Presentation on theme: "Cassava value chain development linking small-holder farmers and processors to markets Andrew Westby, Kolawole Adebayo, Lateef Sanni, Nanam Dziedzoave,"— Presentation transcript:
Cassava value chain development linking small-holder farmers and processors to markets Andrew Westby, Kolawole Adebayo, Lateef Sanni, Nanam Dziedzoave, Vito Sanifolo, Grace Mahende, Francis Alacho, Andrew Graffham, Louise Adeyomi, Helena Posthumus, Adrienne Martin, Rory Hillocks, Lora Forsythe, Richard Lamboll, Paul Ilona, Adebayo Abass Partners: Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Linking smallholders to markets Increasing small-holder incomes. Contributing to food security. Share lessons mainly from the Cassava: Adding Value for Africa Project. Not the only approach
Cassava: Adding Value for Africa project Five year project starting in 2008. Five countries (Ghana, Nigeria, Uganda, Tanzania and Malawi). Each country coordinated by a small national team. Development and not research project. Supported by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
C:AVA is a partnership project Led by NRI Over 75 partners of different types: –One lead partner per country –IITA –NGOs/public sector involved in extension with rural level farmers/processors –Farmers associations –Other technical support organizations –Technical experts
Our Vision... A vibrant and competitive High Quality Cassava Flour industry based on market-led efficient production and processing which leads to a reduction in rural poverty
C:AVA – the model Village levelIntermediateEnd User/Industry Farmer(s) / Group– sells fresh roots Processor/ bulking agent -Peel -Grate -Dry -Mill -Bulk -Sell Farmer(s) – processors – Pressed wet cake Farmer(s) – processors – Cassava grits End users/Industry -Wheat millers -Bakeries -Biscuit makers -Traditional food products -Plywood/ -Paperboard Roots Grits Cake Ensure a consistent supply of raw material (Village level) Ensure financially viable intermediaries (Intermediary) Support end users to adopt high quality cassava flour (End user/industry)
C:AVA framework Village Processing Units Bakeries – replacing wheat with HQCF Farmers/Farmer Processors Grow cassava and sell semi-processed product to intermediary Intermediaries (private sector) Semi- processed product HQCF Roots Grated roots Value chain Benefits Rural areas - Increased farmer incomes - Employment Intermediaries - Business opportunity - Employment End-users: - Increased profitability - Lower consumer prices Nationally - Reduced imports Main inputs - Business development services - Financial services - Technical support in processing - Ensure quality -Technical support in adopting HQCF -Financial services - Support farmer organisations - Increase cassava productivity - Support Village Processing Units - Ensure quality Service providers capacity strengthening Food processing industry using HQCF
Overall progress Established value chains in each of the C:AVA countries. Increasing production of HQCF and other products. Increasing numbers of beneficiaries Improved planting and agronomic practices increased yields greater than national averages.
HQCF production per year in East African countries
HQCF production per year in West African countries
Yield differences in the C:AVA operating areas and national averages
Lessons learnt Need multi-point interventions in the value chain, which may differ by location and time. Partnerships have been essential to progress made. Facilitation of the value chain is very important – provision of equipment and training is not sufficient Public – private partnerships essential to success. National ownership is very important.
Lessons learned Rural level production and processing Intermediary bulking/secondary processing Industry/end users One model, different contexts
Nigeria Produce/sell roots or wet cake Flash drying Main uses: -Wheat flour replacement -Confectionaries
Ghana Produce/sell roots or wet cake Sun dried grits Bin drying Main uses: -Glue extender for plywood -Bakery
Tanzania Produce dried grits Bulking marketing Main uses: -Sale as HQCF -Biscuit use -Food industry
Uganda Bulking, milling and marketing Main uses: -Domestic consumption -Biscuits -Bakeries -Paperboard Produce grits or flour
Malawi Produce/sell roots Groups Produce grits and flour Main uses: -Village bakeries Entrepreneurs Produce grits and flour
Gender and diversity – C:AVAs approach C:AVA approach designed to integrate gender and diversity C:AVA emphasised understanding gender and diversity in each country context: how project outputs and plans would affect and be affected. factors promoting participation. contribute to organisational learning / training and capacity needs. Analysis of gender and diversity along value chain analysis at individual, household, farmer and village-based processor group levels through to SMEs, market traders and end users gender and diversity audit of partner organisations and service providers gender and diversity aspects included in baseline studies
Gender and diversity – C:AVAs approach Monitoring of gender and diversity in project activities – indicators disaggregated by sex and diversity; e.g. membership of farmer and processor groups, participation in training, employment, leadership positions monitoring at household level, the impact of engaging in new products and markets on livelihoods, gender relations and food security COUNTRYOPERATION% WOMEN TanzaniaSun-drying76 UgandaSun-drying60 MalawiSun-drying73
Gender and diversity lessons Importance of appropriate location and timing of training and information activities for village women Flexibility in working hours and availability of transport increases womens ability to work in enterprises. Some limits to womens ability to exploit new opportunities due to lack of control over their labour Womens access to their own plots gave them greater control over budget decisions, cost of production and access to income Increase in processing opportunities are empowering women, although there are some cases of tension. Labour, time and capital requirements of new technologies require particular scrutiny if poorer individuals and groups are to participate. Mens participation in processing groups has increased, particularly working with proc essing equipment.
