Presentation on theme: "Describe key characteristics of Canada between 1885 and 1914, including social and economic conditions, the roles and contributions of various people and."— Presentation transcript:
describe key characteristics of Canada between 1885 and 1914, including social and economic conditions, the roles and contributions of various people and groups, internal and external pressures for change, and the political responses to these pressures; use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and communicate information about the factors that shaped Canada as it was entering the twentieth century; compare living and working conditions, technological developments, and social roles near the beginning of the twentieth century with similar aspects of life in present-day Canada.
An unprecedented age of prosperity and massive immigration transform Canada at the turn of the 20th century. Canada's first francophone leader, Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, leads a country marked by Prairie boom times and massive industrialization. Those who shape the new society include peasants from Eastern Europe, in search of free land; socialists who try to mobilize an emerging urban working class; and campaigners for temperance and women's suffrage. The dizzying pace of change also brings ethnic intolerance and racism, particularly against Asian immigrants. As well, growing tensions over Canada's role in the British Empire, foreshadow divisive times to come as the First World War looms on the horizon.
At the start of the 20 th century, Canada was a young country trying to define itself at home and on the world stage. Under the Dominion Lands Policy, land is cheap and plentiful for immigrants and pioneers willing to farm it. 160 acres cost only $10. Homesteaders are given 3 years to build a house - often out of sod or logs - and cultivate a set amount of the land.
Population (Total) : 5,301,000 in 1900 By Province: Ontario2,182,000 Québec1,648,000 Nova Scotia459,000 New Brunswick331,120 Manitoba255,000 British Columbia178,000 Prince Edward Island103,000 Territories and Districts 400,000 Males 2,752,000 Females 2,620,000 Young people between the ages of 10 and 19 - 1,140,000 (21%) People per square mile - 1.55 The average number of people per household in 1900 - 5. In 1976 - 3.1
Canada was a class-based society, with clear racial and economic distinctions separating the rich and the working class. The average yearly wage for production workers is $375. For office and supervisory employees, the annual income is $846. On average, women earn about half of what men do. In most cases, services are available based on money, not need. A new emphasis on capitalism is creating a small but growing middle class of office workers and managers.
Montreal is the largest city in the country, with 267,730 inhabitants in 1901.
Dominating the political scene was Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, Canada first francophone leader. He was a charming, shrewd politician who believed he could smooth over Canada's many divisive issues with a spirit of diplomacy. Laurier had opposed Confederation as a young man but now he was the greatest advocate of a united Canada Nicknamed the "Great Conciliator," Laurier led the country from 1896 to 1911. He rarely strayed from the middle ground in dealing with issues that ranged from the Manitoba School Crisis to the question of free trade with the United States.
"I do not pretend to be an imperialist. Neither do I pretend to be an anti- imperialist. I am Canadian first, last and all the time." - Wilfrid Laurier
The Klondike Gold Rush symbolically ushered in an era of prosperity marked by Prairie boom times, rapid industrialization and technological innovation
Immigration Newcomers flock to Canada and change the cultural landscape of the country. But not everyone is welcome, as prejudice and hate grows in the land of promise.
French and English divide But even Laurier's spirit of diplomacy was sorely tested when it came to French and English relations. During this era, a young French Canadian politician named Henri Bourassa emerged as the prime ministers greatest adversary. Bourassa came to embody a new French nationalism, which maintained that French culture should be on equal footing with English culture throughout the country. He also believed Canada should be as independent from Britain as possible.
Ties to Britain Canada's relationship with the mother country was a key issue during Laurier's tenure. In 1899, young Canadian men marched off to war in South Africa in aid of Britain. And a few years later, Britain came calling again for assistance prompting the creation of the Canadian navy. Canada's support of Britain imbued a sense of pride and confidence in English Canada. But in French Canada, the ties to Britain underscored Quebecs feelings of isolation from the rest of the country. In 1910, Henri Bourassa quit politics, founded the newspaper Le Devoir and led a fierce struggle against Laurier's naval bill, blaming him for Canada's involvement in all imperialist wars to come. In 1911, the reign of the "Great Conciliator" ended. Laurier had been unable to mend the great divide but Canada's identity was stronger. French Canada and English Canada had starting to find their own voices – although not the united one that Laurier had sought.
technology analyse the impact on society of new technologies e.g., prospecting, radio, the telephone, the automobile, electricity Shubham
Canada was home to invention and innovation in the emerging age of technology
In the early 1900s, technology was transforming Canada and the world. And some of the early innovations of the century were being devised right at home.
No theory of relativity. No quantum physics. No TV. No radio. No traffic jams. No atomic energy. No black holes. No Play Station ® or computers. No electric refrigerators or air conditioners. No quantum physics. No satellites. No airplanes. Only a handful of automobiles. No motorized tractors for agriculture. No central heating. No indoor plumbing outside of most urban centres. Electric lights were invented in 1877, but most Canadian homes still use oil lamps for light. There was:
About 1880 they had begun installing lighting on some Montréal streets. Electric-powered tramcars have been circulating in city streets in 1892. In 1889, Quebec City boasted it was "the best lit city in the country". Telephones began to be popular: Bell leases its phones for $5 a year. In Montreal, the Compagnie de téléphone des Marchands is likewise providing service to merchants. Casavant organs, manufactured in Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, are renowned world- wide. The Hollerith Punch Card, Tabulating Machine and Sorter compiles the results of the 1890 census, in 2 ½ years, rather than the usual 10 year period. The inventor, Herman Hollerith, a Census Bureau statistician, forms the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896. A few mergers and name changes later, the company becomes known as IBM.
The Radio The Roots of Radio During the 1860s, Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves; and in 1886, German physicist, Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat. In 1866, Mahlon Loomis, an American dentist, successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy." Loomis was able to make a meter connected to one kite cause another one to move, marking the first known instance of wireless aerial communication.James Clerk MaxwellHeinrich Rudolph HertzMahlon Loomis Guglielmo Marconi Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, proved the feasibility of radio communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899 he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter "S", telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message in 1902.
Growth of Radio - Radiotelegraph and Spark-Gap Transmitters Radio-telegraphy is the sending by radio waves the same dot-dash message (morse code) used in a telegraph. Transmitters at that time were called spark-gap machines. It was developed mainly for ship-to-shore and ship-to- ship communication. This was a way of communicating between two points, however, it was not public radio broadcasting as we know it today. Wireless signals proved effective in communication for rescue work when a sea disaster occurred. A number of ocean liners installed wireless equipment. In 1899 the United States Army established wireless communications with a lightship off Fire Island, New York. Two years later the Navy adopted a wireless system. Up to then, the Navy had been using visual signaling and homing pigeons for communication.telegraph In 1901, radiotelegraph service was instituted between five Hawaiian Islands. By 1903, a Marconi station located in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, carried an exchange or greetings between President Theodore Roosevelt and King Edward VII. In 1905 the naval battle of Port Arthur in the Russo-Japanese war was reported by wireless, and in 1906 the U.S. Weather Bureau experimented with radiotelegraphy to speed notice of weather conditions.
Cape Breton was a magnet for technological development in the first decade of the century. In 1902, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi journeyed to the island to try and convince the world that he could connect Europe and North America with nothing but radio waves. He had had success the previous year, when he transmitted the Morse signal for "s" from Cornwall, England to St. John's, Newfoundland, but his success had been publicly doubted. In Cape Breton, anticipation grew as Marconi worked on his invention. "Excitement around town is intense and all kinds of news is going the rounds concerning events the future will unfold," wrote a reporter with the Sydney Record. On December 15, 1902, Marconi sent the first full wireless message across the Atlantic. It was a short greeting to the Times newspaper of London from its correspondent, a Dr. Parkin, in Glace Bay. Marconi's success gained international attention. He also revolutionized communication, opening the door to the development of the wireless industry.
The Automobile The Rolls Royce Silver Ghost of 1906 Daimler of 1899 Cadillac roadster Driving an automobile required a high degree to technical dexterity, mechanical skill, special clothing including hat, gloves, duster coat, goggles and boots. Tires were notoriously unreliable and changing one was an excruciating experience. Fuel was a problem, since gasoline was in short supply.
A few years later, Cape Breton was again the home of innovation. Alexander Graham Bell, a communication pioneer himself, owned a summer estate on Bras d'Or Lakes. Bell had patented the telephone in the early 1880s but now he turned his attention to flight. The Wright brothers had beaten Bell off the ground in 1903 with the first manned airplane flight but the inventor was determined to go farther, faster - and higher. On a February afternoon in 1909, Bells Silver Dart airplane was ready for testing on the frozen lake of Bras d'Or. A reporter looked on. "Before some people realized what was taking place, the buzz of the engine could be heard and the machine was seen advancing rapidly. She had gone about 90 feet along the ice when she rose gracefully into the air... Everyone seemed dumbfounded." The Dart, piloted by a local man named J.A.D. McCurdy, flew about half a mile, higher and longer than the Wright Brothers' plane. It was the first manned flight in the British Empire.
Alexander Graham Bell If the telephone wasn't born in Canada, it was certainly conceived here. In 1874, in Brantford, Ont., inventor Alexander Graham Bell first described the scientific principle that would convey the human voice over wires. By the Second World War, Canadians led the world in talking by telephone. Later they reached out to each other and around the globe with long distance calling, transatlantic connections and predictions for the future.
Alexander Graham Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1847, and emigrated to Canada with his parents in 1870. Bell began his career as a teacher of the deaf in Boston in 1871. Using a method called visible speech, developed by his father, Bell successfully taught his students how to speak. Through his work, Bell met his two primary financiers: Thomas Sanders, a student's father; and Gardiner Greene Hubbard, president of the Clarke School for the Deaf. Bell was fascinated by sound and how it travelled, and often tinkered with new ways to teach his students. In the summer of 1874 he constructed a device he called the "phonautograph": a dead man's ear attached to a lever. Speaking into the ear caused its membrane to vibrate, moving the lever, which then drew a wavelike pattern on a piece of smoked glass. Bell noted how the miniscule vibrations of the membrane moved the heavy lever. Bell speculated that a similar system could work with a wire attached to a membrane on either end. Speaking into one membrane would vary the intensity of the electrical current, which would vibrate the membrane at the other end of the wire. This was the theory of variable resistance, which makes electrically transmitted speech and thus the telephone possible
Bell was good with blueprints and theory, but he was not mechanically inclined. Hubbard and Sanders backed his idea for the harmonic telegraph, and Bell enlisted Watson's help. One evening as they worked on the harmonic telegraph, Bell described his concept of variable resistance to Thomas Watson. Watson was enthusiastic and the pair began experimenting with metal diaphragms, magnetized reeds, currents and springs to produce a working telephone. A telegraph works by interrupting an electrical current with a series of short and long taps ("dots" and "dashes") known as Morse code. By comparison, the telephone works with a continuous electrical current that varies in intensity according to the sounds of the voice. Bell and Watson discovered this by accident one day when a contact screw was attached too tightly, allowing a constant current that transmitted a "twang" as Watson tweaked a spring. On Feb. 14, 1876, Bell filed a patent on his invention, just hours before that of his nearest competitor, Elisha Gray. The theory of variable resistance was scribbled in the margins of Bell's application. This led to speculation that Bell had later been allowed to amend his application. In the following years Bell's patent was challenged in court over 600 times but he always won.
The Bell Telephone Company was founded by Bell, Hubbard and Sanders on July 9, 1877. Watson was granted ten per cent of the company. Years later, Bell remarked on his discovery: "I now realize that I should never have invented the telephone if I had been an electrician. What electrician would have been so foolish as to try any such thing? The advantage I had was that sound had been the study of my life the study of vibrations." In 1915 Bell and Watson re-enacted their famous telephone call to usher in the first cross-continent telephone line. Bell, in New York, called Watson in San Francisco. "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you!" he said. Watson replied that it would take him a week to get there. All his life, Bell answered the telephone with "Ahoy!" a greeting he advocated for everyone. Thomas Edison, a fellow inventor, is thought to be the first to introduce and popularize "Hello" as a telephone greeting. http://archives.cbc.ca/science_technology/technology/topics/1139/
The question, 'who invented electricity?' does not have a one word answer. The invention of electricity was rather a chain of inventions that paved a path for use of electricity in modern times.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" (now Edison, New Jersey) by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large teamwork to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory. phonograph motion picture cameralight bulbEdison, New Jerseymass production  Edison is the third most prolific inventor in history, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. He is credited with numerous inventions that contributed to mass communication and, in particular, telecommunications. These included a stock ticker, a mechanical vote recorder, a battery for an electric car, electrical power, recorded music and motion pictures. His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as a telegraph operator. Edison originated the concept and implementation of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories – a crucial development in the modern industrialized world. His first power station was on Manhattan Island, New York.prolific inventor US patents in his namemass communicationtelecommunications telegraphpower station Manhattan Island
Electricity - A Brief History of Discovery 1780 – Italy -Italian anatomist Luigi Galvani while experimenting with static electricity and dissected frogs stumbled upon what is today known as electric current 1791 – Italy - Luigi Galvani published a paper regarding the presence of a continuous flow of electricity, at the time referring to it as animal electricity 1800 – Italy - Italian Alessandro Guiseppe Antonio Anastasio Voltas experiments lead to the first version of the battery 1807 – London - Sir Humphrey Davys discovery of the electric arc during experiments with a 2,000-cell battery, was the beginning stage towards incandescent lighting 1820 – Copenhagen - Hans Christian Orstead experiments during a class at the University of Copenhagen led to the discovery of electromagnetism 1827 – Albany New York – Joseph Henry – discovered the lifting power of ordinary magnets could be intensified with electricity thus developing electromagnets. Penfield Iron Works; NY used Henrys electromagnets to separate iron ore from rock. This was one of the first uses of electric technology in industry. 1830s – London - Michael Faradays experiments lead to the discovery of the first electric generator 1831 – Albany, New York – Joseph Henry experiments with an electromagnet, wire and a closed circuit revealed an electric current could cause a mechanical action at some distant point. This was the beginning of the electromagnetic telegraph. 1837 – London – William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone obtained a patent for a galvanic and electromagnetic telegraph. 1839 – London - The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph ran along the Great Western Railway for 18 miles from London to Slough.
