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KRUGMAN'S MICROECONOMICS for AP* Factor Markets: Introduction and Factor Demand Margaret Ray and David Anderson Econ: 69 Module.

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Presentation on theme: "KRUGMAN'S MICROECONOMICS for AP* Factor Markets: Introduction and Factor Demand Margaret Ray and David Anderson Econ: 69 Module."— Presentation transcript:

1 KRUGMAN'S MICROECONOMICS for AP* Factor Markets: Introduction and Factor Demand Margaret Ray and David Anderson Econ: 69 Module

2 What you will learn in this Module : How factors of productionresources like land, labor, and capitalare traded in factor markets. How factor markets determine the factor distribution of income. How the demand for a factor of production is determined.

3 I. Factors of Production A.Labor B.Land C.Capital D.Entrepreneurship Also known as inputs or resources

4 II. Factor Prices A.Factor prices allocate resources among producers B.The demand for a factor of production is a derived demand Ex. the demand for nurses is derived from the demand for the services that nurses provide. As the US population ages, the demand for medical care, which certainly includes nursing services, rises and thus the demand for nurses rises. C.Most people get the largest share of their income from factor markets

5 III. Marginal Productivity and Factor Demand A.Marginal product (MP) is the additional output produced as a result of hiring an additional unit of a factor of production. For example, MP L = additional output from hiring an additional worker. B.The value of the marginal product (VMP) is the value of the additional output produced as a result of hiring an additional unit of a factor. For example, VMP L = MP L x P. C.The VMP curve is the demand curve for a factor (with a perfectly competitive labor market).

6 D.If W is a constant wage. 1.Hire a worker if: VMP L >= W. 2.Never hire a worker if: VMP L < W. 3.Stop hiring workers up to the point where: VMP L = W. 4.This is the profit-maximizing hiring decision for ANY factor of production. The last unit of any factor is hired when the value of its marginal product is exactly equal to the marginal cost of hiring it. 5.The Law of Demand also applies in factor markets. As the price of a factor increases, firms hire less of that factor (and as the price of a factor falls, firms hire less of that factor). 6.The VMP L curve serves as the demand for labor. For any factor, the VMP curve serves as the demand curve for that factor of production.

7 IV. What Causes the Factor Demand Curve to Shift? A.Changes in the prices of goods B. Changes in the supply of other factors C.Changes in technology Units of Labor VMP = D W and VMPL

8 KRUGMAN'S MICROECONOMICS for AP* The Markets for Land and Capital Margaret Ray and David Anderson Econ: 70 Module

9 What you will learn in this Module : How to determine demand and supply in the markets for land and capital. How to find equilibrium in the capital and land markets. How the demand for factors leads to the marginal productivity theory of income distribution.

10 I. Demand in the Markets for Capital and Land A.The price (marginal cost) of capital or land is the rental rate (R) B.Firms hire capital or land up to the point where VMP = R

11 II. Supply in the Markets for Capital and Land A.The supply curve for capital and land is upward sloping. B.The supply of land is inelastic (very steep)– only so many square miles of land available.

12 III. Equilibrium in the Markets for Capital and Land Supply and demand in factor markets work very much like supply and demand in product markets.

13 IV. Marginal Productivity Theory A.If all factor markets are in equilibrium, the last unit employed is paid a wage (or rental rate) equal to the value of the marginal product. These equilibrium factor prices determine the distribution of factor income shown in Module 69. B.Because labors share of factor income is about 70%, it must be the case that labors value of the marginal product is greater than the other factors land and capital. – VMP L > VMP capital or land

14 KRUGMAN'S MICROECONOMICS for AP* The Market for Labor Margaret Ray and David Anderson Econ: 71 Module

15 What you will learn in this Module : The way in which a workers decision about time preference gives rise to labor supply. How to find equilibrium in the perfectly competitive labor market. How equilibrium in the labor market is determined if either the product, or the factor, market is not perfectly competitive.

16 I. The Supply of labor A.Work versus leisure 1.Benefit of one hour of work: a wage that can be used to consume goods and services that provide utility. 2.Cost of one hour of work: the utility that could be gained from leisure. The price of leisure is the wage a person gives up. B.Wages and labor supply 1.If wages rise, more people supply labor resulting in an upward labor supply curve

17 The Supply of labor Cont. C. Substitution effect 1.People will work more because wages are higher D. Income effect 1.People will consume more hours of leisure because they are making enough money regardless Hours of work (week) IE>SE, downward sloping SE>IE, upward sloping Labor supply Hourly wage Backward bending

18 II. Shifts of the Labor Supply Curve A.Changes in preferences and social norms (women after WWII) B.Changes in population (baby boomers, immigration) C.Changes in opportunities (health services) D.Changes in wealth (value of assets home, stocks, mutual funds)

19 III. Equilibrium in the Labor Market A.Up to this point we have assumed that both the product and labor markets are perfectly competitive B.There are differences when either the product market or labor market is not perfectly competitive Quantity of Labor (workers) Market Labor Demand Market Labor Supply Wage W* E*

20 IV. Imperfect Competition in the Product Market A.Recall that MR < P with imperfect competition. That means the value of the marginal product = MP x MR. B.With imperfect competition the value of the marginal product is called marginal revenue product (MRP). MRP = MP x MR Quantity of Labor (workers) Wage W* Em MRPL VMPL Ec

21 V. Imperfect Competition in the Labor Market A.A monoposony is a single buyer of a factor of production. B.With imperfect competition in a factor market, MFC > W Quantity of Labor (workers) Wage 3 MFCL Labor Supply $12 $10

22 VI. Equilibrium with Imperfect Competition A.Monopsony power allows firms to pay a wage below MRP Quantity of Labor (workers) Wage E* MFCL Labor Supply W* MRPL MRP

23 KRUGMAN'S MICROECONOMICS for AP* Theories of Income Distribution Margaret Ray and David Anderson Econ: 73 Module

24 What you will learn in this Module : Labor market applications of the marginal productivity theory of income distribution. Sources of wage disparities, including the role of discrimination.

25 I. The Marginal productivity Theory of Income Distribution A.According to MP theory, the division of income among factors of production is determined by MP Can we use MP theory to explain why some workers are paid more than others?

26 II. Marginal Productivity and Wage Inequality A.Compensating differentials – Chicago police officer makes more than a DP police officer B.Differences in talent – More money for a more talented chef, baseball player C.Human capital – More education

27 III. Other Sources of Wage inequality A.Market Power – Large groups like Unions can raise wages B.Efficiency Wages – People are paid too much for the work they do. Employers cannot prove exactly what an employee is worth. Employees do not want to quit. Acts like a Price Floor and creates a surplus of workers who wish to have this job. C.Discrimination – Some laws try to prevent this


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