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The Use of Technology to Improve Competitiveness of SMEs in the Agribusiness Sector Dr. André Gordon Strengthening the Caribbean Agri-food Private Sector:

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Presentation on theme: "The Use of Technology to Improve Competitiveness of SMEs in the Agribusiness Sector Dr. André Gordon Strengthening the Caribbean Agri-food Private Sector:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Use of Technology to Improve Competitiveness of SMEs in the Agribusiness Sector Dr. André Gordon Strengthening the Caribbean Agri-food Private Sector: Competing in a globalized world to foster rural development October 2010 Grenada, W.I.

2 Introduction In challenging times many businesses focus on what they need to do to survive.In challenging times many businesses focus on what they need to do to survive. However, survival is not good enough. Caribbean firms must find ways to make themselves sustainably competitiveHowever, survival is not good enough. Caribbean firms must find ways to make themselves sustainably competitive Application of carefully selected, appropriate technology to make changes in the way firms operate can result in sustainable, improved global competitivenessApplication of carefully selected, appropriate technology to make changes in the way firms operate can result in sustainable, improved global competitiveness

3 Introduction Background anchored in work with companies and organizations throughout the CaribbeanBackground anchored in work with companies and organizations throughout the Caribbean –For Technological Solutions Limited (TSL) –At and for the Jamaica Exporters Association –With and for the Competitiveness Company

4 Introduction Will move from the use of highly capital- intensive, technologies to less capital- intensive, more people-centred soft technologyWill move from the use of highly capital- intensive, technologies to less capital- intensive, more people-centred soft technology Will cover a range of agri-business productsWill cover a range of agri-business products

5 Focus on Building Sustainable Global Competitiveness

6 Global Competitiveness Developing the capacity and systems to deliver goods and services as, when and where needed in the desired quantity and at the expected level of quality to discerning consumers willing to pay a price for them that is profitable for the business (premium price, preferably).Developing the capacity and systems to deliver goods and services as, when and where needed in the desired quantity and at the expected level of quality to discerning consumers willing to pay a price for them that is profitable for the business (premium price, preferably).

7 How? Developing and applying world-class technology in a practical, hands-on manner that is respectful of the culture of the people, organizations and countries involvedDeveloping and applying world-class technology in a practical, hands-on manner that is respectful of the culture of the people, organizations and countries involved

8 Six Components of Successful Export Activity Market Expansion and Diversification Production & Technology Product Innovation Supply of Inputs (Supply Chain Mgmt) Financing Information Generation, access and use

9 Development & Application of Technology for Global Competitiveness

10 The Grace Kennedy / Technology Centre Period:

11 Technologies Applied or Developed Electron Microscopy (EM)Electron Microscopy (EM) Ingredient Technology (IT)Ingredient Technology (IT) Sensory Measurement Technology (SMT)Sensory Measurement Technology (SMT) Texture Profile Analysis (TPA)Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) RheologyRheology Predictive Modeling Technology (PMT)Predictive Modeling Technology (PMT) Shelf Life Measurement & Prediction (SLMP)Shelf Life Measurement & Prediction (SLMP) Thermal Process Development (TPD)Thermal Process Development (TPD) Process Optimization (including PMT)Process Optimization (including PMT)

12 Technologies Applied or Developed This work improved the quality, manufacturing and shelf life of a range of products to globally competitive levelsThis work improved the quality, manufacturing and shelf life of a range of products to globally competitive levels Facilitated new or continued market access into key metropolitan marketsFacilitated new or continued market access into key metropolitan markets Grace Kennedy, the many small manufacturers that supplied them and Jamaica benefitedGrace Kennedy, the many small manufacturers that supplied them and Jamaica benefited All of this applied technology work was published in refereed, international journals or fora, where possibleAll of this applied technology work was published in refereed, international journals or fora, where possible

