6Little bit of history Polysilicon suppliers ===►Semiconductor industry Stable supply chain for 40 yearsPolysilicon proposition was higher than demand =►low pricePhotovoltaic industry emerges =►demand increasesSemiconductor polysilicon demand up 15% and Photovoltaic polysilicon demand up 45% resulted in shortage of polysilicon on the marketPolysilicon price grew from $30 per kg in 2004 to $ per kg in 2006
92006 AnnouncementsExisting polysilicon producers have announced plans to invest $5 billion to construct new production facilities over the next 5 yearsNew companies employing technological variations of existing technology have announced investments of $4.4 billion in new facilities over the next 5 yearsNew companies employing new technologies have announced plans to invest $1.1 billion over the next 5 years
10Polysilicon Supply vs Demand Forecast Scenarios of PV industry growth:(1) Moderate growth 32%,(2) Anticipated growth 42%,(3) Accelerated growth 46%.
11Home Power Magazine Solar Wind Water Design Build.mht Solar cellsHome Power Magazine Solar Wind Water Design Build.mhtMarch,12,2008Solar cells convert the solar energy to electrical energy through the “Photovoltaic” phenomenon.The photovoltaic phenomenon occurs when light incident on a material liberates electrons from their orbit.Electrons are free to move and constitute an electric currentSolar cells are used in arrays to satisfy voltage and/or current requirements which can not be achieved using a single solar cell.
12Solar Cell Fabrication There are three types of crystalline solar cells:- Single-crystal silicon.- Polycrystalline silicon.- Gallium Arsenide.polycrystalline silicon solar cells produce slightly lower efficiencies (highest reported efficiency for polycrystalline silicon is 20.3% vs 24.7% for single crystalline silicon).However they are cheaper and stronger and therefore can be made thinner.
13Solar Cell Fabrication Gallium Arsenide solar cells have higher efficiencies (25.1%) but high fabrication costs.Limited to smaller scale systems.The available technology facilitates the mass production of polycrystalline silicon solar cells in comparison to Gallium Arsenide solar cells.
14Solar Cell Fabrication Small grain boundaries limits the efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar cells.The invented technique fabricates large grain polycrystalline silicon which will increase the efficiency.The invented technique occurs at low temperature.The increase in efficiency does not involve the increase in price.
15Market of Solar CellsOil prices are increasing creates a rise in the demand for renewable energy sources.Profit from solar cells can be explained by the fact that solar cells have no running cost.Solar cells generate enough revenue to match their installation cost in approximately 3 to 4 yearsSolar cells have a lifespan of around 25 years.
16Market of Solar CellsThe current cost of solar cells it averages at about 5 dollars per peak watt.The cost of the auxiliary devices such as batteries,etc. when included the price becomes dollars per peak watt.In September 2007 Colorado State University reported solar panels for as less as $1 per watt.
23Market SizeThe global market for solar cells is expected to increase from $12,908.8 million in 2007 to $32,252.3 million in 2012 (a compound annual growth rate of 14.9% ).The percentage of the solar cells market designated to silicon is 89 % in 2007 dropping slightly to a significant 79% by 2013.
25The Top 5 companies of Photovoltaic Sharp Solar (Japan) .Q-Cells (Germany).Kyocera (Japan).Suntech (China).Sanyo (Japan)
26Application to Thin FilmTransistor(TFT) for Flat Panel Display(FPD) Yanze Xie
27Outline FPD market space -Introduction & market context; -Size and growth.Technology matches to the market-Perfective;-Continuous ;-Immediate.
28Introduction FPD is both product and technology Main technologies include-Liquid-crystal display (LCD);-Organic light-emitting diode display (OLED);-Plasma display panel (PDP).Customer of TFT are LCD &OLEDCustomer of the new technology is TFTMarket of our product = market of LCD &OLED
29Market Context FPD grew slowly starting from early last decade Cathode ray tube (CRT) had been leading the market2005 saw the first time surpassing, and account for > 50% overall display marketProspective market analysis are positiveAlmost all large-area FPD manufacturing is in Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and more recently China
30Promotion of TFT-LCD industry, value increase in last decade. Size and Growth-1Historical research shown an increase of TFT-LCD industry in the last decadeFrom 0 in 1992, Taiwan industry value had reached $2 billion in 2000.Promotion of TFT-LCD industry, value increase in last decade.(http://www.itri.org.tw/eng/research/cno/re-cno-b003.jsp update to 1/18/2008)
31Size and Growth-2 Same growing paced by world wide market Figure right: 25% grow rate on FPD market was prospectedGrowth confirmed by report from micro- magazine: 80% of FPD market is owned by LCD, by the year 2007Scale and prospects of the global FPD product market. (http://www.itri.org.tw/eng/news/commentary-show.jsp)
32Size and Growth-3 Another top customer for TFT is OLED Spent years to catch up with LCD, finally close the distanceMarket forecasts was $520m according to iSuppli, $491m to DisplaySearch 2005; or about 10% growth over 2004Figure left-prospect for ww OLED marketProspect for the worldwide OLED panel market,(iSuppli Corp, Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays, 1H 2006)
33Quartered-year look at OLED market share. Size and Growth-4This figure provide a clear look of OLED market sharingThe clear leader of OLED market in 2005-Taiwan (27m units)-Korea (22m units)-Japan (8m units)Quartered-year look at OLED market share.
34Technology tips for the market -perfective match Active-matrix LCD (AMLCD) dominates the LCD segment, which has 80% of FPD marketIn AM-LCD, each pixel is controlled by its own transistor switchTraditional fabs these switches on a-Si filmPolysilicon TFT advances of a-Si TFT, see right table
35Technology tips for the market -continuous match OLED is advanced of LCD most fundamentally by looking great, image right is OLED in 2005OLED no need backlight making thinner, so more applicationsOperating speed 100 times higher than LCDAll made possible by using 2-5 TFT per pixel - exponential needSamsung Developed 21" OLED Panel for Digital TV in (http://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showthread.php)
36Technology tips for the market -immediate match FPD has extremely competitive and price sensitive market updateCost control involve most material reduction – units cost and processingMajor strategy planed to focused on technology of LCD and FPD advancementA successive low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) process would achieve FPD significant advantage.
37Technology tips for the market -immediate match (cont.) Successive LTPS process would- Lead to transistor fabs ~100 folded mobility than a-Si TFT;- Allow smaller TFTs and higher aperture ration;- Enable the direct integration of LCD driver circuits onto the substrate and lowe costs;- Lead to higher luminance and contrastVariety more other LCD applications: notebook and desktop PCs monitors, cell phones, etc.
38MEMS MARKET eed.gsfc.nasa.gov/562/SA_MEMs.htm, ma
39Polysilicon film in MEMS device fabrication Source:
40MEMS application in biomedical industry MEMS application in automotive industryGoogle images.com