Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: Competitive Firms and Markets We learned firms production and cost functions. In this chapter, we study how firms use those information to reach."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8: Competitive Firms and Markets We learned firms production and cost functions. In this chapter, we study how firms use those information to reach the most efficient outcome and how market equilibrium is determined.
What is competition? Economists are concerned with the intensity of competition in market because of its effect on the equilibrium. Various types of market structure: Market is perfectly competitive when each firm in the market is a price-taker, i.e., nobody can affect the equilibrium price. Perfect competition Monopoly/ Monopsony Oligopoly/ Oligopsony
A firm in a competitive market faces a horizontal demand curve. –The firms action does not influence the price. D firmA q P P S firmA 0 Firm level Q P P* S market 0 Market level D market S firmA
Factors that make markets perfectly competitive: –Identical products –Free entry and exit –Both buyers and sellers know the prices –Low transaction costs (costs of search, negotiation, monitoring, and enforcement) Examples: wheat market, stock exchange Perfect competition is the extreme case, but is useful to consider the various real-world market structures.
A firms profit function: The firm maximizes its profit by choosing q. The maximum profit is obtained at q where the distance between revenue and cost curves are the greatest. This occurs when their slopes are equal, i.e., the optimum condition is: Profit Maximization
Competition in the SR Two-step decision –Optimum condition: –Shutdown option: (better shut down if profit is less than the loss from FC) Thus, SR firm supply curve is MC above AVC. What happens to optimum production level –if the price of output increases? –If the price of inputs increase?
SR Shut-down Decision
SR Supply Curve
When factor prices change…
SR market supply is the horizontal sum of firms supply curves: SR competitive market equilibrium: D market (p) = S market (p)
With 5 identical firms
With 2 different firms
SR Market Equilibrium (5 identical firms)
With different firms P q MC PP qq Firm A Firm B Firm C AVC MC P* AC q q
SR Profit Maximization In SR, a firms profit function is: Optimum condition: Value of Marginal Product = Factor Price
Competition in LR In LR, no fixed factor, so only the optimal condition matters. LR firm supply curve is MC above AC as: LR supply curve is more elastic than SR supply curve as fixed factor can be replaced in LR.
LR market supply curve is the horizontal sum of firm supply as in SR. LR market supply curve is horizontal if: –Free entry and exit of firms –All firms have identical costs –Constant input prices
If all conditions hold
Free entry & exit, identical firms, but increasing-cost market:
Free entry & exit, identical firms, but decreasing-cost market
LR market supply with trade An importing countrys supply is the sum of its own + import supply curves. Residual supply curve: –The quantity that the market supplies that is not consumed by other demanders at any given price.
Cf) Similar concept: Residual Demand Curve: the market demand that is not met by other sellers at any given price.D r (p) = D(p) – S o (p)
LR Competitive Equilibrium
Zero Profits for Competitive firms in LR Zero economic profits in LR under three assumptions because all firms operate at their minimum LRAC. Positive profits exist even in LR when some inputs are scarce fixed factors at industry level (not firm level as in SR), e.g., superior oil well, fertile land, and exceptional management ability. These are called economic rents and positive profits are returns to these factors. If we consider these rents as costs, then there is no profit in the LR.
LR Profit Maximization In LR, a firms profit function is: Optimum condition: MPV = factor price Solution to the above leads to factor demand functions: