Presentation on theme: "Market pull, technology push. A technology push implies that a new invention is pushed through Research and Development, production and sales and enters."— Presentation transcript:
market pull, technology push. A technology push implies that a new invention is pushed through Research and Development, production and sales and enters onto the market without proper consideration of whether or not it satisfies a user need. In contrast, an innovation based upon market pull has been developed by the R&D in response to an identified market need.
Example Market Pull Society has an ever increasing demand for greener products and therefore products such as recycling bins, reusable carrier bags, hybrid cars, low energy light bulbs have been developed as a consequence.
Example Technology Push The developments in electronic engineering have enabled smaller, smarter electronic components to be fitted into everyday products such as the mobile phone, personal hi-fi and cameras.
Quality Control Quality Control (QC) is a technique used in all areas of manufacturing. It is a technique used to check quality against a set standard or specification. It may be used to check the dimensions of a product or component. We say that the component has been checked to ensure that it is within accepted tolerances (acceptable variations of sizes which stray from the optimum size). Quality Control requires constant inspection throughout the manufacturing process in order to detect products which are not up to the required standard. These inspections are also carried out on the completion of a product by trained inspectors.
Quality Assurance Quality Assurance (QA) is a a companies guarantee that the product or service it offers meets the accepted quality standards. The planned checking procedures take place 'before, during and after' and the aim is to get it ' right first time, every time'. Quality Assurance must be the responsibility of everybody involved in the creation of a product or service. QA must be built into every stage of product development and every stage of the manufacturing process.
Total Quality Management Total Quality Management (TQM) takes Quality control even further. Its aim is to create a Quality Culture. A company that embraces (TQA) is a company that is continually attempting to improve its products and its performance. Customers tend to be loyal to this type of organisation.
Tolerances When we describe the word tolerance we are really defining how much variation from a precise size specification can be allowed. It would be ideal for there to be no variation at all this is called zero tolerance but in reality this is very difficult to achieve. To achieve zero tolerance costs more money. Some products for example computer chips and some engineering components have to be accurate to +- 10 microns ( 10 microns above or below the optimum size). Other products for example a garden shed may be accurate to +- 50mm.
Example of Ergonomics on buggy A moulded handle A canopy Seat belt Hand rail Quick release folding device Wheels Castor front wheel Foot rest Under seat storage Correctly sized for occupant Shape of the seat
Examples of mechanisms on buggy Wheel Castor Brake lever Disc brake Quick release frame fastener Folding hinges
Brakes – Cantilever brakes With the calliper brake two bell cranks both pivot on the same bolt. They are operated by the cable, which runs to the break lever at the handlebars. The force is transferred through the cable. Input – pull lever, Process – force transferred through cable, Output – brake blocks press against wheel rim.
Brakes - Two bell cranks The drawing below shows the mountain bike brake system. The two bell cranks pivot on separate bolts.
Why use Wood? Wood is a sustainable resource as it can be reproduced. Wood should only be used from managed forests where trees are replanted once they have been cut down. Wooden products are relatively easy to repair. Wood is capable of being recycled into chipboard, mdf, card and paper. Wooden products can be re used to manufacture other wooden products. Wood has the less effect on the environment than many other resistant materials. Wood is biodegradable and will return nutrients back into the soil. Wood should not be burned as it will give off carbon dioxide leading to a reduction in the ozone layer and adding to global warming. Wood should not be used from unknown sources as it may have harmed the environment when it was cut down. Used wooden products can fuel bio mass power stations