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MEAT GOAT 101 Market Goat Production Kipp Brown - Area Agent 4-H Livestock/Meat Goats Mississippi State University Extension Service.

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Presentation on theme: "MEAT GOAT 101 Market Goat Production Kipp Brown - Area Agent 4-H Livestock/Meat Goats Mississippi State University Extension Service."— Presentation transcript:

1 MEAT GOAT 101 Market Goat Production Kipp Brown - Area Agent 4-H Livestock/Meat Goats Mississippi State University Extension Service

2 MEAT GOATS 101 What is a Meat Goat? Any breed or cross breed of goat that is used in the production of goat meat!

3 THE RULES!! Identify and Secure a Market Do Not Borrow Money to Start a Goat Enterprise Cover Your Backside

4 Identify and secure a market! Who? Where? What? When?

5 Dont borrow money to start a goat enterprise!

6 Always Cover Your Backside! Have a backup plan Know your limits Refer back to rules 1 and 2

7 Showing seedstock Show Wethers The U.S. Goat Industry Fiber Dairy Pets Know where you fit. Land management MEAT PRODUCTION large and small producers commercial and hobby

8 So…What does a meat goat look like?

9 Types of Meat Goats Boer is most widely known and popular Kiko is gaining in popularity

10 Types of Meat Goats This is a 100% full blood Boer yearling doe

11 Types of Meat Goats This older doe is 75% Boer and 25% Spanish breeding

12 Types of Meat Goats This young doe is 75% Boer and 25% Pygmy

13 Types of Meat Goats This young doe is 75% Boer and 25% Nubian

14 Types of Meat Goats This older doe is 50% Boer and 50% Nubian

15 Types of Meat Goats This old doe is a typical meat type Spanish goat

16 Full Blood Boer Buck

17 Full Blood Buck X Commercial Doe =

18 Market Meat Goats!

19 MEAT GOATS 101 What factors are important to insure a successful enterprise? Nutrition Reproduction Health Marketing Facilities

20 Nutrition.. Is the Highest Cost Associated with Production!

21 Nutrition.. Doe Nutrition Divide into feeding groups Dry, Lactating, BCS, Buck Nutrition Ca:P ratio – Clean water Kid Nutrition Creep feed until marketed - Pelleted feed

22 Doe Nutrition.. Define the stage of production and feed accordingly Dry Breeding Early Gestation Late gestation Lactation

23 Dry Period.. Period between weaning and breeding Lowest nutrient requirements Good quality pasture should meet most requirement needs Regain weight lost during lactation Need 2% of body weight Need minerals free choice - salt, Ca, P No pasture? Grass Hay and.5-1.5# 16% CP pelleted (preferred) ration

24 Breeding Period.. Increase feed intake weeks prior to breeding – Known as Flushing Increase ovulation rate % Flushing 1#/Hd/Day of Corn Monitor body condition score to avoid under or over conditioned goats Too fat or too thin Best at BCS 2 - Greater response

25 Early Gestation.. First 100 days (gestation 150 days) Similar to dry feeding Very little fetal growth Take advantage of forage Monitor body condition score

26 Late Gestation.. Last 50 days (gestation time 150 days) Most critical time – 70% of fetal growth Poor nutrition costs production Low birth weights, mothering ability, low milk production, ketosis Utilize pasture and supplement feeding Need % of body weight 2# - 4# good quality hay + 2# corn

27 Lactation.. Doe nutrition is the key to early kid growth Lactation peaks at weeks Utilize pasture Feed at 4 - 5% body weight 3# - 4# good hay + 3# - 4# grain

28 Buck Nutrition Utilize pasture when available Monitor body condition 3-4 weeks prior to breeding 4# of hay + 2# of grain Monitor body condition during breeding

29 What to Feed % CP ration % TDN % ammonium chloride Coccidiastat Salt and mineral 2:1 ratio

30 Kid Nutrition.. Start kids on creep as soon as possible Feed a 16% CP pelleted ration Contains a coccidiastat Maintains a 2:1 Ca to P ratio Keep fresh water available in smaller containers that kids can reach at all times!