13 Examples of Application and Outcomes EM, IT and SMT were used to:EM, IT and SMT were used to: –Allowed the continued operation of a meat processing plant in the face of tremendous competitive pressures caused by devaluation and continuously escalating input prices –Viennas and frankfurter, supporting the local pork industry IT, SMT, TPA and Rheology.IT, SMT, TPA and Rheology. –Address product quality and performance challenges, mitigate the effects of declining competitiveness and the develop of new products –Developed a range of new products for the local and global markets using these technologies and approaches

14 Examples of Application and Outcomes –Created meat products, drink mixes, drinks, juices, sauces and soups, among others –Through product matching created Fresh Start ® which remains a flagship product and brand, and Grace Fish Tea ® and other soups

15 Examples of Application and Outcomes –Created the first formula safe, uncooked commercial jerk seasoning –During this period, our work added approx US$20M in sales and US$4M in profit by end of the 4 th year

16 Examples of Application and Outcomes PMT, SLM, Rheology and IT were used to:PMT, SLM, Rheology and IT were used to: –Develop a range of combined approaches and technologies that continue to be used routinely by Caribbean manufacturers and exporters today –Solve problems with a range of products made regionally by small producers from local ingredients (inc. Browning and Juices)

17 Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms In 1996, with the formation of TSL, our focus shifted to SMEs more directly and the Caribbean, in generalIn 1996, with the formation of TSL, our focus shifted to SMEs more directly and the Caribbean, in general Required the incorporating all lessons of the past into the use of softer, more people oriented, less capital-intensive approachRequired the incorporating all lessons of the past into the use of softer, more people oriented, less capital-intensive approach

18 Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms Focus on systems technology, catalyzing our initial work with value chains and clustersFocus on systems technology, catalyzing our initial work with value chains and clusters Focus: problem solving, developing and strengthening value chains, gaining or maintaining market access and systems implementationFocus: problem solving, developing and strengthening value chains, gaining or maintaining market access and systems implementation

19 Application of Combination and Systems Technology Key successes in using the approach developed to the application of technology included:Key successes in using the approach developed to the application of technology included: –Regaining EU market access for Strombus giga (Queen Conch) –Regaining US market access for Blighia sapida (Ackees) after a 27 year ban –Regaining US market access for Canned Process Cheese (Tastee)

20 Application of Combination and Systems Technology Key successes (contd):Key successes (contd): –Improving the quality, upgrading, and gaining market access for Benjo Seamoss –The transformation of Ackee and Conch manufacturing and export in Jamaica –Upgrading, improved competitiveness and commencement of sustainable exports of Barbadian SME manufacturers –The transformation of many SME production and export operations in the agribusiness sector across the Caribbean

21 Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms Key successes (contd):Key successes (contd): –The application of technological know how to the layout and design and/or redesign of pack houses, food processing plants and technical centres across the Caribbean Plants and Pack houses - Haiti, St. Lucia, Grenada, T&T, SVG, Dominica, Jamaica (Walkerswood, Hounslow Pack house)Plants and Pack houses - Haiti, St. Lucia, Grenada, T&T, SVG, Dominica, Jamaica (Walkerswood, Hounslow Pack house) Technical Centres – SKNBS/MPL complex (St. Kitts); NCTE (Dominica), GTC (Jamaica)Technical Centres – SKNBS/MPL complex (St. Kitts); NCTE (Dominica), GTC (Jamaica)

22 Building Caribbean Agribusiness present

23 Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms Key successes (contd):Key successes (contd): –Gaining new markets in the Caribbean and contract packing for MTS product –Application of Systems Technology to Coconut Water production –Certification of Caribbean firms to access the US and EU markets

24 Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms Key successes (contd):Key successes (contd): –Use in structuring approach to market access/trade agreements –The application of the approach to building productive collaboration and value chains – Jamaica Business Recovery Programme (JBRP), JEA and CC Clusters

