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Objective: To analyze the causes of World War I..

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Presentation on theme: "Objective: To analyze the causes of World War I.."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objective: To analyze the causes of World War I.

2 Causes of World War ICauses of World War I - MANIMANI ilitarism ilitarism – policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war llianceslliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one another ationalismationalism – pride in or devotion to ones country mperialism mperialism – when one country takes over another country economically and politically MANIA

3 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% Causes of WWI - M ilitarism Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s (British pounds).

4 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany

5 Chancellor of Germany, son of Wilhelm I. Believed Germany a military might. He wanted to show this to the world by selling his new war inventions, thus competing for world market domination. This is known as weltpolitik.

6 Weltpolitik Wilhelms foreign policy would promote a competitive Germany to the world through three areas: 1. Nationalism: Germanys culture, one of nearly a thousand years, would be on show for the world. 2. Imperialism: Germany was just a capable of building an empire like the British through its strong economy. 3.Survival of the Fittest: Wilhelm was determined to out- do the British in all areas of trade and foreign relations. In general, Wilhelm felt threatened by the imbalance of power the British held, particularly in terms of its navy. Germany was determined to pressure the British into an arms race.

7 Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz He was commissioned by Kaiser Willhelm II to make a challenge to Britain in the early 1900s to a ship building challenge. In less than 10 yrs the Germans built 29 battleships and the British built 49 Britain showed its world record Dreadnought in 1906.

8 Triple Entente: Triple Alliance: Causes of WWI - A lliances Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Great Britain France Russia

9 Causes of WWI - N ationalism

10 Pan-Germanism - movement to unify the people of all German speaking countries AustriaAustria * Belgium Denmark Iceland GermanyGermany * LiechtensteinLiechtenstein * Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Sweden SwitzerlandSwitzerland * United Kingdom * = German speaking country Germanic Countries

11 Causes of WWI - N ationalism Pan-Slavism - movement to unify all of the Slavic people

12 Imperial Overstretch Imperialism was beginning to take its toll on the British empire. By 1900, England was near financial ruin. Controlling one third of the earth was costing the British close to a trillion dollars. This becomes known as imperial overstretch. Reluctantly, the British begin relinquishing control of many of its colonies (ex. Canada, Australia) and began to concentrate on better relationships with its European neighbours. One country, Germany, has been left out of Britains touchy- feely colonial sharing. Kaiser Wilhelm: Germany must have its place in the sun, The world belongs to the strong.

13 Causes of WWI - I mperialism

14 Imperialism: European conquest of Africa

15 Imperial Overstretch Imperialism was beginning to take its toll on the British empire. By 1900, England was near financial ruin. Controlling one third of the earth was costing the British close to a trillion dollars. This becomes known as imperial overstretch. Reluctantly, the British begin relinquishing control of many of its colonies (ex. Canada, Australia) and began to concentrate on better relationships with its European neighbours. One country, Germany, has been left out of Britains touchy- feely colonial sharing. Kaiser Wilhelm: Germany must have its place in the sun, The world belongs to the strong.

16 The Entente Cordiale, a mutual agreement between Britain and France, resolved a number of longstanding colonial disputes, and established a diplomatic understanding between the two countries. Openly, the agreement did not support each nation militaristically, however there were secret articles that ensured each other protection against an attack, especially from Germany.

17 Germany saw the signing of this highly publicized event as a threat. They always wanted to isolate Britain and France, and now this was impossible. As a result, Germany began to strengthen its Navy.

18 Because of Russias impeding empire in the Balkans, Great Britain became afraid that Russia might ally with Germany. Since Englands Edward VII and Russias Nicholas II were cousins, England asked Russia to form an alliance that would allow Russia to have access to the Eastern Balkans (Serbia) without any British interference.

19 Austria, a monarchy, felt threatened by Russias agreement with Britain so they asked Russia to focus on expansion in the Eastern Balkans and leave the Western Balkans (Bosnia) to Austria as they wanted to eliminate nationalism there. Russia also opposed nationalism so it allied itself with Austria, thus forming the Austro Russian Entente which would give both nations control in the Balkans.

20 Germany now felt threatened by the alliances. On one side, Germany was surrounded by Britain and France. On the other, by Russia ( Encirclement). Germany felt that it must gain support. It signs an agreement with Austria in Germany then goes to the Ottomans for naval support. Russia feels threatened so it steps up its navy. In 1911, Germany is forced to concentrate its foreign policy on affairs at home. It restructured its economy to build strong armed forces. By 1912, Germany becomes the most industrialized nation, surpassing Britain.

21 The July Crisis

22 June 28, 1914 On this date, the Austrian heir to the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand II, was on a goodwill mission to Bosnia to try and sway the breakaway republic to return to Austria. Unfortunately, he was assassinated by a member of the Serbian terrorist group the Black Hand, Gavrilo Princip.

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29 Austria now wants a war with Serbia. Germany offered support to Austria and prepared for a preventative war, not wanting to be the aggressor. Other nations did the same. Austrias Prime Minister, Count Berchtold, with strong support of German Prime Minister Hollweg, sent an ultimatum to Serbia demanding retribution for the Dukes assassination before July 23, 1914 or they will attack Serbia. The ultimatum was far reaching….on purpose Hollweg: Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept … Berchtold: Were the Serbs to agree to all the demands, this would not be to my liking Serbia believedand Austria fearedRussia would help Serbia even though this was a violation of the AustroRussian Entente. Russia saw opportunity.. July 23 came… and went….

30 July 28, 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia.

31 The Austrian Declaration of War Vienna 28 July 1914 The Royal Serbian Government not having answered in a satisfactory manner the note of July 23, 1914, presented by the Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, the Imperial and Royal Government are themselves compelled to see to the safeguarding of their rights and interests, and, with this object, to have recourse to force of arms. Austria-Hungary consequently considers herself henceforward in state of war with Serbia. Count Berchtold

32 August 1, 1914 Germany declares war on Russia.

33 August 3, 1914 Germany declares war on France, because they are encircled and because of the AngloRussian Entente.

34 August 4, 1914 Great Britain declares war on Germany, because of the EntenteCordiale. When Britain enters the war, it truly becomes global because all of her colonies had to fight.

35 The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinands death and declared war on Serbia. Germany pledged their support for Austria - Hungary. · example of Pan-German nationalism Russia pledged their support for Serbia. · example of Pan-Slavic nationalism

36 The Point of No Return: The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.

37 World War I Allied Powers: Central Powers: Great Britain France Russia Italy Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire


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