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Organization of Electricity MarketsDaniel Kirschen
Differences between electricity and other commoditiesElectricity is inextricably linked with a physical delivery system Physical delivery system operates much faster than any market Generation and load must be balanced at all times Failure to balance leads to collapse of system Economic consequences of collapse are enormous Balance must be maintained at almost any cost Physical balance cannot be left to a market © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Differences between electricity and other commoditiesElectricity produced by different generators is pooled Generator cannot direct its production to some consumers Consumer cannot choose which generator produces its load Electrical energy produced by all generators is indistinguishable Pooling is economically desirable A breakdown of the system affects everybody © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Differences between electricity and other commoditiesDemand for electricity exhibits predictable daily, weekly and seasonal variations Similar to other commodities (e.g. coffee) Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities Must be consumed when it is produced Production facilities must be able to meet peak demand Very low price elasticity of the demand in the short run Demand curve is almost vertical © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Balancing supply and demandDemand side: Fluctuations in the needs Errors in forecast Supply side: Disruption in the production Spot market: Provides an easy way of bridging the gap between supply and demand Spot market is used for adjustments Spot market is the market of last resort © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Spot market for electrical energyDemand side: Errors in load forecast Supply side: Unpredicted generator outages Gaps between load and generation must be filled quickly Market mechanisms Too slow Too expensive Need fast communication Need to reach lots of participants © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
“Managed” spot market Balance load and generationRun by the system operator to maintain the security of the system Must operate on a sound economic basis Use competitive bids for generation adjustments Should ideally accept demand-side bids Determine a cost-reflective spot price Not a true market because price is not set through interactions of buyers and sellers Indispensable for treating electricity as a commodity © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
“Managed” spot market Managed Spot Market System operator Generationsurplus deficit Load Managed Spot Market System operator Control actions Spot price Bids to increase production load decrease © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
“Managed” spot market Also known as:Reserve market Balancing mechanism As technology and confidence continue to improve, the frequency of these markets keeps increasing 1 day to 1 hour to 5 minutes © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Other markets Well-functioning spot market is essentialEnsures that imbalances will be settled properly Makes the development of other markets possible Most participants want more certainty because the spot price is volatile Trade ahead of the spot market on forward markets to reduce risks Forward markets must close before the managed spot market © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Forward markets Two approaches: Centralized trading – Pool tradingDecentralized trading - Bilateral trading © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Pool trading All producers submit bids to the market operatorAll consumers submit offers to the market operator Market operator determines successful bids and offers and the market price In many electricity pools, the demand side is passive. A forecast of demand is used instead. © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of pool tradingBids and offers in the Electricity Pool of Syldavia for the period from 9:00 till 10:00 on 11 June: © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of pool trading© 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of pool tradingAccepted offers Accepted bids Quantity traded Market price © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of pool tradingMarket price: $/MWh Volume traded: 450 MWh © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Unit commitment-based pool tradingReasons for not treating each market period separately: Operating constraints on generating units Minimum up and down times, ramp rates Savings achieved through scheduling Start-up and no-load costs Reduce risk for generators Uncertainty on generation schedule leads to higher prices © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Pool Trading using Unit CommitmentMinimum Cost Schedule Load Forecast Unit Commitment Program Generators Bids Market Prices © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Generator Bids All units are bid separately Components:piecewise linear marginal price curve start-up price parameters (min MW, max MW, min up, min down,...) Bids do not have to reflect costs Bidding very low to “get in the schedule” is allowed © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Load Forecast Load is usually treated as a passive market participantAssume that there is no demand response to prices MW Time © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Generation Schedule MW Time© 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Marginal Units Most expensive unit needed to meet the load at each period MW Time © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Market price Bid from marginal unit sets the market clearing price at each period System Marginal Price (SMP) All energy traded through the pool during that period is bought and sold at that price MW Time © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Why trade all energy at the SMP?Why not pay the generators what they bid? Cheaper generators would not want to “leave money on the table” Would try to guess the SMP and bid close to it Occasional mistakes get left out of the schedule Increased uncertainty increase in price © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Bilateral trading Bilateral trading is the classical form of tradingInvolves only two parties: Seller Buyer Trading is a private arrangement between these parties Price and quantity negotiated directly between these parties Nobody else is involved in the decision © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Bilateral trading Unlike pool trading, there is no “official price”Occasionally facilitated by brokers or electronic market operators Takes different forms depending on the time scale © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Types of bilateral tradingCustomized long-term contracts Flexible terms Negotiated between the parties Duration of several months to several years Advantage: Guarantees a fixed price over a long period Disadvantages: Cost of negotiations is high Worthwhile only for large amounts of energy © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Types of bilateral trading“Over the Counter” trading Smaller amounts of energy Delivery according to standardized profiles Advantage: Much lower transaction cost Used to refine position as delivery time approaches © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Types of bilateral tradingElectronic trading Buyers and sellers enter bids directly into computerized marketplace All participants can observe the prices and quantities offered Automatic matching of bids and offers Participants remain anonymous Market operator handles the settlement Advantages: Very fast Very cheap Good source of information about the market © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of bilateral tradingGenerating units owned by Borduria Power: © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of bilateral tradingTrades of Borduria Power for 11 June from 2:00 pm till 3:00 pm Net position: Sold 570 MW Production capacity: 750 MW © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of bilateral tradingPending offers and bids on Borduria Power Exchange at mid-morning on 11 June for the period from 2:00 till 3:00 pm: © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of bilateral tradingElectronic trades made by Borduria Power: Net position: Sold 630 MW Self schedule: Unit A: 500 MW Unit B: 130 MW Unit C: 0 MW © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of bilateral tradingUnexpected problem: unit B can only generate 80 MW Options: - Do nothing and pay the spot price for the missing energy - Make up the deficit with unit C - Trade on the power exchange Buying is cheaper than producing with C New net position: Sold 580 MW New schedule: A: 500 MW, B: 80 MW, C: 0 MW © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Pool vs. bilateral tradingUnusual because administered centrally Price not transparent Facilitates security function Makes possible central optimization Historical origins in electricity industry Bilateral Economically purer Price set by the parties Hard bargaining possible Generator assume scheduling risk Must be coordinated with security function More opportunities to innovate Both forms of trading can coexist to a certain extent © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Bidding in managed spot marketBorduria Power’s position: Borduria Power’s spot market bids: Spot market assumed imperfectly competitive Bids/offers can be higher/lower than marginal cost © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Settlement process Pool trading: Bilateral trading:Market operator collects from consumers Market operator pays producers All energy traded at the pool price Bilateral trading: Bilateral trades settled directly by the parties as if they had been performed exactly Managed spot market: Produced more or consumed less receive spot price Produced less or consumed more pay spot price © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Example of settlement 11 June between 2:00 pm and 3:00 pmSpot price: $/MWh Unit B of Borduria Power could produce only 10 MWh instead of 80 MWh Borduria Power thus had a deficit of 70 MWh for this hour 40 MW of Borduria Power’s spot market bid of 50 MW at $/MWh was called by the operator © 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
Borduria Power’s Settlement© 2011 D. Kirschen and the University of Washington
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