31 Reproduction.. Economic Success! Estrous cycle is days Short day breeders (Oct. - Dec.) Flushing ½ - 1# per head per day of corn Deworm prior Turn on to new pasture Monitor BCS (1 - 5) BCS of 2 for best results

32 Reproduction.. The Buck effect Synchronizing Controlled breeding season Efficient management of facilities Puberty 6-10 months Breed doe kids – weight (80#) Separate buck kids

33 Reproduction.. Accelerated Kidding 3 crops in 2 years High input BSE on Bucks Semen, libido, testicles, health Trim feet Good body condition

34 Health.. Diseases and Problems Ketosis Overeating Parasites (worms) Coccidia Foot rot or scald Pinkeye General sickness

35 Health.. Last Trimester Ketosis Feeding management Vaccinate for Clostridial organisms, tetanus (CD/T) 2-4 weeks prior Gives immunity to the kids Vitamin E and Selenium (if needed) Deworm – periparturient rise (check dewormer for abortion possibility)

36 Health.. Deworming Establish a program Check fecal samples Use FAMACHA Deworm only when needed Rotate wormers yearly or when there is no response Families or classes of products Give orally

37 Health.. Deworming Hold feed - leave in pen (12-48 hrs) Rotate to clean pastures Do not under dose Metabolism is 3.5 times that of larger species Rule of thumb – Use at 2.5 X cattle rate Calculate rate based on the heaviest doe Select animals with resistance

38 Health Kidding Time Kid in clean areas Dip – Snip – Strip Iodine navel Trim navel Inspect udder Give 1ml BoSe See that kid gets colostrum

39 Health.. Kids 1 to 4 weeks of age Disbud ( days) Castrate (club goats after 8 weeks) Vaccinate with CD/T (14 – 28 days) Watch for scours E-coli Coccidia

40 Health.. Kids at Weaning Give booster vaccinations Deworm Treat for Coccidia (corid or other preventative) Get on full feed as quickly as possible (medicated if feasible) Reduce feed and water to does Trim does feet

41 Other Diseases of Concern Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) Internal and lymph node abscesses Chronic, contagious

42 Other Diseases of Concern Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis (CAE) Arthritis, encephalitis Colostrum is primary mode of transmission

43 Marketing.. Identify your market Club Goat or Meat Goat? Time of year to market Type and size of animal Weights and sex Ethnic demand Commercial market # carcass = 100# goat

44 Goat and Goat Meat Marketing Marketing of goats and goat meat is not well characterized Purchasers of goat meat are generally ethnic consumers Different ethnic groups prefer different types of goat meat (animal age, cut, preparation)

45 Marketing Options Live Meat - direct to consumer - licensed plant - market channel - inspected facility, * trader animal, & product * auction * market coop * local slaughter plant Marketing channels and meat inspection provide utility or they would not exist

46 Goat Market Channels Regional Auctions Local Auctions Individual Consumers Local Producers Traders Processors WholesalersRetailersRestaurants General Consumers Marketing Cooperatives

47 Marketing Strategies Use an existing marketing channel Integrate market channels into your enterprise – retained ownership through processing – special markets (direct sales) Partner with other segments of the marketing channel A specific marketing channel provides utility or it would not exist !!

48 Facilities.. Corrals should be 5-6 feet tall Net wire or 4 X 4 welded wire Chutes 12 wide, smooth sides, slightly curved Well lighted Movement uphill

49 Fencing.. Net Wire 12 vs 6 wire; 48 tall Barbed wire on top and bottom Electric Fencing High maintenance Good for temporary or rotation systems Combination of net and electric Goat proof?

50 Facilities.. Sheds 5 sq. ft. per animal Two sides minimum with one side movable Kidding area Jugs or hutches

51 Predators.. Dogs, coyotes, feral hogs Fencing is your best deterrent Guard animals Dogs, llamas, donkeys Night penning Kidding in protected areas Traps, snares, hunting

52 Estimated Annual Expenses for a Meat-Type Goat Operation in Mississippi, 1996 *Does on pasture with supplement during breeding and kidding *Kids are creep-fed grain and sold at 6 to 7 months of age, weighing an average of 90 pounds

53 Production Parameters: Acres per doe0.25 # of does40.00 # of bucks1.00 # feed/day(b/d)2.00 Days fed (b/d)74.00 Av. # fed (kids)2.50 Days fed (kids)150 # hay/day (b/d)3.00 Days fed (b/d)150 # hay/day (kids)1.00 Days fed (kids)150 Kids sold/doe1.50 Investment/doe$150 Investment/buck$500

54 ItemUnit Price (Dollars)Quantity Amount (Dollars)Per doe Your farm Direct Expenses Feed Does and bucksCwt$ $ $ 13.65_________ KidsCwt , _________ Hay Does and bucksBale _________ KidsBale _________

55 Pasture maintenanceAcre __________ Salt and mineralsDoe __________ Vet/health managementDoe __________ UtilitiesMonth __________ Gas, fuel, oilMonth __________ RepairsDollar0.00 __________ LaborHour0.00 __________ Misc. SuppliesDoe __________

56 MarketingKid __________ InsuranceDollar0.00 __________ DuesYear __________ Interest on operating capital Dollar0.091, __________ Total direct expenses $5,153.37$128.83__________ Total fixed expensesDollar$6, $540.00$13.50__________ Total specified expenses $5,693.37$142.33__________ Break-even point in dollars/cwt sold (direct expenses only) $95.00

57 Notes: 1.This budget is for planning purposes--use only as a guide. Use column on the right to adjust these figures to fit your operation. 2.The market for goats in Mississippi is not well- defined. Income figures depend on location and individual access to market outlets. 3.Expense items are based on the production parameters specified.