25 Building Global Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms through Applied Technology Case Studies

26 Barbados Sauce & Condiments Exports

27 Barbados Sauce and Condiments Exports

28 PROVING THE SAFETY OF CANNED PROCESS CHEESE

29 Pasteurization During Cooking for Tastee Cheese

30 Pasteurization During Holding for Tastee Cheese

31 Pasteurization During Filling for Tastee Cheese

32 Pasteurization During Cooling for Tastee Cheese

33 Temperatures and Lethality During Tastee Process Cheese Manufacture Stage of Process Temperature(Avg.)°C Avg. Time (min) Process Lethality (PU) Blending Cooking Holding Filling Cooling*<62>2409, PU – regarded as sufficient for adequate pasteurization for AFs (NFPA)

34 THE PROCESS NOT a Flash Pasteurization ProcessNOT a Flash Pasteurization Process HOT FILL AND HOLDHOT FILL AND HOLD

35 THE PROCESS Traditional Processes 85 ° C / minTraditional Processes 85 ° C / min Give Pasteurization Cook of 340 PU/min (3,400 PU - 5,100 PU) Give Pasteurization Cook of 340 PU/min (3,400 PU - 5,100 PU) Dairys Hot Fill and Hold Process gives a Pasteurizing Cook of > 9,000 PU in totalDairys Hot Fill and Hold Process gives a Pasteurizing Cook of > 9,000 PU in total

36 THE TANAKA PRINCIPLES

37 Model for Formula-Safe Concept Moisture pH Total salts – NaCl – Phosphate-based emulsifier Water activity not good predictor of safety Lactate effect Tanaka et al, 1986

38 THE TANAKA PRINCIPLES Ensure safety of Process Cheese based on a combination of factors that must be metEnsure safety of Process Cheese based on a combination of factors that must be met These combined safety hurdles allow the safe production of process cheese without sterilizationThese combined safety hurdles allow the safe production of process cheese without sterilization

39 The Coconut Water Industry: Systems Technology

40 Figure 2Yeast and Coliform Growth in Bottled Coconut Water during Storage

41 Table 4Correlations between the Independent and Dependent Variables of Coconut Water Quality *significant p < 0.05 **highly significantp < 0.001

42 Mountain Top Springs St. Vincent & the Grenadines

43 Mountain Top Springs Export Performance

44

45 Jamaicas Ackee Exports

46 Socio-economic Importance Ackees are largely grown and processed in rural areas where other employment opportunities are limited Ackees are largely grown and processed in rural areas where other employment opportunities are limited it directly impacts 13 communities across the islandit directly impacts 13 communities across the island approx. 3,000 directly employedapprox. 3,000 directly employed 6,000 indirectly employed6,000 indirectly employed

47

48

49 Ripening Stages of Ackee (5 to 10) Stage 5 Stage 7 Stage 9 Stage 6 Stage 8 Stage 10

50 Ackee Ripening and Hypoglycin A Content Source: Brown et al., 1991

51 ACKEE EXPORTS – VOLUME (KG) VS. VALUE US$) Jan – Nov, 2009

52 Build Back Better: The JBRP Story Application of Technology through the Cluster Concept along Value Chains

53 Application of Technology under JBRP Developing input supplier, farmer, buyer relationships: building and strengthening the value chainDeveloping input supplier, farmer, buyer relationships: building and strengthening the value chain Understanding of the concept of producer/buyer relationships as an enterprise in itselfUnderstanding of the concept of producer/buyer relationships as an enterprise in itself Use of specifications, planning and management in the business of agricultureUse of specifications, planning and management in the business of agriculture

54 Application of Technology under JBRP Soil analyses, crop types, proper spacing, fertigation, proper crop rotation, etcSoil analyses, crop types, proper spacing, fertigation, proper crop rotation, etc Importance of plant nutritionImportance of plant nutrition Harvesting, post-harvest handling & storage – appropriate technology (field crates, etc)Harvesting, post-harvest handling & storage – appropriate technology (field crates, etc) Basic IPM techniques - Pest scouting, use of barrier technology, use of pheromones, Bacillus thurigenesis (Bt), etc for infestation and disease controlBasic IPM techniques - Pest scouting, use of barrier technology, use of pheromones, Bacillus thurigenesis (Bt), etc for infestation and disease control

