Presentation on theme: "The Two Settlement System and Virtual Bidding in Electricity Markets &"— Presentation transcript:
1The Two Settlement System and Virtual Bidding in Electricity Markets & Financial Transmission RightsDr G. C. Ejebe, Fellow IEEEUniversity of MinnesotaGraduate Power Seminar1
22-Settlement & Virtual Bidding : Presentation Outline Two Energy Market basics• Day-Ahead Market• Real-Time Market• Day-Ahead and Real-Time Market interactionsVirtual Bidding• Increment offers (incs) and decrement bids (decs)• Roles of incs and decsVirtual Bidding ExamplesFinancial Transmission Rights in Energy Markets
3FERC Requires Energy Markets Federal Energy Regulatory Commission(FERC) developed Standard Market Design initiative requiring:Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to implement two markets:a day-ahead (DA) market anda real-time (RT) balancingPJM, NYISO, ISONE, MISOCAISO (2009) ERCOT(2010)
4Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Operators(RTOs) CAISO ,124 MW 25,526 miles Tx 30mISO-NE , , mMidwest ISO 144, , mNYISO , , mPJM , , mSPP , , mERCOT , , m
5ISO/RTO FunctionsCoordinate Movement of Wholesale Electricity in footprintEnsure Grid ReliabilityEfficient Grid Dispatch with Price TransparencyMarket Monitoring & Market FlexibilityLiquidity in the MarketplaceDemand Response DevelopmentEase of Entry and Private InvestmentGreen Power Added to GridLong term regional transmission planning
6Two Energy Markets Day-Ahead Energy Market – Develop day-ahead schedule using least-cost security constrained unit commitment and dispatch– Calculate hourly LMPs for next operating day usinggeneration offers, demand bids and bilateral transaction schedules– Objective is to develop set of financial schedules that are physically feasibleReal-Time Energy Market– Calculate hourly LMPs based on actual systemoperating conditions
7Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) LMPs are determined by a linear programming OPFMinimizes total energy costs subject to a set of constraints reflecting physical limitations of the power system.There are three components of LMPs:LMP ($/MW) = Energy component + Loss component + Congestion componentThe energy component is the same for all locations.The loss component reflects the marginal cost of system losses specific to each location,The congestion component represents the individual location’s marginal transmission congestion cost.The energy component is the cost of providing an additional MW of energy to the distributed market reference bus, assuming optimally dispatched generation
8Day Ahead Energy Market A Day-ahead hourly forward market for energyProvides the option to obtain increased certainty:– Purchase of MW at Day-ahead prices– Sale of MW at Day-ahead prices– Day-ahead congestionInputs to DA MarketPrice-sensitive demandIncrement offersDecrement bidsCapacity Resources must submit offers in DAParticipation by load is optional
9Reserve Adequacy Assessment Designed to ensure adequate generating resources to meet forecast actual load in real timeAdditional generating resources scheduled after day-ahead market clearsBased on RTO load forecast, physical generation assets,actual transaction schedules (net tie schedules)RTO operating reserve requirementsVirtual bids and offers not includedAny additional unit commitment is based on minimizing cost to provide additional reserves (minimize startup and no-load costs)RAA performed after DA Market run5
10Two Energy Market Settlement Day-Ahead Market Settlement– Based on scheduled hourly MW quantities and day ahead LMPsReal-Time (Balancing) Market Settlement– Based on hourly MW quantity deviations betweenreal-time and day-ahead MW quantity deviations– Settled at real-time LMPs
11Day-Ahead Market Implications Day-ahead schedules are financially bindingDemand scheduled day-ahead– Pays day-ahead LMP for day-ahead MW scheduled– Pays real-time LMP for actual MW above scheduled– Paid real-time LMP for actual MW below scheduledGeneration scheduled day-ahead– Paid day-ahead LMP for day-ahead MW scheduled– Paid real-time LMP for actual MW above scheduled– Pays real-time LMP for actual MW below scheduled
12Virtual BiddingVirtual Bidding is a market mechanism that allows Market Participants to purchase (or sell) power in the Day Ahead Market with the explicit requirement that they sell (or buy back) same amount of power in the Real Time MarketPurely financialOriginal intent is to pressure the convergence of DA and RT prices
13Virtual Bidding Incremental Offers & Decrement Bids Available to all Market ParticipantsDo not require physical generation or loadConsist of:– MW offer or bid– Price of offer or bid (may be negative)Submitted at any hub, transmission zone,aggregate, or single bus for which LMP iscalculatedSupported in Day-ahead market only– Deviation in Real-time marketOperating Reserve ImplicationsMinimal charges for VB
