On page 1012 read the quotation from Richard Nixon. On paper summarize the quotation and briefly explain what Nixon was saying.
Nixon won the 1968 election by gaining the support of the middle-class voters. Nixon referred this group the Silent Majority- the forgotten Americans, the non-shouters, the non-demonstrators. He promised to restore law and order and cutback on Democratic programs.
Discuss how President Nixons domestic policies differed from those of Presidents Johnson and Kennedy. Describe how Nixon responded to economic problems. Identify the causes and effects of the energy crisis. Summarize Americans efforts to help clean up the environment. Explain how Nixon made foreign-policy decisions.
Nixon wanted to cut the Great Society programs that were not reducing poverty here in the U.S. He thought the system had gotten out of control with to many people depending on welfare. The existing welfare program contained support to poverty families in the area of Medicaid and nutrition program. Family Assistance Plan: minimum income, adults had to participate in job training or job assignments, the federal government would assume the cost of the program which the states had the burden before. Some thought the FAP would continue to keep the families dependent on the federal government. The Senate voted down the FAP
Revenue sharing / block grants were proposed by Nixon called New Federalism- monies would be given to the states to decide how the money would be spent.
Kennedys and Johnsons Policies Nixons Policies Great Society programs expanded the welfare system and provided services to poor Americans. Proposed and supported civil rights legislation Increased government spending on social programs Wanted to reform welfare system by replacing the government provision of services with the Family Assistance Plan No new civil rights legislation. Pledged to cut back Democratic programs.
Nixon decided he wasnt going to introduce any new civil rights legislation, so to pacify the southern white Democrats. Nixon made a choice to back off desegregation in southern schools. By 1971, the Supreme Court ruled that busing could be used to integrate schools. Nixon did not support the ruling.
1969: Chief Justice Earl Warren retired and Nixon appointed justice Warren Burger to head the court. Harry Blackmun (became more liberal overtime) Lewis Powell William Rehnquist The three men above were appointed to the court.
In the 1970s the U.S. was seeing the outcome of overspending of the 1960s. Recession and rising unemployment were a concern for Nixon. Stagflation: combination of rising unemployment and inflation. August, 1971-to reduce inflation Nixon forced temporary freezes on rent, wages, and prices. Many people referred to these actions as Nixonomics. Nixon thought if he slowed down the inflation he would be re-elected in 1972. When he backed off the freezes, inflation topped 12 percent by 1974. Unemployment and Economics: between 1964- 1970,10.1 million baby boomers entered the job market.
1970- oil was a contributing factor of inflation and consumer concerns. 1973-Americans continued to grow more dependent on foreign oil after WII. Price Hikes: June of 1973 President Nixon warned, supply of domestic energy resources available to us is not keeping pace with our ever growing demand. October 1973: some Arab nations cut of oil shipments to the U.S. (embargo) The Arab nations were angry over the U.S. support of Israel in the Arab-Israeli War.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) The founding Arab countries decided to increase the price of a barrel of oil. By the winter of 1973-74 the U.S. was hit by an energy crisis. Electricity, gas, and heating oil rose rapidly. The energy crisis caused a panic in Americans and they started to hoard gas and other resources.
Choose a partner you can work with on this activity. With your partner create a comic strip that identifies the causes of the energy crisis of 1973-74. (example: oil embargo)
Nixon responded to the Energy Crisis by stepping up his commitment to reducing the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. He called for energy conservation by reducing the highway speed limit to 55 miles per hour, authorized construction of a pipeline to transport oil south from Alaska, and establishing Nuclear Energy.
When Nixon became President Americans were becoming concerned over the environment. Two events occurred that drove change: 1. 1969, oil spill off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, 2. April, 1970, Americans celebrated the first Earth Day. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): The EPA was authorized to enforce environmental standards and to assess the environmental impact of all federal projects before they were started. The agency also has to monitor air and water quality and pesticide levels. This broad mandate means that the EPA has to oversee some 200,000 businesses whose activities might pollute the environment. Many of these businesses protest the EPAs standards.
Two laws were passed to control pollution: Clean Air Act: air-quality standards and emissions guidelines for automakers. Water Quality Improvement Act: required oil companies to pay some of the cleanup costs for oil spills. 1972: set limits for discharge of industrial pollutants into water. 1973: Endangered Species Act, protect wildlife in danger of extinction.
Henry Kissinger: national security adviser for the Nixon administration. The Nixon-Kissinger approach: Realpolitik: or practical politics. This theory was guided by the idea of democracy and human rights – should lead U.S. foreign policy. The main outcome for the U.S. was to balance the five powers of the world. ( China, Soviet Union, Japan, U.S. and Western Europe)
February, 1972: Nixon decided to visit China to strengthen the relationship between the two countries. Another benefit was to continue splitting the Communist countries of China and the Soviet Union apart. Tensions between China and the Soviet Union increased dramatically during the 1960s. The Soviets claimed that Chinese troops had invaded Soviet territory some 90 times in early 1969. Some Soviet leaders feared a full-scale invasion, and at least one high official called for an attack on Chinas nuclear missile facilities.
May, 1972: Nixon flew to the Soviet Union to meet with Leonid Brezhnev. The outcome was known as détente: a lessening of military and diplomatic tensions between the countries. SALT-Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, reduction of nuclear missiles between the two continents. This didnt change the arms race between the two countries, but was a small step toward reducing a nuclear threat.
1970: Chilean leadership, Salvador Allende wanted to turn Chile into another Cuba. Nixon had the CIA disrupt the economic and political landscape of the country. By 1973, Chilean leadership was overthrown and pro-American military leadership was put in place. Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel continued to keep Arab states away from her borders. October, 1973: A surprise attack by Egypt and Syria on Israel during their religious holiday of Yom Kippur led to Israel to threaten an attack on Cairo, Egypt. It would take the superpowers to negotiate a cease-fire.