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Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit Five Wars against the Communists: Taiwan behind the Scenes of the Korean and Vietnamese Wars Lecturer: Richard.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit Five Wars against the Communists: Taiwan behind the Scenes of the Korean and Vietnamese Wars Lecturer: Richard."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction Unit Five Wars against the Communists: Taiwan behind the Scenes of the Korean and Vietnamese Wars Lecturer: Richard Rong-bin Chen, PhD of Comparative Literature. Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 TaiwanAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan 1

2 2 Taiwan behind the Scenes of the Two Wars President Chiang Kai-shek asked to join the battles in Korean, rejected by Harry Truman. Taiwans nationalist army sent task-forces to South Vietnam for logistics, military intelligence and training assignments. Some military facilities in Taiwan were available for the US forces, mainly for the purpose of logistics.

3 3 The Arrival (Picture taken before the Presidential Palace around Jan 23rd, 1954)

4 4 The Tattoo This work is licensed by for the use of Course Database of General Education TW ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned entity and GET does not have the authorization right. Copyright privileges have to be negotiated with the copyright owner(s) for separately.

5 5 Trumans Hands-off Policy US forces would not used to defend Taiwan. Both the State Department and CIA predicted that the island would be seized by Communist China before the end of 1950.

6 From The Korean War in History The US State Departments document, top secret memorandum of 23 December 1949 stated that the fall of Taiwan is anticipated.(p.46) Western military and diplomatic representatives on Taiwan in May 1950 expected that Taiwan would fall by 15 July (p.46) The Associated Press reported at the end of April 1950 that the PRCs invasion will be in July.(p.46) 6 Source: James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history Manchester University Press Source: James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history Manchester University Press Source: James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history Manchester University Press

7 At the end of May 1950, the US Consulate- General in Taiwan advised all Americans to leave Taiwan as soon as possible, predicting a Communist invasion within the next three months. (p.46) Dean Acheson, at an Executive Session of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee on March 29, 1950, stated that the early fall of Taiwan was probably inevitable.(p.46) 7 Source: James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history Manchester University Press Source: James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history Manchester University Press

8 8 The Korean War April 1950: Kim Il-sung travelled to Moscow and secured Stalin's support for a policy to unify Korea under his authority. June 25, 1950: the North Korean Peoples Army (KPA) crossed the 38th parallel border and invaded South Korea.

9 9 The Security Council, on 27 June 1950, published Resolution 83 recommending member states provide military assistance to the Republic of Korea. On the same day, Truman sent navy and air forces to Korea first. The US response: the nearby American troops were dispatched to engage KPA; also, the Seventh Fleet of the US Navy was sent to neutralize the Taiwan Strait.

10 10 The Domino Theory Domino Theory- On April 7,1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower articulated the domino theory when he described how a French loss in Indochina would be like knocking over the first domino in a row, causing the others to go over quickly. Through this analogy he was saying that if Vietnam fell under communist control, then it would be difficult to prevent communist takeovers in Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and possibly even India, Japan, the Philippines, and Indonesia. This chain-reaction concept was not new to U.S. containment policy. (p.112) Source: David L. Anderson (2002). The Columbia guide to the Vietnam War New York : Columbia University Press

11 11 The CPC Involvement October 8, 1950: Mao Zedong redesignated the PLA North East Frontier Force as the Chinese Peoples Volunteer Army (PVA). October 25: Two hundred thousand Chinese soldiers entered North Korea after crossing Yalu River. The number of the soldiers: two and half million PVA soldiers continued to pour into Korea before the war ended in The number of the Chinese captives: more than 22 thousand soldiers captured.

12 12 The Arrival at Taiwan According to Historical Dictionary of the Korean War (Paul M. Edwards, 2010), among the captured Chinese soldiers, were non-repatriates. On January 23, 1954, they landed Keelung. The day has thus been named World Freedom Day, an anti-communist memorial day in Taiwan. A great part of them had been in the nationalist army before 1949, and after their arrival in Taiwan, many were recruited again into the army.