14Increment Offers & Decrement Bids Looks like a spot sale or dispatchable resource“If the price goes above X, then MP will sell to the RTO day-ahead market”Decrement Bids• Looks like spot purchase or price sensitive demand“If price goes below X then MP will buy from theRTO day-ahead market”
15Reasons for Using Virtual Bidding Price Arbitrage for profit maximizationArbitrage Day-ahead to Real-time pricingUse an increment offer if DA > RTUse decrement bid if DA < RTPhysical HedgingHedge Day-ahead Demand bidHedge a Day-ahead generation offerHedge against real-time price spikes in case of forced outage
16Numerical Example #1 Decrement Bid Day-aheadMarket Participant believes DA will be lower than RT and Dec Bids for HE 10 as follows :50 MW at $45 : 50 MW at $38 : 50 MW at $30: 50 MW at $25Day Ahead Market clears at $36Day-ahead position is therefore 100 MWIf Real-time Market Clears at $52Market Participant makes a profit of ($52-$36)*100= $1600If Real-time Market Clears at $32Market Participant’s loss is ($32-$36)*100= -$400
17Numerical Example #2 Increment Offer Day-aheadMarket Participant believes DA will be higher than RT and Inc Offers for HE15 as follows :25 MW at $65 : 25 MW at $75 : 25 MW at $80: 25 MW at $90Day Ahead Market clears at $78Day-ahead position is therefore 50If Real-time Market Clears at $56Market Participant makes a profit of ($78-$56)*50= $1100If Real-time Market Clears at $82Market Participant’s loss is ($78-$82)*50= -$2006
18Numerical Example #3 Hedging a Generator Offer Day-aheadMarket Participant bids scheduled Generation of 100 $50.Also Dec bids 10 $65 (virtual)Assume Day Ahead Market clears at $60Both bids $60Day-ahead position is therefore -commitment of and10 MW virtual lengthREAL TIME – Scenario 1 Higher RT PriceIf Real-time Market Clears at $70And Generator produces full output of 100MWMarket Participant gets a credit of $60*100= $6000 from DA Gen settleAlso a credit 0f ($70-$60)* 10= $100 from the virtual bidMarket Participant’s Net = $61008
19Numerical Example #3 Hedging a Generator Offer(Continued) REAL TIME – Scenario 2 Lower RT PriceIf Real-time Market Clears at $50And Generator produces full output of 100MWMarket Participant gets a credit of $60*100= $6000 from DA Gen settleAlso a credit 0f ($50-$60)* 10= -$100 from the virtual bidMarket Participant’s Net = $59009
20Numerical Example #3 Hedging a Generator Offer(Continued) REAL TIME – Scenario 3 Higher RT PriceIf Real-time Market Clears at $70And Generator produces reduced output of 90MW due to minor mech problemsMarket Participant gets a credit of $60*100= $6000 from DA Gen settleAlso a credit 0f ($70-$60)* 10= $100 from the virtual bid of 10 MWA charge for under delivery of 10 MW in RTMarket = -10*$70 = -$700Market Participant’s Net = $6000+$ $700=$54009
21Numerical Example #3 Hedging a Generator Offer(Continued) REAL TIME – Scenario 4 Lower RT PriceIf Real-time Market Clears at $50And Generator produces reduced output of 90MW due to minor mech problemsMarket Participant gets a credit of $60*100= $6000 from DA Gen settleA charge 0f ($50-$60)* 10= -$100 from the virtual bid of 10MWA charge for under delivery of 10 MW in RTMarket = -10*$50 = -$500Market Participant’s Net = $6000-$100-$500 = $5400Hedging with VB allows MP to contract in DA for RT price9
22Summary: 2-Settlement in Electricity Markets RTOs required to implement two marketsDay Ahead and Real Time MarketsA Day-ahead hourly forward market for energy produces hourly Clearing pricesReal Time Market produces Hourly prices based on actual system conditionsLMPs used to clear both markets19
23Summary: Virtual Bidding in Day Ahead Markets VB allows purely financial energy transactions without physical generation or loadIncrement Offers and Decrement BidsIncrement BidsIf the price goes above X, then MP will sell to the day-ahead marketDecrement BidsIf price goes below X then MP will buy from the day-ahead marketPrice Arbitrage for ProfitPhysical HedgingCurrently working in US Energy Markets – PJM, NYISO, ISO-New England, MISO and ERCOT (December 2010)Starting in CaISO in February 201120
24Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) …Understand the concepts and principles of FTRsFTRs - PJM, ISONE, MISOCongestion Revenue Rights (CRRs)- CAISO, ERCOTTransmission Congestion Contracts(TCCs)- NYISOExplain how FTRs are acquired in RTOs
