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THE ACADEMY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES BUCHAREST DOCTORAL SCHOOL OF FINANCE AND BANKING Dissertation Paper TESTING FOR ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET EFFICIENCY MCs: COSMA RĂZVAN GABRIEL Supervisor: Professor MOISĂ ALTĂR BUCHAREST, JUNE 2002

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Contents: Introduction 1. Defining capital market efficiency 2. Versus Efficient Market Hypothesis 3. Testing for market efficiency 3.1. Weak form tests 3.1.1. Fair game 3.1.2. Martingale 3.1.3. Submartingale 3.1.4. Random walk 3.2. Semi-strong form tests 3.2.1. Event study 3.2.2. The record of mutual funds 3.3. Stong-form tests 4. Testing for Romanian capital market efficiency 4.1. Autocorelation coefficients 4.2. Variance Ratio 4.3. Calendar anomalies 5. Conclusions References Appendix

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1. Defining capital market efficiency There are three types of market efficiency: - when prices are determined in a way that equates the marginal rates of return (adjusted for risk) for all producers and savers, market is said to be allocationally efficient; - when the cost of transfering funds is reasonable, market is said to be operationally efficient; - when prices fully reflect all available information, market is said to be informationally efficient.

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Major contributions in developing the market efficiency concept: Bachelier (1900): In the opening paragraph of his dissertation paper, he recognise that: past, present and even discounted future events are reflected in market price, but often show no apparent relation to price changes. Samuelson (1965): In his article, Proof that properly anticipated prices fluctuate randomly, he asserted that: …competitive prices must display price changes…that perform a random walk with no predictable bias. Therefore, price changes must be unforcastable if they are properly anticipated.

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Major contributions in developing the market efficiency concept: Fama (1969): First definition of efficient market=a market which adjust rapidly to new information Fama (1970): A market in which prices always fully reflect available information is called efficient. Rubinstein (1975) and Latham (1985) have extended the definition of market efficiency. The market is said to be efficient with regard to an informational event if the information causes no portofolio changes.

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Jensen (1978): says that prices reflect information up to the point where the marginal benefits of acting on the information (the expected profits to be made) do not exceed the marginal costs of collecting it. Malkiel (1992): offered the following definition: A capital market is said to be efficient if it fully and correctly reflects all relevant information in determining security prices. Formally, the market is said to be efficient with respect to some information set…if security price would be unaffected by revealing that information to all participants. Moreover, efficiency with respect to an informational set …implies that it is impossible to make economic profits by trading on the basis of (that informational set). Major contributions in developing the market efficiency concept:

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Reproaches to market efficiency Grossman (1976) and Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) argue that perfectly informationally efficient markets are an impossibility, for if markets are perfectly efficient, the return to gathering information is nil, in which case there would be little reason to trade and markets would eventually collapse. Campbell, Lo and MacKinlay (1997): share the same oppinion. They are in favour of the notion of relative efficiency – the efficiency of one market measured against another.

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Reproaches to market efficiency Lo and MacKinlay (1999): say: …the Efficient Markets Hypothesis, by itself, is not a well-defined and empirically refutable hypothesis. To make it operational, one must specify additional structure, e.g., investors preferences, information structure, business conditions, etc. But then a test of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis becomes a test of several auxiliary hypotheses as well, and a rejection of such a joint hypothesis tells us little about which aspect of the joint hypothesis is inconsistent with the data. The Bad Model problem: Efficiency per se is not testable. It must be tested jointly with some model of equilibrium. When we find anomalus evidence on behavior of returns, the way it should be split between market inefficiency or a bad model of market equilibrium is ambiguous (Fama-1991)

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Types of market efficiency: Weak-form efficiency: the information set includes only the history of prices or returns themselves. A capital market is said to satisfy weak-form efficiency if it fully incorporate the information in past stock prices. Semistrong-form efficiency: the information set includes all information known to all market participants (publicly available information). A market is semi-stron efficiemt if prices reflect all publicly available information. Strong-form efficiency: the information set includes all information known to any market participant (private information). This form says that anythin that is pertinent to the value of the stock and that is known to at least one investor is, in fact fully incorporated into the stock value.

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Tests of market efficiency: -one must specify the information set used; -one must specify a model of normal returns (the classic assumpion is that normal returns are constant over time); - abnormal returns are computed as difference between the return on a security and its normal return, and forcast of the abnormal return are constructed using the chosen information set. If abnormal return is unforcastable, and in this sense random, then the hypothesis of market efficiency is not rejected.

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Testing for Romanian capital market efficiency The aim of this paper is to investigate if Romanian capital market is weak-form efficient. There is a wide consensus that capital markets in emergind countries are not semistrong-form efficient, nor strong-form efficient, and in most of the cases not even weak-form efficient, due to the lack of financial development. Participants are not well informed and behave irrationally, comparing with well-organised developed markets. The uncertainty about the future is claiming its rights!

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Tests of market efficiency – Weak-form tests The question is: How well do past returns predict future returns? The main assumption is that there should be no pattern in the time series of returns. Three theories of time series behaviour of prices can be found in the literature: -the fair-game model; -the martingale or submartingale model; -the random walk model.