58 Meat Goat vs. Club Goat? Whats the difference? Meat goat - sold by the pound Market dictates price per # Club goat - sold by the head Market dictates price per head Sold by the # at end of project

59 Understanding Differences.. Club Goat Structural correctness Heavy muscled Volume and capacity Style and balance Predictable growth Meat Goat Heavy muscled Rapid growth and performance Easily maintained

60 Ideal Meat Goat?

61 Influences on Lean Meat Yield Conformation- relative shape of body comparing size, mass, and shape of muscles compared with size, mass, and shape of body Relative proportion of muscle to fat/bone Relative body size (weight or circumference of heart girth, barrel, or limbs)

62 Selection Classes 1 99 highest conformation Selection middle conformation 1 00 lowest conformation 2 99 highest conformation Selection middle conformation 2 00 lowest conformation 3 99 highest conformation Selection middle conformation 3 00 lowest conformation

63 Selection 1 Superior meat-type conformation Thickly muscled as indicated by Pronounced (bulging) outside leg Full (rounded) back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi) Moderately thick outside shoulder

64 Selection 2 Average meat-type conformation Moderately muscled as indicated by Slightly thick and slightly pronounced outside leg Slightly full (flat or slightly shallow) back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi) slightly thick to slightly thin outside shoulder

65 Selection 3 Inferior meat-type conformation Moderately muscled as indicated by Narrow legs, back, shoulders in relation to body length Very angular and shrunken appearance Deficient muscling in leg, back strip (rib and loin, L. dorsi), shoulder

66 Selection 1 50

67 Selection 2 50

68 Selection 3 70

69 ComparisonsComparisons

70 Goat Carcass Selection Classification

71 Side carcass views

72 Other Carcass Evaluation Criteria Flank lean color – consumers desire light pink meat color Kidney, heart, and pelvic fat- fat is left in carcass to prevent drying, but is waste Subcutaneous fat cover score – – external fat deposited behind shoulder and over ribs, not over back or legs – depth is not uniformly distributed for measurement

73 Lean Flank Color

74 Kidney, Heart and Pelvic Fat, %

75 Subcutaneous Fat Over Score

76 Goat Carcass Fabrication and Cuts Foodservice and many retail companies want standardization of primal and retail cuts, usually portion controlled Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications (IMPS) provide for portion control and uniform cutting/fabrication IMPS for fresh goat (IMPS series 11) were developed for goat meat based upon carcass sizes, resulting in 5 different cutting styles

77 Fresh Goat IMPS Purchaser Specified Options Style (platter, roasting, barbeque, food service, hotel) Cut identification (primal cut or location on carcass) Boneless or bone-in, tail length, special cutting instructions Added ingredients such as enhancement solutions (marinades; salt/water/phosphates) Conformation selection (1, 2, 3) Class (buck, doe, wether) Maturity (kid, yearling, goat)

78 Fresh Goat IMPS Purchaser Specified Options Breed type, forage type, organic certification Slaughter (Halal, Kosher, other) Refrigeration (fresh/refrigerated or frozen) Weight or thickness of portion cut Fat trim level on cut Netting/tying Packaging and packing requirements Quality assurance requirements

79 Fabrication Guide to IMPS Cuts IMPS Style Carcass Weight Range Platter 15 lb. or less lb. 40 lb. or more lb lb.Roastin g Barbeque Food Service Hotel Recommended Skeletal Cuts Recommended Muscular Cuts


81 Meat Goat Class

82 Meat Goats & 4

83 Meat Goats & 1

84 Meat Goats & 4

85 Meat Goat Loin Eye 2

86 Meat Goat Loin Eye 3

87 Meat Goat Loin Eye 1

88 Meat Goat Loin Eye 4

89 Ideal Club Goat?

90 The Club Goat Project

91 Fastest growing project in the Junior Livestock Program Number increased over 500% since first showing at Dixie National Junior Roundup Least expensive project in the program Average $100 - $300 Feed and $100 - $150

92 Club Goat Projects.. 16 – 18% CP fed free choice Feeders - goat proof Creep feed to 80# - then hand feed 2:1 Ca:P, salt and mineral 1% ammonium chloride Coccidiastat Hay-small amounts Clean fresh water daily

93 The End!

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