25? Why Do We Need FTRs? Challenge: Solution: LMP exposes Market Participants to price uncertainty for congestion cost chargesDuring constrained conditions, the RTO collects more from loads than it pays generatorsSolution:Provides ability to have price certaintyFTRs provide hedging mechanism that can be traded separately from transmission serviceLocational Marginal Pricing (or LMP) exposes Market Participants to potentially high or volatile congestion charges. Remember, congestion charges occur when the transmission system is congested and out-of-merit resources must be used to meet PJM demand.During constrained operations, the RTO collects more from loads than it pays to generators. We need a fair method of allocating the excess funds we collect.So we need a solution to the challenge which protects PJM Market Participants from the congestion price uncertainty and provides a fair method of allocating the leftover funds.Financial Transmission Rights or FTRs are the solution to the challenges listed on the slide.FTRs provide Market Participants with a hedging mechanism. For those of you not familiar with what a hedging mechanism is, a hedging mechanism is a method of mitigating possible loss, or in this case congestion charges, by counterbalancing the loss. In other words, FTRs allow Market Participants to purchase protection from congestion charges.
26What Are FTRs?(CRRs,TCCs) Financial Transmission Rights are …a financial contract that entitles the holder to a stream of revenues (or charges) based on the hourly energy price differences across the path(between source/sink)Read the definition of Financial Transmission Rights.The purpose of an FTR is to protect the firm user from increased cost due to transmission congestion. So, FTRs are a purchased right that can hedge against congestion charges incurred on a specified transmission path.Remember, congestion charges arise when the transmission system is congested and differences in LMPs result from the RTO redispatching generators out of merit order to relieve that congestion.The number of FTRs granted to transmission customers by the RTO is limited by the capability of the RTO’s transmission system (i.e., transmission is a scarce resource).FTRs are a financial right to receive rebates of congestion charges between two points on the RTO system.
27Why Use FTRs?To create a financial hedge that provides price certainty to Market Participants when delivering energy across the RTO systemTo provide firm transmission service without congestion costTo provide methodology to allocate congestion charges to those who pay the fixed cost of the RTO transmission systemThese are some of the reasons why the RTO uses FTRs.As mentioned earlier, the Market Participants need protection from volatile congestion charges.The RTO also needed a mechanism to allocate the congestion charges that are collected from the firm transmission service customers during congested conditions. FTRs provide a mechanism for returning these excess revenues we collected and at the same time provides transmission customers with the opportunity to hedge changes in LMPs. Remember, we are need a “fair” method to allocate the revenue.
28Obtaining FTRs Network service- Allocation by RTO based on annual peak loaddesignated from resources to aggregate loadsFirm point-to-point servicemay be requested with transmission reservationdesignated from source to sinkSecondary market -- bilateral tradingFTRs that exist are bought or soldFTR Auction -- centralized marketpurchase “left over” capabilityTransmission service customers, who acquire Network or Firm Point-to-Point Transmission Service, pay the embedded cost of the RTO transmission system. In return for paying these fixed costs, these firm transmission service owners have the option to obtain FTRs, which can serve as a hedge against transmission congestion charges.There are currently three ways to obtain FTRs:Network Service -- On a annual basis, network service transmission customers are allocated FTRs up to their annual peak load. These FTRs are designated along paths from specific capacity resources (or generators) to their aggregated loads. The configuration of the FTRs can be adjusted annually or when capacity resources are added or retired.Firm Point-to-Point Service -- Firm point-to-point transmission customers obtain FTRs for their associated firm reservations. The path of the FTR is the same as the path of the firm reservation from source to sink. All FTRs are allocated for the same duration as the reserved transmission service.Secondary Market -- Market Participants other than Network Service customers and firm point-to-point holders may obtain FTRs on the Secondary Market, via a bulletin board on the RTO OASIS. All FTRs available for purchase, as well as all FTRs traded, are posted here. This trade can occur without reassigning the transmission capacity itself. Any Market Participant can become a holder of an FTR through secondary trading.The RTO also administers montlhy/annual auctions that allow Market Participants to acquire and sell FTRs directly. The opportunity of FTR owners to sell FTRs into the auction rather than exclusively through bilateral transaction is important since the FTRs demanded by the Market Participants are significantly different than the FTRs available for sale. The FTR auction provides the mechanism .