1839 – French physicist – Edmund Bequerel discovered the photoelectric effect (certain materials when exposed to light produced a small electric current) 1843 – Washington – Samuel F. B. Morse who discovered the dots and dash communication system laid a 41-mile long telegraph line in glass insulators from Washington to Baltimore 1844 – Washington – Samuel F. B. Morse sends his first coded message. By 1855 – telegraphs transmitted printed words. By 1861 – the telegraph lines of Western Union spanned from coast to coast. By 1866 – a telegraph cable was laid across the Atlantic Ocean. 1876 – Ontario – Alexander Graham Bell working with electrician named Thomas Watson developed a device to transmit human voice. The first telephone took shape. 1877 – New Jersey – Thomas Alva Edison failed experiment with the telephone results in the phonograph. The first recorded sound. 1879 – New Jersey – Edison and his team create the first electrically powered glass lamp. Edison further went on to design the system and circuitry to power the electric light. 1880 – Europe – Nikola Telsa, Galileo Ferraris, and Michael von Dolivo–Dobrowolski had all developed motors using alternating current 1882 – New York – Edison establishes his first commercial power station and provided direct current to approx. 85 local consumers 1886 – US – Approx. 60 local Edison companies all supplying direct current 1887 – New York – Nikola Telsa (now in the US) applied for patents for his two-phase and three-phase AC motors 1888-1896 – Pittsburgh – George Westinghouse bought the patents and hired Telsa to work with his engineers to develop a long-range productive AC system for commercial and domestic use.
1891 – Colorado – The first commercial AC power transmission system in America was installed in a mine 1893 – Chicago – Worlds Fair – Westinghouse demonstrated that use of AC generators, transformers, and rotary converters changed AC to DC. He showed how a single AC generating plant could deliver both AC and DC power 1893 – Niagara Falls, US – J.P. Morgan and William K. Vanderbilt formed the Cataract Construction Company and with a two-phase AC system started to generate several thousand-horse powers of electricity which later developed into a more powerful system. 1897 – Britain – J. J. Thomson identifies the electron. It is the particle of energy that flows through wires and creates the electric current. 1905 – Albert Einstein – defined the essence of light and the photoelectric effect (the basis for photovoltaic technology) 1954 – United States – Bell Laboratories developed the first photovoltaic cell (solar cell) and module 1960s – United States - Space industry (NASA) began to experiment with photovoltaic technology (solar power) as a power source for spacecrafts 1970s – Research by various companies began into using photovoltaic technology (solar power) as a source of electricity for everyday applications
Adam Beck: "Power for the People." Further afield in Canada, Adam Beck was powering his own contribution to the age of technology. The cigar box maker from London Ontario - turned provincial politician - dreamed of harnessing the power of Niagara Falls to produce cheap and bountiful electricity. Becks slogan was "Power for the People." "The poorest working man will have electric light in his home... Nothing is too big for us. Nothing is too expensive to imagine." In 1906, he introduced a bill in the provincial legislature to create the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario. Beck became head of the new power commission and led the movement to develop electricity from Niagara Falls. Beck created the world's largest electrical company and helped ignite an industrial boom in Canada.
In Ontario, politician Adam Beck created the largest hydro- electric company in the world in 1906. The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario helped ignite an industrial boom in the province, providing cheap and available electricity for everyone. It was people like Beck, who helped define the Canada of the new century. A country where it seemed all people had a chance to make their dreams could true. At the time it was hard to deny "that the twentieth century shall be the century of Canada."
In 1900… There are less than 200 automobiles registered in all of Canada - and every one of them is in Ontario. The first automobile in Canada, however, was on the road in Rustico, Prince Edward Island, 34 years earlier; at the wheel was the local priest, Father Georges-Antoine Belcourt, originally from Quebec. The first one had been built in Canada 3 years earlier.
Politics The Parliament of Canada is the legislative branch of the federal government in Canada and makes the laws of Canada. Parliament is made up of three parts: the Crown or Queen, represented by the Governor General of Canada, the House of Commons and the Senate. The original Parliament Buildings were built between 1859 and 1866, just in time to be used as the seat of government for the new Dominion of Canada in 1867.
William Lyon Mackenzie KingWilliam Lyon Mackenzie King (1921 to 1926) Arthur MeighenArthur Meighen (1920 to 1921) Sir Robert BordenSir Robert Borden (1911 to 1920) Sir Wilfrid LaurierSir Wilfrid Laurier (1896 to 1911) Sir Charles TupperSir Charles Tupper (1896) Sir Mackenzie BowellSir Mackenzie Bowell (1894 to 1896) Sir John ThompsonSir John Thompson (1892 to 1894) Sir John AbbottSir John Abbott (1891 to 1892) Sir John A MacdonaldSir John A Macdonald (1878 to 1891) Alexander MackenzieAlexander Mackenzie (1873 to 1878) Sir John A MacdonaldSir John A Macdonald (1867 to 1873) The First 11 Prime Ministers of Canada
Sir John A MacdonaldSir John A Macdonald (1867 to 1873) Highlights as Prime Minister: *building a trans-continental railway, the Canadian Pacific Railway *building a nation with the entry into Confederation of Prince Edward Island, the Northwest Territories (including Alberta and Saskatchewan), Manitoba, and British Columbia *opening the West for settlement *creation of the North-West Mounted Police *the Northwest Rebellion and the hanging of Louis Riel *the National Policy of tariffs against imports to protect Canadian industry Prime Minister of Canada: 1867-73, 1878-91
Alexander Mackenzie Prime Minister of Canada: 1873-78 Alexander Mackenzie was the first Liberal prime minister of Canada. A severe economic depression was a major problem for Alexander Mackenzie, but his government implemented some major reforms, including: *the secret ballot *Supreme Court of Canada *Office of Auditor GeneralAuditor General *Royal Military College of Canada *Department of Militia and Defence
Sir John Abbott Sir John Abbott was Prime Minister of Canada for only 17 months and saw himself as a caretaker prime minister, stepping in on the death of Sir John A. Macdonald in 1891.Sir John A. Macdonald Sir John Abbott has a few notable firsts to his name: *Sir John Abbott was the first Canadian prime minister to be born on Canadian soil. *Sir John Abbott was the first Senator to become Prime Minister of Canada. *Sir John Abbott was the first Canadian prime minister to be a member of both the House of Commons and the Senate. Prime Minister of Canada: 1891-92
Sir John Thompson Sir John Thompson was the first provincial premier to become prime minister of Canada and the first Roman Catholic prime minister of Canada. Sir John Thompson died suddenly after just two years as Canadian prime minister. His major contribution was the Canadian Criminal Code of 1892. Prime Minister of Canada: 1892-94
Sir Mackenzie Bowell Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie Bowell was anti- Catholic and anti-Liberal and in over his depth on the divisive Manitoba Schools Question on minority education rights. Mackenzie Bowell was the only prime minister of Canada to be forced to resign by his own cabinet, which he called a "nest of traitors." Prime Minister of Canada: 1894-96