55 - Field Preparation & Management - Pest and Disease Management - Protected Agriculture: Greenhouses

56 Detailed Step-by-Step Greenhouse Construction & Operation Source: JBRP Production Manual 04: Greenhouse Production

57 Detailed Step-by-Step Greenhouse Construction & Operation Source: JBRP Production Manual 04: Greenhouse Production

58 Detailed Step-by-Step Greenhouse Construction & Operation Source: JBRP Production Manual 04: Greenhouse Production

59 Application of Technology under JBRP Results: significant yield increases > % in some cases, better quality, dramatically reduced losses.Results: significant yield increases > % in some cases, better quality, dramatically reduced losses. Agriculture being seen as technology intense, interesting; a BUSINESS; a CAREER worth pursuingAgriculture being seen as technology intense, interesting; a BUSINESS; a CAREER worth pursuing Young people/farmers getting back into agricultureYoung people/farmers getting back into agriculture Basis for current successful thrust into technology-led and protected agriculture in Jamaica todayBasis for current successful thrust into technology-led and protected agriculture in Jamaica today

60 Summary: Role in Technology Development & Application in the Caribbean

61 SUMMARY Our Approach over the years included: Technology Application inTechnology Application in –Effective Product Development –Problem Solving –Product and Process Optimization Application of Systems Technology inApplication of Systems Technology in –Market Access and Value Chain Strengthening –Building Global Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms

62 Summary: Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms Range of different kinds of technology, hard and soft applicableRange of different kinds of technology, hard and soft applicable Need to apply in a manner that is relevant to the circumstanceNeed to apply in a manner that is relevant to the circumstance Must be cognizant of absorptive capacity of persons being targetedMust be cognizant of absorptive capacity of persons being targeted

63 Summary: Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms The knowledge base of all personnel involved, the equipment and capabilities available, and building in constant upgrading and development are critical to success and sustainabilityThe knowledge base of all personnel involved, the equipment and capabilities available, and building in constant upgrading and development are critical to success and sustainability

64 Summary: Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms Must gear information such that it can be understood by the persons who are the intended target – no use being high science when the users are intimidated by it.Must gear information such that it can be understood by the persons who are the intended target – no use being high science when the users are intimidated by it. Must be sensitive to culture of the country and organization if success is to be achieved.Must be sensitive to culture of the country and organization if success is to be achieved. Target sustainability. This can only be achieved by a change in cultureTarget sustainability. This can only be achieved by a change in culture

65 Application of Technology for Competitiveness in Caribbean Firms Caribbean firms that have benefited include:Caribbean firms that have benefited include: –Benjo Seamoss – seamoss (Dominca) –Mountain Top Springs Limited – water/coconut water (St. Vincent & the Grenadines) –Dairy Industries Jamaica Limited – dairy products (Jamaica) –Lasco Group Limited – range of food products (Jamaica) –Sranan Fowru - poultry (Suriname) –JBM SA – mangos, produce, F&V (Haiti)

66 Changing the Game

67 CHANGING THE GAME Starting with the objective, and only the objective in mindStarting with the objective, and only the objective in mind Planning to achieve it without placing any limitations on how it will be donePlanning to achieve it without placing any limitations on how it will be done Ignoring the current state or rules of play – totally.Ignoring the current state or rules of play – totally.

68 Every morning in Africa, a gazelle wakes up. It knows that day it must outrun the fastest lion or it will be killed. Each morning, a lion also wakes up. It knows it must outrun the slowest gazelle or it will starve to death. It matters not whether you are a lion or a gazelle. When the sun comes up, you better hit the ground running.