29What are FTRs Worth? Economic value determined by hourly LMPs Benefit (Credit)same direction as congested flowIf sink LMP congestion component>source LMP congLiability (Charge)opposite direction as congested flowSo you can now tell that the hourly value of an FTR is based on the FTR MW reservation and the difference between the hourly LMPs.You can also see that an FTR can be a benefit or a liability.It is benefit when the path designated in the FTR is in the same direction as the congestion flow.An FTR is a liability when the designate path is in the opposite direction to the congested flow.An FTR has no value when the system is unconstrained.
31Energy Delivery Consistent with FTR Thermal LimitFTR = 100 MWSource(Sending End)Sink(Receiving End)Bus BBus AEnergy Delivery = 100 MWhLet’s look at some examples of consistency and inconsistency.In this example, there is a thermal limit from Bus A to Bus B -- this line is congested in the direction shown by the green arrow.The Market Participant defined (in advance of real-time) an FTR from Bus A to Bus B for 100 MW (shown by the blue arrow).In real-time, the same Market Participant has an energy transaction from Bus A to Bus B for 100 MWh. (shown by the red arrow).The congestion charge and FTR Credit calculations are shown at the bottom of the slide.Remember, congestion charges are based on the differences between the LMPs at the receiving and sending end buses. In this case, the congestion charge for the 100 MWh transaction is $1500. So, the Market Participant will be charged $1500 for congestion.This FTR holder is due a credit equal to the FTR MW value times the difference between the sink and source LMPs, or in this case $1,500.So, you can see for this example the FTR holder breaks even or is completely hedged.The holder of the FTR is not required to deliver energy in order to receive a congestion credit. If a constraint exists on the transmission system, the holders of FTRs receive a credit based on the FTR MW reservation and the LMP difference between point of delivery and point of receipt. This credit paid to the holder regardless of who delivered energy or of the amount of energy delivered across the path designated in the FTR.LMP = $15LMP = $30Congestion Charge = 100 MWh * ($30-$15) = $1500FTR Credit = 100 MW * ($30-$15) = $1500
32Energy Delivery Not Consistent with FTR (I) FTR Credit = 100 MW * ($30-$10) = $2000Congestion Charge = 100 MWh * ($30-$15) = $1500Bus ALMP = $10Bus CLMP = $15LMP = $30Bus BEnergy Delivery = 100 MWhFTR = 100 MWNow let’s look at another example in which the energy delivery is NOT consistent with the FTR.Our FTR is defined from Bus A to Bus B for 100 MW.The energy deliver is 100 MWh from Bus C to Bus B. This is inconsistent with the FTR (the energy delivery and FTR source and sink are not the same.)In this case ,the congestion charge is the 100 MWh times the difference between the LMPs at Bus B and Bus C (or $30 - $15). The congestion charge that this participant has to pay is $1500.However, this market participant also receives an FTR credit equal to the 100 MW times the difference between the FTR’s source and sink, or $30 - $20. So in this case the Market Participant receives an FTR credit for $2,000.So, in this case the FTR holder ends up ahead $500.Although inconsistent with the energy delivery, this situation is a case where the FTR is a benefit.