Sir Charles Tupper With an impressive career in Canadian politics, Sir Charles Tupper was 75 when he finally became Prime Minister of Canada, and then served for only 10 weeks. His Conservative government was defeated by Sir Wilfrid Laurier's Liberals onSir Wilfrid Laurier the Manitoba Schools Question on minority education rights. As well as Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Charles Tupper was: *a Father of ConfederationFather of Confederation *the first president of the Canadian Medical Association *a premier of Nova Scotia largely responsible for Nova Scotia joining Confederation in 1867premier of Nova Scotia Prime Minister of Canada: 1896
politics Why did Canadians support Lauriers leadership for fifteen years?....... Highlights of Sir Wilfred Laurier as Prime Minister: *established the Departments of Labour and External Affairs *recruited immigrants to the West provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan created in 1905Alberta Saskatchewan *two new transcontinental railways begun, although the projects were riddled with scandal *reciprocity deal with the United States for lower rates on natural products, but Liberals were defeated on free trade in 1911 *stand against conscription split the Liberal party
Sir Wilfrid Laurier had the longest unbroken term of office of any Canadian prime minister. Laurier was Prime Minister of Canada for 15 years and a member of the House of Commons for 45 years. Sir Wilfrid Laurier was the first francophone Prime Minister of Canada, fluently bilingual, and spent much of his time in office trying to balance the interests of the French and English in Canada. Laurier was a moderate and known for his ability to compromise. Prime Minister of Canada: 1896-1911 Sir Wilfrid Laurier
Political Career of Sir Wilfrid Laurier: Wilfrid Laurier was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec in 1871. He was first elected to the House of Commons in 1874, and served as Minister of Inland Revenue from 1877 to 1878. Wilfrid Laurier was elected Leader of the Liberal Party in 1887. He was Leader of the Official Opposition from 1887 to 1896. With the election of the Liberal Party in the 1896 general election, Wilfrid Laurier became Prime Minister of Canada. The Liberals lost the 1911 general election over the issue of "unrestricted reciprocity" or free trade with the United States. Sir Robert Borden became Prime Minister. Sir Robert Borden Wilfrid Laurier was Opposition Leader from 1911 to 1919. Sir Wilfrid Laurier died in 1919 while still a member of parliament.
Sir Robert Borden Prime Minister Robert Borden led Canada through World War I, eventually committing 500,000 troops to the war effort. Robert Borden formed a Union Government of Liberals and Conservatives to implement conscription, but the conscription issue split the country bitterly - with the English supporting sending troops to help Britain and the French adamantly opposed.World War I Robert Borden also led in achieving Dominion status for Canada and was instrumental in the transition from the British Empire to the British Commonwealth of Nations. At the end of World War I, Canada ratified the Treaty of Versailles and joined the League of Nations as an independent nation. Prime Minister of Canada: 1911-20
Sir Robert Borden Highlights as Prime Minister: Emergency War Measures Act of 1914 Wartime Business Profits Tax of 1917 and the "temporary" Income Tax, the first direct taxation by the Canadian federal government Veterans benefits Nationalization of bankrupt railways Introduction of a professional public service
People found riches in the golden wheat of the prairies. By the beginning of the 20th century, the discovery of a new variety of climate- resistant wheat, as well as mechanization of agriculture, contributed to thriving wheat harvests. Strong demand in the United States, Britain and Europe, made wheat Canada's main export. From 1896 to 1911, annual exports of wheat went from 8 million to 75 million bushels, which made the Prairies the breadbasket of the British Empire.
From 1867-1891, Canada was open for business, from an immigrant's point of view. There weren't many restrictions on who could enter the country, except for a head tax on Chinese immigrants, which was introduced in 1885. Eastern and Central Canada was the destination of choice, with British Columbia attracting many people from Asia. By 1900, Minister of the Interior Clifford Sifton's immigration policy is more restrictive.
In 1896, Sifton was elected a Member of Parliament and served as Minister of the Interior under Laurier. As Minister of the Interior he started a vigorous immigration policy to get people to settle and populate the West. Sifton established colonial offices in Europe and the United States. He enticed people to come to western Canada. While many of the immigrants came from Britain and the United States, Canada also had a large influx of Ukrainians, Doukhobors, and other groups from the Austro- Hungarian Empire. Between 1891 and 1914, more than three million people came to Canada, largely from continental Europe, following the path of the newly constructed continental railway. In the same period, mining operations were begun in the Klondike and the Canadian Shield.LaurierWest EuropeUnited States BritainUnited States UkrainiansDoukhoborsAustro- Hungarian EmpireKlondikeCanadian Shield Clifford Sifton and Canadas Immigration Policy
Clifford Sifton In 1897, Canada's Minister of the Interior, Clifford Sifton implemented an immigration policy that encouraged millions of Europeans to settle in the West and cultivate the agricultural gold.
One of the principal factors contributing to the increase in immigration to Canada was the immigration policy of the Liberal government of Prime Minister Sir Wilfred Laurier. Only Farmers Need Apply Lauriers Minister of the Interior from 1896-1905, Clifford Sifton, desired to populate western Canada with farmers in order to add to the production of the country, solve the railway problem and help pay the national debt. The government offered free homesteads to applicants who qualified. To settle the prairies, Sifton vigorously wooed American farmers, people from Scotland and the North of England, and Eastern and Central European peasants. He believed that only agriculturalists and peasants made desirable settlers.
Town Dwellers Not Desirable Anti-Sifton Sentiment Siftons definition of a desirable immigrant was not shared by all Canadians. As a result of his policy, there was a backlash from people who saw large numbers of immigrants coming from non-British countries. Canada was a member of the British Empire and English Canadians expected the country to keep its links with their motherland strong by bringing in others with common roots. Hyphenated Canadians George Exton Lloyd, writing in 1929, asks The question for Canada is this: Can we build up a great nation while racial groups with different traditions, instincts, and ideals are being poured in to this country? and It will produce in Canada what it has produced in the States, a series of hyphenated Canadians who will demoralize our British institutions. Lesser Quality Immigrants Sifton complained that after he left office as the Minister of the Interior in 1905, the changes in policy resulted in the arrival of a lesser quality of immigrant: It is quite clear that we received a considerable portion of the off-scourings and dregs of society.
Herds of the Proletariat Stephen Leacock, writing in 1911, although referring to immigrants from Europe, comments: The whole movement of the population has been made easy, automatic, effortless. Steamship companies vie in cheap transportation. Immigration aid societies extend a temporary welcome and the co-operation of national brotherhood. And these conditions contribute to the arrival of …herds of the proletariat of Europe, the lowest classes of industrial society, without home and work…
Canadas 1901 census put our population at 5,371,315. Fifty-seven percent of those counted claimed British origins. In 1902 the greatest influx of immigrants in Canadas history began and continued until the beginning of World War 1 in 1914.
After an emigration office was established in Trafalgar House, Trafalgar Square, London, in 1903 the number of Britons enticed to emigrate to Canada increased to 42,198 (30% of the total) from 17,275 (just 19% of the total) the previous year. The number of immigrants to Canada reached its peak in the years 1912 and 1913.(Knowles 2000) Between 1902 and 1914, of the approximately 2.85 million newcomers who arrived on Canadian soil, 1.18 million had English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh or other British roots. These newcomers came from every British class from paupers to upper-class. Year Total Immigrants British Immigrants Percentage of total 1912 375,756147,61939% 1913 400,870158,39839%
Factors in Europe contributing to emigration: *Collapse of the social structure; *Transformation of agriculture and industry; *Precipitous increase in population.
Factors leading to increase in immigration in Canada, late 1890s to 1914: 1. Yukon gold rush (1897-1899); 2. Completion of the first continental railway (CPR 1885) and building of other lines; 3. Closing of the American frontier; 4. New developments in dry land farming; 5. Canadian governments first concentrated policy to promote immigration. http://www.british-immigrants-in-montreal.com/index.html
Sifton felt strongly that town dwellers, artisans, shopkeepers and labourers were not desirable immigrants as they didnt make good pioneers and would increase the population of the major cities, add to unemployment, create slum areas and become a festering sore…which…will remain as long as Canada endures. When I speak of quality I have in mind, I think, something that is quite different from what is in the mind of the average writer or speaker upon the question of Immigration. I think a stalwart peasant in a sheep-skin coat, born on the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for ten generations, with a stout wife and a half-dozen children, is good quality. A Trades Union artisan who will not work more than eight hours a day and will not work that long if he can help it, will not work on a farm at all and has to be fed by the public when his work is slack is, in my judgement, quantity and very bad quantity. I am indifferent as to whether or not he is British-born. It matters not what his nationality is; such men are not wanted in Canada, and the more of them we get the more trouble we shall have. From: Only Farmers Need Apply: Sir Clifford Sifton, The Immigrants Canada Wants, Macleans magazine, April 1, 1922, pp. 16, 32-4. Town Dwellers Not Desirable
Immigration is funnelled to the West in order to settle and farm the wide tracts of Prairie land. The profile of the preferred immigrant is white and British; as stated by Minister Clifford Sifton, "stalwart peasants in sheepskin coats". If British immigrants are not available, other white immigrants will do. White immigrants from Eastern Europe are reluctantly accepted in large numbers, but black and Asian immigration is discouraged. Chinese immigrants are subject to a head tax, which requires every Chinese immigrant to pay a special $50 tax upon entering the country. Although relatively few in number - there are only 23,000 Chinese people in Canada in 1900 - arrivals from Asian countries are resented by the white majority. Originally, male Chinese labourers were allowed into Canada to work for low wages in British Columbia's gold mines and on the trans-Canada railroad. They sent most of their earnings back to China to help support their families. Chinese workers will accept lower wages than white workers, and this causes resentment in the white population, especially when jobs are scarce. The populace generally perceives Chinese people to be immoral opium addicts. There is no official policy restricting Blacks from entering Canada, but the unofficial policy is to discourage it whenever possible. As a result, there are far fewer black immigrants than there may have been otherwise.
In 1899, Canada admitted 44,543 immigrants. Between 1894 and 1899, 154,613 immigrants came to call Canada home. In the five year period between 1991 and 1996, well over 1,000,000 immigrants will arrive. Between 1896 and 1907, Canada admitted 1.3 million European and American immigrants. Less than 900 Blacks were included in that number. In fact, the black population of Canada decreased from 50,000 in 1860 to 17,000 in 1911. In the lumber industry, Chinese workers are paid only between 25% and 50% of the wages paid to white labourers for the same work.
Rating the Immigrants Eager to develop the West, Canadian immigration authorities rate immigrants according to their race, perceived hardiness and farming ability: Most WantedEnglish French white American farmers AcceptableBelgians Dutch Scandinavians Swiss Finns Russians Germans Austro-Hungarians Ukrainians Poles Need Not ApplyItalians South Slavs Greeks Syrians Jews Blacks Asians Gypsies Rating the Immigrants Eager to develop the West, Canadian immigration authorities rate immigrants according to their race, perceived hardiness and farming ability:
From 1988 until his death in 1925, Jean Gaire, a priest born in Lorraine, France and landed in Saint-Boniface, Manitoba, worked to attract Frenchmen to Western Canada. He founded Grande-Clairière in 1888. In July 1889, the settlement had 150 inhabitants; it grew to 400 by 1891, and to 600 in 1892. Gaire went on to found Cantal, Bellegarde and Wauchope, contributing to the development of what later became Saskatchewan. "Sir, I am to say to you in answer to your letter... that it is not desired that any negro immigrants should arrive in western Canada." From an 1899 letter written by a Canadian immigration official, and quoted in "How they kept Canada almost lily white: The previously untold story of the Canadian immigration officials who stopped American blacks from coming to Canada" by Trevor W. Sissin
Organized Hate The San Francisco-based Asiatic Exclusion League, dedicated to preventing Asian immigration to America, opens up a number of new chapters in Canadian cities such as Vancouver. Victoria has its own Anti- Chinese Association.
The development of the West encouraged the federal government to take on the construction of a second transcontinental railroad in order to better serve this vast territory. Railroad construction became, at the beginning of the 20th century, the most important sector of investment. It stimulated in turn, the operation of iron and coal mines, heavy industry and the deployment of other transportation networks on the ground and in the water.
At the turn of the century, the industrial age enveloped. Natural resources such as wheat still anchored the countrys economy but now manufactured goods were in big demand. Factories sprung up to produce such goods as rubber products, leather goods and farm machinery. As the demand for manufactured goods increased so did the size of Canadas working class. From sea to sea, Canadian cities developed at a frantic rate. More of the population left the countryside to settle in cities, with the hopes of finding factory work. Residential and commercial construction was increasing, new roads were being laid out, and tramway and streetcar networks were developed
Childhood in 1900 didn't really exist; until the mid-1800s, there wasn't a distinction between childhood and adulthood. Most people lived on farms and the household was the central economic unit, not an office or factory. Children were expected to work from an early age, to contribute to the family's success, and to keep their opinions to themselves. The father ruled the family without challenge, and mothers looked after the children's religious and moral education. Child mortality was high, as a result of infectious diseases like diphtheria, tuberculosis and typhus, and from infections. In the decades before 1900, all that has begun to change. The infant mortality rate has started to improve. Children are seen as more than little workers - they are seen as emotionally and psychologically dependent beings. They have become sentimentalized, and have been labeled weak, innocent, and vulnerable. Laws have been passed to protect them.