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Tests of market efficiency – Weak-form tests The fair-game model Is based on the behaviour of average returns. A fair-game means that, on average, across a large number of samples, the expected return on a security equals its actual return.

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Tests of market efficiency – Weak-form tests The martingale model Is also a fair game, where tomorrows price is expected to be the same as today (the expected return is zero). The submartingale model Is a fair game with positive returns.

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Tests of market efficiency – Weak-form tests The random walk model The simplest form version is the independently and identicaly distributed increments case, in which the dynamics of prices are given by the equation: The independence of increments implies not only that increments are uncorelated, but that any nonlinear functions of the increments are uncorelated. This model is known as random walk 1 (RW1).

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Tests of market efficiency – Weak-form tests The assumption of identically distributed increments is not plausible for financial asset prices over long time spans, due to changes in the economic, social, technological, institutional and regulatory enviroment in which stock prices are determined. By relaxig the assumptions of RW1 to include processes with independent but not identically distributed (INID) returns we have Random Walk 2. RW2 still retains the most interesting property of RW1: Any arbitrary tansformation of future price increments is unforcastable using any arbitrary transformation of past price increments.

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Testing for market efficiency – Weak-form tests By relaxing the independece assumption of RW2 to include processes with dependent but uncorelated increments we obtain the weakest form of random walk, RW3.

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Data and methodology: The data employed consists from logarithm daily, weekly and montly returns of four Romanian indices, three indices from Bucharest Stock Exchange and one from Rasdaq OTC: -BET (Bucharest Exchange Trading) -BET-Composite -BET-FI -RASDAQ-Composite

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Data series:

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Hypotheses: this paper seeks evidence whether the Romanian capital market follows the random walk model or the market is weak-form efficient. So the tested hypotheses are: H 01 : Prices in Romanian capital market follow random walk process; H 02 : The Romanian capital market is weak-form efficient. If the random walk hypothesis holds, the weak-form of the efficient market hypothesis must hold, but not vice versa. Thus, evidence supporting the random walk model is the evidence of market efficiency. But violation of the random walk model need not be evidence of market inefficiency in the weak form. (Ko and Lee – 1991)

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Autocorelation coefficients test One of the most direct and intuitive test of random walk is to check for serial corelation (Fama 1965). If stock prices exibit a random walk, the returns of stocks are uncorrelated at all leads and lags. To test the join hypothesis that all the serial correlation coefficients, are simultaneosly equal to zero, the Ljung and Box Q statistic is applied:

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RBETIZ RBETCZ

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RBETFZ RRSDZ

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RBETIW RBETCW

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RBETFW RRSDW

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RBETIM RBETCM

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RBETFM RRSDM

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RBETIZ RBETCZ

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RBETFZ RRSDZ

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Variance ratio test This test was developed by Lo and MacKinlay (1988) who showed that the variance ratio test is more powerful than autocorrelation coefficient test. An important property of all three random walk hypotheses is that the variance of increments must be a linear function of the time interval. Specifically, the variance estimated from the q-period returns should be q times as large as the variance estimated from one- period return.

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The standard normal statistics for the variance ratio test under the assumption of homoscedasticity Z(q) and heteroscedastisicty Z(q) are respectively: ~ N(0,1)

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Daily returns:

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Weekly returns:

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Monthly returns:

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Calendar anomalies One way to investigate the predictability of future returns is to check for market anomalies. The anomalies investigated here are: A.The January or Turn-of-the-Year Effect B.The Weekend Effect C.Turn-of-the-month Effect D.Pre-holiday Effect E.Serial Correlation Patterns

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Model 1 R t =a 0 +a 1 *WD t +b 1 *M t *R t-1 +b 2 *Tu t *R t-1 +b 3 *W t *R t-1 +b 4 *Th t *R t-1 +b 5 *F t *R t-1 +b 6 *POSTH t *R t-1 +d*PH t +e*JAN t +f*TOM t +u t Model 2

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We will accept the existence of this anomalies if:

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Conclusions

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Possible explanations for the high autocorrelation: -The non-trading effect -The cross-effect -The correlated trading strategies of institutional investors -The noise-trading effect As Samuelson noted, randomness is achived through the active participation of many investors seeking greater wealth. In their quest to exploit every information, by trading on the basis of it, they automatically incorporate that information in the price.

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For daily series, there is a clear violation of the randomness conditions, and this violation last even for some of weekly series, and even for onen monthly series. In assuming my conclusion about market efficiency, I take into account especially the results for daily series (it is difficult to reject efficiency for weekly and monthly data on many markets. My conclusion is that the Romanian capital market is not weak-form efficient, and the most important causes is the low number of investors on this markets. Due to the incertity about the future, many potential investors stay out of this market, seeking the safeness of bank deposits.

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The implications of inefficiency: -The perception that prices do not fully reflect some information can lead the investors to adopting portofolio strategies designed to reap abnormal profits by exploiting the informational inefficiency. -On the other hand, the investors may be unwilling to trade in securities if it is felt that the information is possessed by others. They might leave these markets to invest elsewhere, or they might reduce the total amount invested. -The information intermediaries will gather information and make profits, because there will exist a big demand for information, as the information is not reflected in prices as it should be. -Firms should not expect to receive the fair value for securities they sell (price will not always reflect the present value for securities they issue). There even might exist the opportunity to fool investors.

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