33Energy Delivery Not Consistent with FTR (II) Bus ALMP = $20Bus CLMP = $15LMP = $30Bus BEnergy Delivery = 100 MWhFTR = 100 MWHere is another example when the energy delivery is NOT consistent with the FTR.In this case the congestion charge is $1,500; the FTR credit is $,1000.The difference between this case and the previous case is the LMPs.In this case the FTRs is a liability. The FTR did not cover the congestion charges.Congestion Charge = 100 MWh * ($30-$15) = $1500FTR Credit = 100 MW * ($30-$20) = $1000
34Characteristics of FTRs Defined from source to sinkMW level based on transmission reservationFinancially bindingFinancial entitlement, not physical rightIndependent of energy deliveryLet’s summarize the characteristics of an FTR.An FTR is defined from the point of receipt (or source) to the point of delivery (where it is withdrawn). The points of receipt and points of delivery are “buses” or locations in the PJM control area.The MW amount of the FTR is based on the transmission service reservation.Financially binding -- An FTR financially binds the owner to the congestion activity on that path. In other words, once you have an FTR, you can’t give it back. They can be either a benefit or a liability, as we shall see shortly.Financial entitlement, not physical right -- FTRs are separate from the actual energy delivered. The holder of the FTR is not required to deliver energy in order to receive an FTR credit. Once defined the FTR is in effect for the pre-defined period, regardless of whether energy is actually delivered.The FTR can be consistent or inconsistent with the actual energy delivery. We will discuss this concept shortly.
35Acquiring FTRs from Auctions The RTO conducts periodic auctions -annually and monthlyto allow eligible FTR Account Holders to acquire FTRs.to allow FTR Owners to sell FTRs that they hold.The RTO auctions the two basic types of FTRs:(a) Point to Point (PTP) Options(b) Point to Point (PTP) ObligationsLet’s summarize the characteristics of an FTR.An FTR is defined from the point of receipt (or source) to the point of delivery (where it is withdrawn). The points of receipt and points of delivery are “buses” or locations in the PJM control area.The MW amount of the FTR is based on the transmission service reservation.Financially binding -- An FTR financially binds the owner to the congestion activity on that path. In other words, once you have an FTR, you can’t give it back. They can be either a benefit or a liability, as we shall see shortly.Financial entitlement, not physical right -- FTRs are separate from the actual energy delivered. The holder of the FTR is not required to deliver energy in order to receive an FTR credit. Once defined the FTR is in effect for the pre-defined period, regardless of whether energy is actually delivered.The FTR can be consistent or inconsistent with the actual energy delivery. We will discuss this concept shortly.
36OPTIONS or OBLIGATIONS PTP Options are evaluated hourly in each FTR Auction as the positive power flows on directional network elements created by the injection and withdrawal at the specified source and sink points in the quantity represented by the FTR bid or offer (MW),excluding all negative flows on all directional network elements.PTP Obligations are evaluated hourly in each FTR Auction as the positive and negative power flows on all directional network elements created by the injection and withdrawal at the specified source and sink points of the quantity represented by the FTR bid or offer (MW).
37FTR Packaged as Peak & Off Peak FTRs are auctioned in the following blocks:(a) 5x16 blocks for hours ending , Monday through Friday (excluding NERC holidays), in one-month strips;(b) 2x16 blocks for hours ending , Saturday and Sunday, and NERC holidays in one-month strips; and(c) 7x8 blocks for hours ending and hours ending 2400 Sunday through Saturday, in one-month strips; and(d) 7x24 blocks (combinatorial by specifying the previous three types of blocks), in one-month strips.
38FTR Network ModelThe FTR Network Model is based on the Network Operational Model.The FTR Network Model normally includes the same topology, contingencies, and operating procedures as used in the Network Operational Model as reasonably expected to be in place for the applicable auction term (two years, one year, or one month, as applicable).The expected network topology for any month should include any planned outages of any transmission element known to be 16 hours or longer in that month.The FTR Network Model uses the peak Load conditions of the month being modeled.
39FTR Simultaneous Feasibility Test SFT is performed to ensure that all FTRs are feasible and deliverable within the control area reliability criteria on an annual basis for each planning period.SFT is a power flow with FTRs modeled as injections at the source node and withdrawals at the sinks,Objective is to ensure that all subscribed Transmission rights are within the capability of the existing Transmission System.SFT is designed to ensure that the RTO Energy Market will be revenue adequate under normal system conditions.Problems with FTR Short Pay in Some RTOs.