Juvenile courts have recently set up a new criminal system for youth. Previously, for most crimes, children were dealt with as adults. Now, wayward youth are given special consideration. Recently, many churches have set up youth groups to keep children interested in religion and out of trouble.
children only make up about 3.6% of the workforce - down from about 10% in the mid-1800s. Church organizations and secular groups are created just for their welfare, and the courts treat them differently. Yet, by todays standards, their lives are difficult. They work harder and at a younger age, and are much less pampered. They are expected to contribute more and complain less. They are subject to corporal punishment for "discipline and moral correction." Candy is a treat, not a constant. Consumerism, as we know it in the year 2011, just doesn't exist. If you are a male teenager, you are probably up at 4 a.m. to milk the cows and do your chores on the farm before school, if you make it there. School is strictly a winter activity, and you have to trudge through the snow to the outhouse. If you live in the city and your family isn't well off, you are up at dawn to work long hours in a factory under really lousy conditions. Complaining will get you fired or a shot in the chops. If you are a female teenager, odds are you're milking those cows too, and then helping your mother sew and make butter before the sun rises. In the cities, you are a live-in domestic servant, working for negligible wages 29 days a month. Book learning isn't a priority for you. On the bright side, you can sleep in until dawn. In the 1870s, kids younger than 10 were still working in the coal mines, but minimum age laws have changed that. In Ontario, the minimum age to work in a factory is now 14 years. School is compulsory in most provinces until the age of 14 or 16.
A system of common public schools financed with public funds has been operating in Quebec for close to 60 years. The Montréal Catholic School Board has existed since 1845 and Laval University, the first French-speaking university in North America, for close to 50 years.
Women's Rights January 1, 1900 The weaker sex but the more virtuous one; that's how women are seen as the 20 th century dawns. Canadian society recognizes the role of women as important, especially when it comes to education and family, but secondary to the role of men. Women are believed to need protection. The laws of the country reflect this. Although women can vote in municipal elections in 4 provinces, they cannot vote anywhere in Canada federally or provincially, and cannot run for office. With the exception of British Columbia, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Ontario, in most provinces, when a woman marries she loses her right to hold property. All her wealth and goods pass to her husband. A married woman can't make legal contracts or go into business on her own. The reforms that changed that in the provinces mentioned above are as recent as two years ago. Divorce laws make it difficult, if not often impossible, to escape an abusive marriage. Women who claim to have been sexually assaulted are given little support by the courts. Women work, but they hold lower paying jobs, such as domestic servants. A woman's average income is likely to be about half of a man's. Until 1880, no woman had practiced medicine in Canada. In 1897, Clara Brett Martin became the first woman lawyer in Canada despite intense opposition from members of the profession.
Thanks to the intervention of the Grey Nuns who, as early as 1893, opened free "shelters" to care for children, Francophone women in Montreal can work outside of the home more readily than their Anglophone compatriots, who lack access to similar "childcare" services.
So what can women do? Volunteer! They organize numerous charities, political and social groups, and lead the fight against alcohol use. They fight for the vote and tackle issues like child welfare, prostitution, and Canada's ethnic and cultural purity. To avoid subservience to men, they form separate groups, like the Women's Christian Temperance Movement, Women's Institutes and Local Councils of Women.
Women make up about 13% of the work force in Canada. 40% of these are employed in domestic service.
By 1900, women have won the right to vote municipally in the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia Ontario and Prince Edward Island but not in provincial and federal elections?
Women make up more than 80% of the Catholic teaching personnel in Quebec. They are paid two to three times less than male teachers and do not have access to the same training; moreover, lay teachers suffer the competition of the nuns, who hold 35% of the elementary school positions and are not required to undergo an admissions examination The nursing profession is monopolized by nuns. Girls had been admitted as students at the Notre-Dame hospital in Montréal only three years earlier. A French-speaking woman in Quebec who wishes to exercise her talents is best advised to join a religious community. They have a virtual stranglehold on education, nursing, and charitable works (orphanages, childcare, hospices, etc.). They employ hundreds of people and manage substantial funds.
A Working Woman's Life (1889)$ Average hours worked per week54 Average number of days worked/year 359 Average income216.71 Cost of clothing67.31 Cost of room and board126.28 Total cost of living214.28 Surplus2.43
Domestic service is the most common paid employment for women in 1900. In the 1890's, up to 40% of female employment was in this area. Many secretaries and office support staff are male. By 1921, the percentage of employed women in domestic service will be down to 17%, as women move in non-traditional jobs. A good ladies street skirt will set you back $6.00, a pound of Mocha-Java coffee costs 35 cents, and a pair of skate blades cost between 25 cents and $5, depending on the quality.
Nellie McClung, born Nellie Letitia Mooney (20 October 1873 – 1 September 1951) was a Canadian feminist, politician, and social activist. She was a part of the social and moral reform movements prevalent in Western Canada in the early 1900s. In 1927, McClung and four other women: Henrietta Muir Edwards, Emily Murphy, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby, who together came to be known as "The Famous Five" (also called "The Valiant Five"), launched the "Persons Case," contending that women could be "qualified persons" eligible to sit in the Senate. The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that current law did not recognize them as such. However, the case was won upon appeal to the Judicial Committee of the British Privy Councilthe court of last resort for Canada at that time.Canadian feminist Henrietta Muir EdwardsEmily MurphyLouise McKinneyIrene ParlbyThe Famous FivePersons CaseSenate Supreme Court of CanadaJudicial Committee of the British Privy Council
Nellie McClung "It was uproariously funny," says Manitoban Beatrice Brigden, recalling Nellie McClung's famous 'mock parliament' of 1914. McClung was an instrumental figure in the fight for women's votes in Canada. In her groundbreaking mock parliament speech, McClung port http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/clips/ 9553/ rayed a world in which gender roles were reversed.
Lucy Maud Montgomery (1874-1942 ), Isn't it splendid to think of all the things there are to find out about? It just makes me feel glad to be aliveit's such an interesting world. It wouldn't be half so interesting if we know all about everything, would it? There'd be no scope for imagination then, would there? But am I talking too much? People are always telling me I do. Would you rather I didn't talk? If you say so I'll stop. I can stop when I make up my mind to it, although it's difficult. Matthew Cuthbert has gone to the train station to pick up the little boy he and his kind-hearted sister Marilla Cuthbert, owners of Green Gables farm, adopted from the Halifax orphanage. But what he finds is a precocious little red-haired girl named Anne Shirley, with a cheery disposition and some profound thoughts to share. Anne soon becomes best friends with Diana Wright, and although Gilbert Blythe can be a pest at times, he too becomes a loyal friend. Anne wins the hearts of many and has continued to attract readers of all ages and touch the hearts of millions of fans world-wide.
Pauline Johnson Emily Pauline Johnson (Mohawk: Tekahionwake –pronounced: dageh-eeon- wageh, literally: 'double-life')  (10 March 1861 – 7 March 1913), commonly known as E. Pauline Johnson or just Pauline Johnson, was a Canadian writer and performer popular in the late 19th century. Johnson was notable for her poems and performances that celebrated her First Nations heritage; she also had half English ancestry. One such poem is the frequently anthologized "The Song My Paddle Sings". Her poetry was published in Canada, the United States and Great Britain. Johnson was one of a generation of widely read writers who began to define a Canadian literature  First NationsEnglishThe Song My Paddle SingsCanadian literature
Canadian actor Donald Sutherland narrated the following quote from her poem "Autumn's Orchestra", at the opening ceremonies of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.Donald Sutherland2010 Winter OlympicsVancouver Know by the music woven through This fragile web of cadences I spin, That I have only caught these songs Since you voiced them upon your haunting violin.