69 Dr. André Gordon Technological Solutions Limited

70 References Gordon, A. and Barbut, S Raw meat batter stabilization: Morphological study of the role of the interfacial protein film. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 24(4): Gordon, A. and Barbut, S Raw meat batter stabilization: Morphological study of the role of the interfacial protein film. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 24(4): Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chemical modification on the microstructure of raw meat batters. Food Structure 10: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chemical modification on the microstructure of raw meat batters. Food Structure 10: Gordon, A. and Ahmad, M.H Thermal susceptibility of S. faecium strains isolated from frankfurters. Can. J. Microbiol. 37: Gordon, A. and Ahmad, M.H Thermal susceptibility of S. faecium strains isolated from frankfurters. Can. J. Microbiol. 37: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chloride salts on protein extraction and interfacial protein film formation in meat batters. J Sci. Food Agric. 58: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chloride salts on protein extraction and interfacial protein film formation in meat batters. J Sci. Food Agric. 58: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chemical modification on the stability, texture and microstructure of cooked meat batters. Food Structure 11: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chemical modification on the stability, texture and microstructure of cooked meat batters. Food Structure 11: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The mechanism of meat batter stabilization: A review. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutrit. 32: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The mechanism of meat batter stabilization: A review. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutrit. 32:

71 References Gordon, C.L.A. and Ahmad, M.H Bacteriological conditions of a chicken hatchery in Jamaica. World J. App. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 9: Gordon, C.L.A. and Ahmad, M.H Bacteriological conditions of a chicken hatchery in Jamaica. World J. App. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 9: Gordon, A Studying comminuted meat products using corroborative techniques. Food Res. Intl. 26: Gordon, A Studying comminuted meat products using corroborative techniques. Food Res. Intl. 26: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S Meat batter proteins - effect of chemical modification on structure. J. Sci. Food Agri. 68: Gordon, A. and Barbut, S Meat batter proteins - effect of chemical modification on structure. J. Sci. Food Agri. 68: Gordon, A. and Barbut S Meat batters: effect of chemical modifications on protein recovery and functionality. Food Res. Int.Gordon, A. and Barbut S Meat batters: effect of chemical modifications on protein recovery and functionality. Food Res. Int. Gordon A., Barbut S. and Smith A.K Effect of cooking temperature on the microstructure of meat batters prepared with salt on phosphate. Libensm.-Wiss.u.-Technol., 29: Gordon A., Barbut S. and Smith A.K Effect of cooking temperature on the microstructure of meat batters prepared with salt on phosphate. Libensm.-Wiss.u.-Technol., 29: Blake, O.A., Jackson, J.C., Jackson, M.A. and Gordon, C.L.A Assessment of dietary exposure to the natural toxin hypoglycin in ackee (Blighia sapida) by Jamaican Consumers. Food Res. Intl. 37: Blake, O.A., Jackson, J.C., Jackson, M.A. and Gordon, C.L.A Assessment of dietary exposure to the natural toxin hypoglycin in ackee (Blighia sapida) by Jamaican Consumers. Food Res. Intl. 37:

72 References J.C. Jackson, C.L.A. Gordon, G. Wizzard, K.McCook, R. Rolle Changes in chemical composition of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water during maturation of the fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84, (9) ;J.C. Jackson, C.L.A. Gordon, G. Wizzard, K.McCook, R. Rolle Changes in chemical composition of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water during maturation of the fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84, (9) ; Gordon, A and Jackson, J.C Effect of ripening on the microbiological profile of Jamaican ackees (Blighia sapida). Food Res. Intl. submitted.Gordon, A and Jackson, J.C Effect of ripening on the microbiological profile of Jamaican ackees (Blighia sapida). Food Res. Intl. submitted. Gordon, A The use of electron microscopy techniques in meat batter technology research : a review. The 25th Anniversary Scanning Elect. Microsc. Conf., May 9-14, Chicago, Il.Gordon, A The use of electron microscopy techniques in meat batter technology research : a review. The 25th Anniversary Scanning Elect. Microsc. Conf., May 9-14, Chicago, Il. Gordon, A The future of the food industry in Jamaica: is there a role for science and technology? The Jamaican Food Processor 30 (2): Gordon, A The future of the food industry in Jamaica: is there a role for science and technology? The Jamaican Food Processor 30 (2): Gordon, A How storage of meat batters prior to cooking affects stability. Innovations '94 (CIFST Annual Conference), Vancouver, Canada (Abstract).Gordon, A How storage of meat batters prior to cooking affects stability. Innovations '94 (CIFST Annual Conference), Vancouver, Canada (Abstract). Gordon, A Microstructure, texture and sensory properties of Vienna sausages as affected by comminution protocol and added water. IFT Annual Meeting, Annaheim, CA. June, 1995 (Abstract).Gordon, A Microstructure, texture and sensory properties of Vienna sausages as affected by comminution protocol and added water. IFT Annual Meeting, Annaheim, CA. June, 1995 (Abstract).

