2DefinitionMarket:Market is an institution set up by society to allocate resources that are scarce relative to the demand for them. Markets are the channel through which buyers and sellers meet to exchange goods, services and productive resources.Financial Markets:We usually describe the financial markets as being a system comprised of individuals and institutions, instruments, and procedures that bring together borrowers and severs, no matter the location./ OrForums in which suppliers of funds and demandersof fund can transact business directly.
3Functions Performed by Financial Market a.) Savings Function – Bonds, stocks and other financial claims sold in the money and capital markets provide a profitable, relatively low-risk outlet for the public’s savings, which flow through the financial markets into investment so that more goods and services can be produced (i.e., productivity will rise), increasing the world’s standard of living.
4Functions Performed by Financial Market b.) Wealth Function – For those businesses and individuals choosing to save, the financial instruments sold in the money and capital markets provide an excellent way to store wealth until funds are needed for spending.c.) Liquidity Function – For wealth stored in financial instruments, the global financial marketplace provides a means of converting those instruments into cash with little risk of loss. Thus, the world’s financial marketsprovide liquidity for savers who hold financialinstruments but are need of money.
5Functions Performed by Financial Market d.) Credit Function – Financial markets furnish credit to finance consumption and investment spending. Credit consists of a loan of funds in return for a promise of future payment. Consumers, Businesses, and Governments need credit for several reasons.e.) Payments Function – Financial markets also provide a mechanism for making payments for goods and services. Certain financial assets, bank checking account, payment order, demanddraft, plastic credit card, ATM card and someother instruments serve as a medium ofexchange in making payments.
6Functions Performed by Financial Market f.) Risk Protection Function – The financial markets around the world offer businesses, consumers, and governments protection against life, health, property and income risks. This is accomplishing, first of all, by the sale of insurance policies.g.) Finally, in recent decades, the financial markets have been the principal channel through which government has carried out its policy of attempting to stabilize the economy and avoid inflation. By manipulating interest rates and the availability of credit, government can affect the borrowing andspending plans of the public, which in turn, influencethe growth of jobs, production and policies.
7Financial Institutions and Fund Transfer system 1. A Direct Transfer of money and securities occurs when a business sells its stocks or bonds directly to savers (investors), without going through any type of financial institution.
8Financial Institutions and Fund Transfer system 2. Through an Investment Banking House fund also transfers among different sectors. In this case it serves as a middleman and facilitates the issuance of securities.3. Transfer can also be made through a Financial Intermediary such as a bank ora mutual fund.
9Classifications of Financial Markets Two major Financial Markets are-The Money Market:The money market is created by a financial relationship between suppliers and demanders of short-term funds (funds with maturities of one year or less).2. The Capital Market:A market that enables suppliers and demanders of long-term funds to make transactions. Included are securities issues of business and government.
10The Money Market Instruments Treasury Bill- Sold to institutional investors by the Treasury to finance the government which maturity normally 91 days to 1 year.Repurchase agreements- Used by bank to adjust reserves. Here banks sell investments with repurchase promise forvery short time.
11The Money Market Instruments Bankers’ Acceptances- Firm’s promise to pay; guaranteed by a bank. Usually low degree of risk involved here if bank is strong and reputed.Negotiable Certificates of Deposits (CDs)- Issued by major money-center commercial banks to large investors. This instrument is riskier than Treasury bills.Commercial Paper- Issued by large,financially secure firms to largeinvestors. It has law default risk.
12Classification of Capital Market Primary Market: The primary market is for the trading of new securities never before issued. Its principal function is raising financial capital to support new investment in buildings, equipment, and inventories. Investors engage in a primary-market transaction when they purchase shares of stock just issued by a company or borrow through a new mortgage to purchase a home.
13Classification of Capital Market Secondary Market: The secondary market deals in securities previously issued. Its chief function is to provide liquidity to security investors- that is, provide an avenue for converting financial instruments into ready cash. The volume of trading in the secondary market is far larger than the primary market.
14The Capital Market Instruments Common Stock- Units of ownership, or equity in a corporation. It is issued by corporations to individuals and institutional investors. Common stock holders earn a return by receiving dividends or by realizing increases in share price.
15The Capital Market Instruments: Preferred Stock- A special form of ownership having a fixed periodic dividend that must be paid prior to payment of any common stock dividends.Corporate Bonds- Issued by corporations to individuals, institutional investors, and corporations. Risk depends on the company and normally riskier than government bonds, but not as risky as stock.
16Some Other Types of Market Debt Markets are the markets where loans are traded. In this case debt instruments are necessary for trading which represent as a contract that specifies the amounts, as well as the times, a borrower must repay the funds provided by lender. The borrower can be an individual, a government or a business.
17Some Other Types of Market Mortgage Markets deal with loans on residential, commercial and industrial real estate, and on farmland.Consumer Credit Markets involve loans on autos and appliance, as well as loans for education, vacation, marriage and so forth.A Spot Market is one in which assets or financial services are traded for immediate delivery (usually within one ortwo business days).
18Some Other Types of Market A Futures and Forward Market is designed to trade contracts calling for the future delivery of financial instruments.Over the Counter Market: If a security is not traded on an organized exchange, it is customary to say it is traded over the counter. The over the counter market is an intangible organization thatconsists of a network of brokers anddealers around the country.
19Securities Exchange Securities Exchange – Organizations that provide the marketplace in which firms can raise funds through the sale of new securities and purchasers can resell securities. The best-known organized exchanges are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the American Stock Exchange (AMEX), both headquartered in New York City. In our country : DSE and CSE
20The Role of Securities Exchanges: Securities exchanges create continuous markets in which firms can obtain needed financing. They also create efficient markets that allocate funds to their most productive uses. This is especially true for securities that are actively traded on major exchanges, where the competition among wealth- maximizing investorsdetermines and publicizes prices.
21DSEEstablished- 28th April 1954 as East Pakistan Stock Exchange Association.Re-named- 23rd June 1962 as ‘The Dhaka Stock Exchange Limited’.Registered as a public limited company and its activities are regulated by its Articles of Association, own rules and regulations, Securities and Exchange Commission Act1993, Company Act 1994
22Main Activities of DSEListing of Companies (as per listing regulations)Providing the screen based automated trading for listed securities.Monitoring the activities of listed firms.Market administration and controll.Market surveillancePublication of monthly review.Annoncement of price sensitive or other information.
23Capital Market Efficiency An efficient capital market is one in which the prices of securities “fully reflect” all available information. The reflection or reaction of market prices to new information should be instantaneous and unbiased.
24Capital Market Efficiency 1. Weak form efficiency- which implies that the information contained in the past sequence of prices of a security is fully reflected in the current price of that security.2. Semi-strong form efficiency- which implies that all publicly available information is fully reflected a security’s market price, including information about past prices and volume.3. Strong from efficiency- which implies that all information, whether public or private, is fullyreflected in a security’s price.