It may seem that without television, radio, movies, video games or cars, people have very little to do for fun. Not true! In 1900, people make their own fun with social gatherings, live theatre, singers, reading and especially sports. Live theatre is big business across Canada. American and other foreign stars regularly tour Canada in a variety of productions from Shakespeare to more modern comedies. Winnipeg's 2,000-seat Walker Theatre put on a performance 7 days a week every week of the year. The companies of the Marks Brothers - not those Marx Brothers - tour constantly across the country. Canadian actors often trek south to wow audiences in the United States.
In Quebec, local professional theatre companies have just been formed. The Monument national and Théâtre des variétiés boast Francophone stars like Blanche de la Sablonnière and Juliette Béliveau. Felix-Gabriel Marchand's comedies draw full houses. The great Sarah Bernardt has performed for a 4 th time in Montreal. However, entertainment is definitely a class-oriented pursuit. Only the rich, and the small but growing middle-class, can afford many of the diversions available in Canada at the start of the 20 th century. Snowshoer clubs organized races, skating rinks proliferated and slides were erected throughout those towns and cities where natural slopes were not sufficient. During the summer, bicycles became so popular that in 1898, the city of Montréal had to adopt a by-law to control cyclists' behaviour.
Baseball is the most popular spectator sport across the country, and it attracts all classes to both play and watch. At urban commercial rinks, there are carnivals and ice shows to draw crowds. Boxing and lacrosse enjoy strong popularity. Hockey is gaining in popularity, but its real popularity is only with the upper and middle classes. The NHL won't be founded for another 17 years. Still, the Stanley Cup has been around for 8 years, and has been won by a variety of amateur teams. This year, the Winnipeg Victorias are the champs. Now that school is compulsory, more and more Canadians can read. Newspapers are starting to flourish. Serious and politically-oriented papers are being joined by "gossipy" rags like the Montreal Star. Literature occupies a large part of the cultivated Francophone population. Les Soirées du Château de Ramezay had just been published, with works by such members of the École littéraire de Montréal as the poet Émile Nelligan, the painter and poet Charles Gill, the writer Jean Charbonneau and many others. For most people, though, community events and homemade fun help them relax: church picnics, making ice cream, barn dances and poetry recitals. These kinds of diversions brought people together as friends and neighbours.
The first football game was played 16 years ago between Harvard University and Montreal's McGill. The first Canadian football championship was won by Osgoode Hall just 8 years ago. Taverns are common but not everywhere. Drinking is blamed for many of the ills of society, and anti-alcohol sentiments are on the rise. A national referendum on temperance held just two years ago found a majority voting to ban alcohol in Canada. Because the margin was so narrow, Prime Minister Laurier has left it to local governments to decide whether to allow liquor to be served.
Just 4 years earlier, in 1896, Ottawans paid 10 cents to become the first Canadians to watch a new technology developed by Thomas Edison called the Vitascope. Featured on this new moving picture machine [graphic of Ottawa Citizen coverage of the event] were short shots, including "four coloured boys eating watermelons,... a bathing scene at Atlantic City and a coloured film of Lo Lo Fuller's Serpentine Dance." The showing provoked both excitement and moral outrage in some quarters. In 1902, Vancouver's Schulberg's Electric will charge a nickel to customers to watch these new silent movies. These movie theatres became known as nickelodeons. In the last 10 years, newspapers have started to add a new feature called the Sports Page. That helps fuel the growing interest in amateur and professional sports.
Canadas role within the British Empire The Naval Question, Canadas participation in Imperial Conferences
The Boer Wars (known in Afrikaans as VryheidsoorlogAfrikaans (lit. "freedom wars")) were two wars fought between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics, the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic).British EmpireBoerOrange Free StateSouth African Republic
Canada gets its first taste of battle when it fights with Britain in South Africa
The Boer War has been sputtering along since October 11, 1899. It's being fought by Britain against the Boers of South Africa, and due to popular demand in some quarters, Canadian troops are in the thick of it. But it's causing a devil of a problem for Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier.
Boer women and children in a British concentration camp young Lizzie van Zyl who died in the Bloemfontein concentration camp: She was a frail, weak little child in desperate need of good care. Yet, because her mother was one of the "undesirables" due to the fact that her father neither surrendered nor betrayed his people, Lizzie was placed on the lowest rations and so perished with hunger that, after a month in the camp, she was transferred to the new small hospital. Here she was treated harshly. The English disposed doctor and his nurses did not understand her language and, as she could not speak English, labeled her an idiot although she was mentally fit and normal. One day she dejectedly started calling for her mother, when a Mrs Botha walked over to her to console her. She was just telling the child that she would soon see her mother again, when she was brusquely interrupted by one of the nurses who told her not to interfere with the child as she was a nuisance". Quote from Stemme uit die Verlede ("Voices from the Past") - a collection of sworn statements by women who were detained in the concentration camps during the Second Boer War (1899-1902). (http://www.boer.co.za/boerwar/hellkamp.htm)Bloemfonteinconcentration campEnglishSecond Boer Warhttp://www.boer.co.za/boerwar/hellkamp.htm
the native vote "I felt it was so unjust that they didn't have the vote," says John Diefenbaker. "I brought it about as soon as I could after becoming prime minister." Diefenbaker is talking about native Canadians, who couldn't vote in Canadian elections without giving up their treaty rights until 1960. http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/topics /1450/
Voting Age "Why is the voting age not lowered to 18?" asks a young woman in this radio report from 1948. It's a highly debated issue in the '40s. At the 1948 Hansard Society youth conference, Agnes Macphail Canada's first female member of Parliament says the voting age should be lowered. "I think a person at age 18 is as mature as a great many people ever are," she answers, and the audience of young people laughs. MP John Diefenbaker is reluctant to say he supports the other side of the debate, but does suggest a few important points to think about. When Saskatchewan lowered the voting age to 18, he says, "a very small proportion" of those young people actually voted. http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/topics/145 0/
Chinese- and Indo-Canadians were denied the right to vote until 1947. Japanese-Canadians were finally allowed to vote a year later, in 1948. http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/clips/ 9555/
RCMP v. NWMP compare the image and duties of the North-West Mounted Police to the image and duties of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police today;
The British immigrants living in the Dominion of Canada at the outbreak of World War 1 were largely staunch supporters of the British Empire as were other British-born elsewhere. These British-born immigrants would be quick to volunteer to fight when war was declared in August, 1914. Those who couldn't fight would support their soldiers from the home front. They were ready to sacrifice for the cause.
Build-up to World War 1 Britain had agreed in 1907 to support the French if it came to war with Germany. The British had become uncomfortable with the growth of Germanys Navy and had brought their ships back from the Mediterranean to defend the English Channel. Meanwhile, after 1907, military training, organization and equipment had been standardized throughout Britains colonies. By 1909, most Canadian provinces, including Quebec, had started cadet training in the schools. Leading up to outbreak of World War 1, the Minister of Militia (1911- 1916), Colonel Sam Hughes, had been working at preparing the populace in the event of war. He foresaw the eventuality of a war with Germany. In 1913, 55,000 militia men and 44,000 cadets drilled in militia camps. Valcartier camp, a site 20 miles north of Quebec City, had been designated a future militia camp early in 1914. On July 29th, 1914, Canada received a warning from Britain to take precautions in case of a surprise attack. Armed militia men were posted to guard tunnels, bridges, canals and railway stations.(Morton & Granatstein, 1989)
War Declared When Britain declared war on Germany August 4th, 1914, thousands of men were ready and willing to offer their lives as soldiers of the Empire. From Montreal, just one of two battalions, The Royal Highlanders of Canada, headed to Valcartier on August 24th with 1,017 soldiers.