73 References Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The role of the interfacial protein film in meat batters. Scanning Elect. Microsc. Conf., May, 1990, Bethesda, MD., May 5-10, (Abstract).Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The role of the interfacial protein film in meat batters. Scanning Elect. Microsc. Conf., May, 1990, Bethesda, MD., May 5-10, (Abstract). Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The microstructure of gels in raw meat batters made with five chloride salts. Scanning Elect. Microsc. Conf., Bethesda, MD., May (Abstract).Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The microstructure of gels in raw meat batters made with five chloride salts. Scanning Elect. Microsc. Conf., Bethesda, MD., May (Abstract). Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chloride salts on protein extraction and interfacial film formation in meat batters. IFT Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA. June, 1990 (Abstract).Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chloride salts on protein extraction and interfacial film formation in meat batters. IFT Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA. June, 1990 (Abstract). Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chemical modification on raw meat batter microstructure. Food Structure Conf., Bethesda, MD., May (Abstract).Gordon, A. and Barbut, S The effect of chemical modification on raw meat batter microstructure. Food Structure Conf., Bethesda, MD., May (Abstract). Gordon, A., Malcolm-Jackson, M. and Gooden, V Optimization of the sensory and textural characteristics of boneless sliced ham. Sixth Annual S.R.C. Conf. on Science and Technol., "Food and Nutrition". The Jamaica Conference Centre, November, 1992.Gordon, A., Malcolm-Jackson, M. and Gooden, V Optimization of the sensory and textural characteristics of boneless sliced ham. Sixth Annual S.R.C. Conf. on Science and Technol., "Food and Nutrition". The Jamaica Conference Centre, November, 1992.

74 References Gordon, A. and Morgan, V Use of sensory evaluation in product development. Sixth Annual S.R.C. Conf. on Science and Technol., "Food and Nutrition". The Jamaica Conference Centre, November, 1992.Gordon, A. and Morgan, V Use of sensory evaluation in product development. Sixth Annual S.R.C. Conf. on Science and Technol., "Food and Nutrition". The Jamaica Conference Centre, November, Barbut, S., Gordon A. and Smith A.K. April Microstructure of meat batters during gelation and the effects of NaCl on phosphate - presented at the Annual Poultry Science Conference (April 1994).Barbut, S., Gordon A. and Smith A.K. April Microstructure of meat batters during gelation and the effects of NaCl on phosphate - presented at the Annual Poultry Science Conference (April 1994). Brown, M and Gordon, A Use of accelerated shelf life testing in predicting the shelf life of fruit drinks, Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, June, 1995 (Abstract).Brown, M and Gordon, A Use of accelerated shelf life testing in predicting the shelf life of fruit drinks, Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, June, 1995 (Abstract). Morgan, V. and Gordon, A Application of sensory evaluation and the hurdle concept to the commercialization of Jerk Seasoning. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, June, 1995 (Abstract).Morgan, V. and Gordon, A Application of sensory evaluation and the hurdle concept to the commercialization of Jerk Seasoning. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, June, 1995 (Abstract). Wizzard, G., McCook, K., Jackson, J and Gordon, A Quality of bottled coconut water during storage; pH as a reliable indicator of coconut water spoilage pre-processing. Caribbean Institute of Sciences Conference, Mona, Jamaica (Abstract).Wizzard, G., McCook, K., Jackson, J and Gordon, A Quality of bottled coconut water during storage; pH as a reliable indicator of coconut water spoilage pre-processing. Caribbean Institute of Sciences Conference, Mona, Jamaica (Abstract).

75 References Gordon, A Food safety in the Caribbean. Challenges in the global food market. Invited lecture to the US. Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 2005.Gordon, A Food safety in the Caribbean. Challenges in the global food market. Invited lecture to the US. Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, Gordon, A. and Lindsay, C Effect of processing and handling on hypoglycin levels in ackee. CARPIN Annual Conference, Kingston, Jamaica, May, 2007.Gordon, A. and Lindsay, C Effect of processing and handling on hypoglycin levels in ackee. CARPIN Annual Conference, Kingston, Jamaica, May, Gordon, C.L.A and Jackson, J.C The effect of ripening on the microbiological profile of Jamaican ackees (Bilghia sapida). Food Res. Intl. (submitted).Gordon, C.L.A and Jackson, J.C The effect of ripening on the microbiological profile of Jamaican ackees (Bilghia sapida). Food Res. Intl. (submitted).

76 References Gordon 2001Gordon 2001 Gordon, A Traditional Beverages of the Caribbean. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, *, June, 2002 (Abstract)Gordon, A Traditional Beverages of the Caribbean. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, *, June, 2002 (Abstract) Gordon and Jackson, 2002Gordon and Jackson, 2002 Gordon A and J.C. Jackson, Microbiological profile of Jamaican ackees (Blighia sapida) during maturation. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2003 (Abstract)Gordon A and J.C. Jackson, Microbiological profile of Jamaican ackees (Blighia sapida) during maturation. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2003 (Abstract) Gordon, A Technical Issues in the positioning of the Caribbean in the FTAA. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2003 (Abstract).Gordon, A Technical Issues in the positioning of the Caribbean in the FTAA. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2003 (Abstract). Blake, O., Jackson, J.C., Gordon, C.L.A and Jackson, M.A Assessment of dietary exposure to the natural toxin hypoglycin in canned ackee (Blighia sapida) by Jamaican consumers. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2003 (Abstract)Blake, O., Jackson, J.C., Gordon, C.L.A and Jackson, M.A Assessment of dietary exposure to the natural toxin hypoglycin in canned ackee (Blighia sapida) by Jamaican consumers. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2003 (Abstract) Blake, O., Jackson, J.C. and Gordon, A The safety of ackee fruit. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2004 (Abstract)Blake, O., Jackson, J.C. and Gordon, A The safety of ackee fruit. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2004 (Abstract)

77 References Mendonca, A and Gordon, A Control of food safety and quality in Caribbean countries: Implications for international trade. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2004 (Abstract)Mendonca, A and Gordon, A Control of food safety and quality in Caribbean countries: Implications for international trade. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2004 (Abstract) Knight, O.S. and Gordon, A Alicyclobacillus in tropical Caribbean beverages: Incidents and intervention strategies for control of this threat to the industry. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2004 (Abstract)Knight, O.S. and Gordon, A Alicyclobacillus in tropical Caribbean beverages: Incidents and intervention strategies for control of this threat to the industry. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting, ***, June** 2004 (Abstract) Roosblad, M.R. and Gordon, A Handbook for the export of fruits and vegetables. Trade Sector Support Programme, IDB/IICA, Paramaribo, Suriname, South America. April, Suriprint, N.V.Roosblad, M.R. and Gordon, A Handbook for the export of fruits and vegetables. Trade Sector Support Programme, IDB/IICA, Paramaribo, Suriname, South America. April, Suriprint, N.V.


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