13 Old Man Yang and His Woman by Lu Chiang [ ] (1986) 13 Old man yang The aboriginal woman Back to the Mainland The return

14 During this Cold War period, the United States was willing to help any government who was opposed to communism, like the South Vietnamese government with the communist North Vietnamese government as it enemy. In his inaugural address, Kennedy made the ambitious pledge to pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of liberty. 14 The Vietnam War

15 15 After the 7 th Fleet sent to Taiwan in 1950, more and more bars emerged in Kaohsiung, and were not closed until the end of the Vietnam War in &dofile=getImage.jsp?d= &id= &filename=cca hp-ph010_032l-0001-i.jpg

16 16 A picture taken nearby Kaohsiungs Love River, date unknown. The women in the picture might be bar girls. d= &dofile=getImage.jsp?d= &id= &filename=cca hp-ph010_034l-0001-i.jpg

17 17 Nancys Bar in Kaohsiung, &dofile=getImage.jsp?d= &id= &fil ename=cca hp-kh2002_012_513_0002-i.jpg

18 18 The first group of American GIs on vacation in Taiwan, 65 of them in total, arriving Taipei on November 25, 1968 for a five-day trip &dofile=getImage.jsp?d= &id= &filename=cca hp l-0001-w.jpg

19 Some Taiwanese female escorts with US GIs at a table, enjoying a hot pot. (November 1966.) &dofile=getImage.jsp?d= &id= &filename=cca hp-hjm i.jpg

20 20 A Resort for R&R 1954: the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty signed, promoting an emerging bar/dance hall/night club business. (Bans lifted in 1958.) According to the Johnson Administrations policy, in November 1965, the Pentagon planned to raise the number of US troops to 400,000. From November 1965 to 1971, about 400,000 American soldiers went to Taiwan for vacation. To clear up the aftermaths of the vacations, the first venereal disease clinic was set up in Taipei in 1968.

21 The Sino-American Relationship and Crystal Boys [ ] (1977) 21 The story set in Taipei in The US aid to Taiwan: The East District of Taipei: roads like Song- chiang Road, Dun-hua North and South Road, Nanking East Road were built with the money from the US aid. The bar girl with a son named Little Johnny. American culture: the Beatles, Tom Jones, and Jazz.

22 Chen Ying-chen Barney E. William the African-American soldier. A story about Barneys tragic love with Emily Huang the bar girl. Barneys two burdens on his shoulder: his identity as a slaves descendant, and his traumatic memories from a battle. After a short stay in a sanatorium, Barney was killed in a combat, without knowing Emily had been pregnant with his child. 22 Roses in June [ ] (1967) in Exiles at Home

23 Huang Chun-ming The protagonist is a Taiwanese with a foreign degree in marketing and hotel management. In order to enhance an Oriental feeling, the bars name was renamed Young Widow. Toward the end of the story, the protagonist pulled out of the business in 1970, and turned to real estate industry. One of the American GIs survived the war, reunited with a bar girl in the end. 23 Young Widow [ ] (1974) in Oxcart

24 The Fall of South Vietnam After Tet Offensive and the My Lai Massacre, the war got more notorious. In 1968, the U.S. government passed the Vietnamization policy. By 1973, U.S. military involvement ended. In 1975, the North Vietnamese army captured Saigon, which marked the end of the Vietnam War. 24

25 South Vietnam and Taiwan had built a strong relationship before the formers fall into the hands of Viet Cong. President Nguyn V ă n Thiu ( ) flew to Taipei before the fall of Saigon. According the coverage of Taiwan Review in February1980 (Open Heart for Refugees), Taiwan used to take in refugees from Indochina as many as Nearly 4,000 refugees were brought to Taiwan from April 23 to July 31 in Vietnam and Taiwan

26 The government chartered planes to fly 3,075 refugees from Thailand to Taiwan The flood of boat people began in Fishing vessels picked up refugees in the South China Sea. Buildings at a village in the Penghu Islands (Pescadores) were taken over and prepared for use as a refugee camp. By October of 1979, the agency had received nearly 1,500 Indochinese refugees at Paisha Village [ ]. As of the end of 1979, the Indochinese Refugee Reception Center [ ] in Paisha still housed some 500 refugees. 26

27 Vietnamese in Taiwan The protagonist is one of the boat people from Vietnam. The author Yuan Chiung-chiung used the Vietnamese protagonist to observe the Taiwan in the 1970s. The mainlander who kept talking about planting peaches. The qualities of Taiwanese: self-confident, peaceful, good talkers, always criticizing and complaining. 27 The Skys Escape [ ] (1979)

28 The contradictory and confusing1970s. On the one hand, its position in the international politics was getting more and more embarrassing after its retreat from the UN in On the other hand, Taiwan was experiencing the greatest economic boom since the end of World War II. Also, the legitimacy of KMTs authoritarian domination started to be greatly questioned and challenged by Tangwai Movement [, the movement lead by the social and political powers outside KMT party]. 28

29 Where did I see the tattoos for the first time? Long Live Chiang Chung-cheng. Life is preordained. (p.59) Before or after New Years Day? Before or after Midautumn? Consult a fortune-teller. 29 Show Foong [ ] 1230 Spots [ ] (1996) Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

30 What does this passage mean? In recent years, however, his life and his emotional life have been uneventful. Rather like a familiar opera whose ending one already know, the scenario of his fate can be ignored. (p.60) 30 Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

31 31 What does this passage mean? (61) The afternoon sun is warm. The white geese glide leisurely. He counts nine of them, but there are several more under the azalea trees by the pond, so he isnt sure about their number. Inexplicably, a lone mallard dashes about among them-a bizarre picture.(p.61) Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

32 32 Kill Zhu and weed out Mao. Anti-Communist; Anti-Russia. The flag. Succeed or die. (p.61) The tattoos made them special among the mainlanders in Taiwan when it comes to the problem of returning the Mainland. The Tattoos Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

33 More about the Tattoos The tattooing itself did not add to his worth, but its removal costs a million dollars. Ha! Everything in life is preordained. (p.63) Wen Tienxiangs Song of Righteousness. (p.63) The meaning of the tattoos change with time. While it used to matter significantly in the 50s, it matters only in terms of money. 33 Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

34 Reflection on the War Tang was captured even when he had had a chance to fire a shot. Is it really a war? Five Chinese POWs could be exchanged for only one American POW. Americans worth five times as much as the Chinese. 34

35 35 The Korean War and the Vietnam War Chinese lives were worthless! On the battledields of the Korean War, soldiers in their twenties and thirties died one on top of the other. The youngest were only fifteen or sixteen. After three months training, barely able to manage a bayonet, they were driven to the battlegrounds. The hand-to-hand combat drills were pointless, of course, since the Americans only fought from a distance. They never sent troops into hand-to- hand combat. Thrust!-Hey!-Thrust!-Hey!-Hey-Hey- Hey!-Thrust!-Hey! But whos going to use a bayonet? (p.64) Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

36 36 The Dialogue with the Doctor Why, no longer Anti-Communist? The young doctor joked with him lightly, perhaps to make his patient relax a bit, Tang thought. Theres no need for me to fight them, he said confidently. Theyre killing each other now! And no more Kill Zhu and Weed out Mao, either? Well, Mao means Mao Zedong, but whos this Zhu? Zhu means Zhu De, their commander-in-chief then, he said. Theres no need for me to kill them now. Theyve both reported to Yama. Saved me the trouble. The doctor wore gold-rimmed glasses. He had a baby face, looked just over twenty. What did this little brat know?(p.64-65) Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

37 The words from the member of the DPP. The mainlanders response. The political idea is out of fashion. Were you willing then, or were you coerced? (p.66) Fourteen thousand were tattooed. Wouldnt it have been a shame not to go along? (p.66) 37 The Scene at the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press. Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

38 The Return to the Mainland Tang remained unmarried, while his wife had got married again. The problem of marriage for the mainlanders in Taiwan. Many of them Die alone. On the lower end of the society. Cab drivers, vendors, farmers, noodle stand owners. Fight back and retrieve the Mainland. 38

39 39 Political Controversy in the 90s KMT vs. New Party (70) Sir, Lin and Hau for President and VP; New Party for the National Assembly, please. Thank you. Tang is taken aback. What? This is the Veterans General Hospital, the stronghold of the KMT. How come this New Party member turns up here?(p.70) Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

40 40 The Tattoos a Part of History Everythings gone, he suddenly realizes. Gone is Kill Zhu and Weed out Mao, gone is Anti-Communist and Anti-Russia, gone is the map, gone is the national flag, gone is Succeed or Die. From now on everything is wiped out, as if a ring worn for forty years were suddenly removed, leaving nothing but a white circle. White of complete emptiness. While of complete nothingness. Where are those bloody oaths? The doctor says they are absorbed. But where do they go when they are absorbed? Into the blood, or the marrow? Subconsciously, he touches the bowl-size scar. Its still there, knotted like the bark of a tree. He feels a little more secure.(p.70) Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

41 41 The Last Stop, Sanxia. Well talk about staying for good later. I know what Ill do now. Next month Ill go visit them, and give them my family support allowance. Ill return in ten days. Ive thought it all out. The rest of my life Ill just stay in the Three Gorges, Sanxia- over there its called Sanxia, and here its also Sanxia. Oh, yes, you must try to remember that Sanxia is the last stop; from there you transfer to Baiji. Get off at Baiji and walk- to Home of the Honored Citizens. Dont forget!(p.71) Source: Show Foong.(2003).Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.), The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora. New York : Columbia University Press.

