional District: Just the Facts)Recycling plastics uses only 5% to 10% as much energy as making new plastic.Recycling a tonne of PET containers saves 7.4 cubic yards of landfill space.
3About 7% of all household waste is plastic. Annually, 3 million tonnes of plastic rubbish are produced.57% of litter found on beaches is plastic.In 2001 only 7% of all plastic was recycled.3
4Uses of plastics - Statistics Plastic products contribute 7% by weight and 30% by volume to municipal solid waste (Recycling Council of Ontario)Uses of plastics - Statistics
5Numbering System for Plastic Recycling Recycling No.AbbreviationPolymer NamePETPolyethylene TerephthalateHDPEHigh-Density PolyethylenePVC or VPolyvinyl ChlorideLDPELow-Density PolyethylenePPPolypropylenePSPolystyreneOTHEROther plastics, including acrylic, polycarbonate, polylactic acid , nylon and fiberglass.
6Types of Plastics and Their Uses Polymer NameUsesPolyethylene TerephthalateRecycled to produce polyester fibres, thermoformed sheet, strapping, soft drink bottles, reinforcement for concrete.High-Density PolyethyleneRecycled to become various bottles, grocery bags, recycling bins, agricultural pipe, base cups, car stops, playground equipment, and plastic lumber, flower pot, toysPolyvinyl ChlorideRecycled to become pipe, fencing, and non-food bottles.Low-Density PolyethyleneRecycled to become plastic bags, various containers, dispensing bottles, wash bottles,tubing, and various molded laboratory equipment.PolypropyleneRecycled into auto parts and industrial fibers.PolystyreneRecycled into a wide range of products including office accessories, cafeteria trays,toys, video cassettes and cases, insulation board and styrofoam.The coextruded plastics (more than 1 layers of plastics)….how to recycle???
7Benefits and Costs of Plastic Packaging Plastics have a weight & volume advantage over many other packaging materialsGermany Society for Research for Packaging Market estimates without plastics, the cost of packaging would be double and the volume of packaging would increase by 250%BUTThe use of plastic packaging raises several problems;Recycling rate of plastics is poormost plastics are subject to natural degradationPotential harmful off-gases when plastics are incinerateddoes not address overconsumption of natural resources
8From the following data, the largest component of waste is paper product (34.1% by weight), followed by plastics (19.9%)Example of materials in solid waste landfills by (a) volume and (b) weight(in recent year)
9Why Recycle Plastic?Conservation of non-renewable fossil fuels - Plastic production uses 8% of the world's oil production.Reduced consumption of energy.Reduced amounts of solid waste going to landfill.Reduced emissions of GHG9
23The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Video http://www. youtube. com/watch The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Video The Story of Bottled Water Video
24Recycling of PlasticsRefers to the reprocessing and refabricationof a material by a consumer or disposal of solid wasteThis type of recycle is called postconsumer recycle (PCR)- different with recycle (generally called regrind) of the scrap from manufacturing processReprocessing and refabrication of PCR involves several steps;CollectionHandling/sortingReclamation/sortingEnd-use fabrication
25How are plastics recycled? Plastics must be sorted prior to mechanical recycling.Most sorting for mechanical recycling is done by trained staff who manually sort the plastics into polymer type and/or colour.25
26Mechanical recycling of plastics refers to processes which involve the melting, shredding or granulation of waste plastics.The plastic is either melted down directly and molded into a new shape, or melted down after being shredded into flakes and than processed into granules called regranulate
27End Uses for PCR Comingled Sorted can be used in the same applications or other applicationsComingledCannot be recycled back into their original productThe most common product is plastic woodPCR plastic cannot be used in in medical and food-contacting applications due to danger of contamination and diseaseThermoplastic- can be reheated and reprocessed many times (with minor changes in resin properties)
29Recycling MetalNearly 55% of every aluminum can is made from recycled aluminum (American Recycler)• Recycling aluminum saves 95% of the energy required to process it from bauxite (the highest theoretical potential for saving energy)
31FACTS ABOUT ALUMINUM RECYCLING Aluminum is 100% recyclable!It is a sustainable metal, so aluminum can be recycled over and over again.Two-thirds of aluminum ever produced IS IN USE TODAY!Recycling 40 cans conserves the same energy as one gallon of gasoline.Recycled aluminum requires less energy, so it produces 95% LESS emissions, such as greenhouse gases.Nearly 55% of every aluminum can is made from recycled aluminum (American Recycler)Recycling one aluminum can saves the amount of energy to light one 100 watt bulb for 20 hours or run a TV for 3 hours.
32ECONOMIC BENEFITS Major Market Building and Construction consumes 12.6% of the total shipment of aluminumTransportation - 32%Consumer Durables - 6%Electrical - 6.7%Machinery & Equipment - 6.6%Containers & Packaging %
34Electronics – Quick Facts More than 140,000 tonnes of computer equipment, phones, televisions, stereos and small home appliances accumulate in Canadian landfills each yearThat’s equivalent to the weight of about 28,000 adult African elephants or enough uncrushed electronic waste to fill up the Rogers Centre every 15 years (Environment Canada)
35“E-waste” is a new and growing problem Disposed of in landfills, but should be treated as hazardous wasteSome people and businesses are trying to use and reuse electronics to reduce waste35
36How E-Waste is Recycled Video http://www. youtube. com/watch How E-Waste is Recycled Video The Story of Electronics Video
37But What About Europe? Very different policy framework Recycling strongly establishedStrong focus on hierarchyPrevention, reuse, recycling key elementsEU Target: by 2020, 50% of municipal solid waste and 70% of waste from construction, demolition, industry and manufacturing must be re-used or recycled.Netherlands currently at 66% diversionGermany at 65% diversionNew targets increase recycling, limit recovery
38Recycling has grown rapidly and can expand further 38
39Questions concerning the costs of recycling Should recycling programs be subsidized by governments even if they are run at an economic loss?What types of external costs—costs not reflected in market prices— do you think would be involved in not recycling, say, aluminum cans?Do you feel these costs justify sponsoring recycling programs even when they are not financially self-supporting? Why or why not?18-3939
40Recycling and composting are making rapid progress ConclusionModern methods of waste management are far safer for people and gentler on the environmentRecycling and composting are making rapid progressOur prodigious consumption habits have created more waste than ever beforeFinding ways to reduce, reuse and efficiently recycle the materials and goods that we use stands as a key challenge for this century18-404040
41QUESTION: ReviewAll of the following are three main components of waste management except:Minimizing the amount of waste we generateRecovering waste materials and finding ways to recycle themDisposing of waste safely and effectivelyAll of these are components of waste managementAnswer: d18-414141
42QUESTION: Review Within a sanitary landfill, waste is… Poured into deep wellsStored in large piles and then burnedBuried in the ground or piled up in large, carefully engineered moundsPut onto barges and shipped overseasAnswer: c18-424242
43QUESTION: ReviewWhat are some ways we can reduce the amount of items entering the waste stream?Donate used items to charityBuy groceries in bulkBuy rechargeable batteriesAll of the above are ways to reduce the waste streamAnswer: d18-434343
44QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data Which statement is false for this figure?Paper makes up most of the solid wasteCompostable material is a significant part of solid wasteGlass recycling would have the greatest impact on solid wasteMetals are part of solid wasteAnswer: c4444