British Reservists Immediately after the war that would be known as World War 1 was declared, some 10,000 British reservists living in Canada prepared themselves to return to Britain. Thousands more from France and Belgium headed home to defend their countries against the German invasion
Canadian Patriotic Fund: With the reservists heading back to the home countries, it became immediately apparent that any dependants they left behind would be in need. Within two weeks, a Montreal M.P., Herbert Brown Ames, was promoting The Montreal Patriotic Fund, an association intended to raise money for the care and support of these dependants. He petitioned the Governor-General of Canada, His Royal Highness, The Duke of Connaught, to create a national fund for this purpose: The Canadian Patriotic Fund. One centralized organization would provide a uniform system for collecting voluntary contributions from the populace and determining who would be eligible for support. By September 1st, the Canadian Patriotic Fund was in operation based in Ottawa.
British-born soldiers: Of the first 30,000 who joined up, two-thirds were British-born immigrants. These soldiers of the first Division sent over in October, 1914, came mostly from three cities: Toronto, Winnipeg and Montreal. Each city sent two full regiments. Montreal contributed the 13th and 14th Battalions, two of four battalions in the 3rd Brigade.
The Home Front 1914-1918 Volunteerism – with many men gone and the special needs of a country at war, most people wanted to do their bit. Give til it hurts – The Canadian Patriotic Fund depended on the populace to fund their charity. People were told that if they couldnt fight, they could pay. Local Militia – Some men were needed on the home front to protect the country. If you werent quite fit for overseas duty, you might be suitable for tasks at home. Opportunity for women – The needs for volunteers and shortage of workers opened the doors for new experiences for women. Certainly, to not have their husbands questioning their movements, women would be freer to do what they saw fit. Additionally, in many cases, the income from the soldier who was away could fund schooling for a child who otherwise wouldnt be able to afford it.
Canadian Immigration and World War 1 Immigration during the war years, 1914-1918, decreased dramatically from its height immediately before. Throughout the war, not only did the total number of immigrants decrease, the percentage of British immigrants became minimal. After the end of the war, between 1919 and 1924, immigration again increased and the percentage of immigrants from Britain varied between 48% and 56% of the total.
Health If you took all the scientific and medical advances since the beginning of human history to the year 2000 and lined them up, the 20 th century would have more than all the other time periods combined. Knowledge in science and medicine in 1900 is probably closer to that of the year 1700 than the year 2000. In many cases, if you are ill, there isn't much that medicine can do. The life expectancy of a 60 year old man in 1900 is greater than the life expectancy of a 60 year old man in 1971, and basically the same as a 60 year old man in the year 2000. What tends to be different is the cause of death. Whereas in 1900, a common cause of death is bacterial or viral infection, this will gradually be surpassed by death from "lifestyle" - cancer and heart disease.
Lister By 1900, thanks to Joseph Lister's germ theory, doctors have learned not to put their scalpels in their mouths when they operate. But the "wonder drugs" that you have come to know and love - like antibiotics, vaccines and insulin - just don't exist. That means that a cut or a scratch can lead to a fatal infection, and juvenile diabetes is a death sentence.
Sir William Osler. The most famous doctor in the Western world was a Canadian - Sir William Osler. He has been called the "Father of modern medicine. Osler was a pathologist, physician, educator, bibliophile, historian, author, and renowned practical joker
If you needed a doctor, you had to pay for one yourself. Health insurance programs didnt exist in 1900, and a serious illness can mean financial disaster for most Canadians. If you are a Canadian born today, your life expectancy is about 57 years. That's almost equivalent to the life expectancy of a Russian male born on January 1, 1998. However, if you survive childbirth and childhood and survive to the age of 40, your life expectancy isn't much different than in 2011 Your odds of dying from cancer or heart disease then were relatively low. "Lifestyle" and environmental diseases aren't at the top of the mortality list. Your chances of dying from infection or of an infectious disease such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, influenza, whooping cough, measles or scarlet fever are relatively high, especially if you are a child. Women are at high risk of dying as a result of complications from childbirth, such as infection and bleeding. Smallpox still takes its toll, but is declining due to vaccination. The last big epidemic was in Montreal in 1885. Tuberculosis (also known as consumption) is Canada's leading killer. Polio, a viral disease that can lead to paralysis, and to which children in particular are vulnerable, is also relatively common. This disease will devastate North America in the decades to come.
The Scourge of Tuberculosis Imagine a serious disease that spreads through casual contact. Imagine that such a disease is incurable, wearing down its victims, causing them to lose weight, develop other complications, and eventually die. In 1900, such a disease exists. Known as TB, consumption and the "white plague", tuberculosis is ravaging the country. The death rate is about 200 per 100,000, which may not seem high, but makes it the leading cause of death in Canada. It is especially devastating for Aboriginal peoples and city dwellers. Medical treatment, such as rest and fresh air in a special TB hospital called a "sanatorium", is only effective in some cases, and is only available to the wealthy. There are no antibiotics or other drugs to fight the disease. Natural therapies, quack therapies and miracle cures that don't work, are advertised and sold everywhere. The poor are often left to suffer, and in many cases, to die. Their bodies must fight off the infection on their own. Doctors around the world have only recently come to understand that illnesses like TB are caused by germs and spread by breathing infected air. Better sanitation and living conditions are now seen as key parts of the battle. Doctors are beginning to avoid seeing healthy patients after treating patients with TB - one way the illness spread. The death rate for TB in 1900 is up to 200 per 100,000 persons. In some aboriginal communities, it is up to 10 times higher. The death rate from TB for newborn aboriginal babies is over 1,018 per 100,000. In 1996, the death rate from AIDS will be 4.2 per 100,000, and from cancer 185 per 100,000. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs, but can attack the glands of the neck, bone, kidneys and other organs. It is usually spread by breathing the air infected by the germ. Not everyone that becomes infected goes on to develop the disease. Symptoms of TB include: A cough that will not go away Feeling tired all the time Weight loss Loss of appetite Fever Coughing up blood Night sweats Canada's first TB sanatorium opened in Muskoka, Ontario in 1897. TB sufferers were sent to sanatoriums to be benefit from rest and fresh air and to avoid infecting others.
the Parliament Buildings Fire of 1916: While World War I was raging in Europe, the Canadian Parliament Buildings in Ottawa caught fire on a freezing February night in 1916. With the exception of the Library of Parliament, the Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings was destroyed and seven people died. Rumours were rife that the Parliament Buildings fire was caused by enemy sabotage, but a Royal Commission into the fire concluded that the cause was accidental. Seven people died in the Parliament Buildings fire