Policy environment Nigeria 2007/8 Change in Government – less favourbale policy environment. SME activity collapses. Main C:AVA activities: alternative markets; policy advocacy for HQCF inclusion in wheat. 2011/12 New Minister Change in Government policies – Government advocacy for HQCF Main C:AVA activities: Price competitiveness of HQCF through (a) fair pricing (b) improved flash drying; market linkages
Quality assurance and management Partnership with UNBS who carried out inspections and audits. Partnership with end-user markets (biscuit, agri-foods, paperboard) who sent their quality control officers. Training of processors on quality management. Development of schedules, instructions and records to provide documentary evidence of quality management. Setting up model processing prototypes. Interventions to assure quality in Uganda
Markets Potential HQCF markets as identified by the value chain study in Malawi (2009) Market segment Wheat flour demand (t/yr) Estimated HQCF HQCF prices (MK/ton) HQCF supply chain Price drivers Millers490004900 (10%)168,000ArtificialWheat flour processing costs Rural retail360007200 (20%)189,000sundriedProcessing and transportation Biscuit100002500 (25%)144,000artificialCost of wheat flour Paper board 750+reqional markets 750 (100%)224,000artificialCost of corn starch & delivery cost Other7878 (100%)224000artificialCost of corn starch & delivery Total9907815428
Technology 156 flash-dryers (FD) in 127 SMEs 86% of FDs poor – 11% efficiency, Output 103kg/hr 374 litres diesel/tonne 14% FDs - 32% efficiency, Output 96kg, 132 litres diesel per tonne International standard: Efficiency 50%, 200kg/hr 76-80 litres diesel per tonne New design FD: 49% efficiency, Output 202kg/hr, 86 litres diesel per tonne Double output - saving $63,000/yr when compared to old models for comparable output Upgrade existing FD – 41% efficiency, Output 138kg/hr, 103 litres diesel per tonne Flash dryer improvements Before 2011After 2011
Technology Graters and presses found in the market were poor quality and break down after a few days of use Practical hands-on training organised for equipment fabricators with Nigerian commercial expertise C:AVA supported processing groups with newly fabricated improved food grade equipment Equipment upgrades in East Africa
Profitability and price competitiveness
HQCF alone? C:AVA scope has been broadened to look at related products. C:AVA model is potentially applicable to other cassava product value chains. Examined new market opportunities for a wider range of products in Uganda and Tanzania (Example of Tanzania)
Market segmentCassava product Current marketShort term market (t/annum) Long term market (t/annum) Wheat millsHQCF0017,500 - 35,000 BakeriesHQCFLimited150-3002,300 – 4,700 BiscuitsHQCF50-1001,000 – 2,0005,000 – 10,000 Home useHQCFLimited1,000-2,50011,000 - 25,000 Small-scale millsGrits/chipsLimited1,30050,000 Animal feedChips/grits10-151,00040,000-45,000 Clear beerImproved makopa 001,000 – 2,400 Traditional beerImproved makopa 090010,000-12,000 StarchFresh root00228,000 Markets identified for cassava products in Tanzania (2012)
C:AVA is now more than a project Additional research funding (2 projects from European Commission; 3 million Euro each): –Research issues raised in C:AVA (FSTP funded CassavaGMarkets). Climate change Brown-streak New uses of HQCF Improved small-scale drying Quality management Impacts on food security and gender –Reduce losses in value chain and added value to waste products (Framework 7 - GRATITUDE ).
Future prospects Undertake impact studies in each country. Future growth in HQCF markets. Need for processing technology between sun- drying and a flash dryer. Impact of climate change. Application of the C:AVA approach to other cassava product value chains. Strong linkages with initiatives on seed systems and breeding.