42 First published in the supplement to China Times in December, 1972, Huang Chun-mings The Taste of Apples can be first of all interpreted as a political novel criticizing Americas great influence on Taiwan during the U.S. Aid period ( ). 42 Huang Chun-ming [ ] The Taste of Apples [ ] (1972)

43 In the story, according to the American junior secretarys account, Taiwan is the Asian country with which the States had the closest ties of friendship (p.136). Ironically, it was exactly in February, 1972 that the once anti-communist Richard Nixon paid his official visits to places like Beijing, Hangzhou, and Shanghai, and met Mao Zedong. This was the first step that the States took to abandon its closest friend diplomatically in January The Political Context Source: Huang Chun-ming.(2001). (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.), The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories New York : Columbia University Press

44 44 What does this passage mean? Following this remark, the children and Ah-gui all began to eat their apples. The silence of the room was broken by the crisp sound of apples being bitten into, gingerly, one after another. As they took their first bites they said nothing, although they felt that the apples werent quite as sweet as they had imagined; rather, they were a little sour and pulpy, were reminded of their fathers comment that one apple cost as much as four catties of rice, and with that the flavor was enhanced.. When they took their second bites, they spiritedly bit off big chunks, with the result that the sickroom was filled with a chorus of loud munching. Ah-fa, who hadnt wanted one at first, finally succumbed to the temptation. Ah-zhu, he said, hand me one of those. (p.156) Source: Huang Chun-ming.(2001). (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.), The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories New York : Columbia University Press

45 45 Though the family, in the end, benefited from the car accident, some parts of the short story reveal how the American and Taiwanese failed to understand each other. For example, when the foreigner was led by the foreign affairs policeman to the area full of illegal shacks, the areas labyrinthine alleys were for him only a great place for a game of hide-and-seek (p.136). What he did not understand was that those shacks were a part of the difficult lives of those men and women, like Jiang Ah-fa and Ah-gui, who could barely make a humble living on the edge of a city. The American among the Illegal Shacks Source: Huang Chun-ming.(2001). (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.), The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories New York : Columbia University Press

46 Flat Characters – Ah-gui This story is tragicomical in the sense that Huang used two vivid flat characters to tell a miserable story which might make reader laugh at the same time. First of all, Ah-gui started to worry and cry the moment she was notified of the accident; however, as she entered the black sedan with an opulent interior, she forgot to cry. Once she noticed that she should not stop crying, she gave rein to her grief with loud wails (p.144). 46 Source: Huang Chun-ming.(2001). (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.), The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories New York : Columbia University Press

47 47 Flat Characters – Ah-zhu The second one is Ah-zhu, the eldest child of the Jiangs. Her response to the accident was completely different from her that of her mother: she though she will be definitely adopted out by her mother this time, for his father could not work to support the family. Even before this issue was brought up by her mother, her thoughts concentrated on it throughout the story and she even told her brother, Ah-ji, that she would give him the money to pay his long overdue tuition, which made him both confused and astonished.

48 The Policeman Whats his function? The foreign affairs policeman and Ah-jis teacher both seem oppressive to their countrymen. For example, when Colonel Grant gave the Jiangs twenty thousand dollars, the policeman asked them to take it without indecision, and Ah-fa was in fact lucky because he had been run down by an American, or hed probably still be lying in the road, covered with a grass mat (154). 48 Source: Huang Chun-ming.(2001). (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.), The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories New York : Columbia University Press

49 The Teacher The homeroom teacher gave Ah-ji a real hard time: just because he could not pay the tuition on time, the child was made to stand in the corner in the classroom as punishment (p.140). This also shows, from Ah-jis perspective, the city in the northern Taiwan was no better than their native rural village down south, where he had never been punished for this reason. Obviously, he shared the same opinion to some extent with her mother. 49 Source: Huang Chun-ming.(2001). (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.), The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories New York : Columbia University Press

50 The Nativist-realist Perspective Is it really better off to live in the city than to live in the country? Almost all Taiwanese Nativist-realist novelists gave us negative answers. Just as the case in this story, the Jiangs went from the country to the city to search for a better life, though without success. They could only afford to live in an illegal shack, the parents could not pay for the tuition, the elder daughter could not get away from the terror of being sold to another family, and the accident happened to the father seemed to be the last straw. 50

51 Telling vs. Showing During the early morning hours, as thick layers of clouds were beginning to send their moisture downward, an automobile accident occurred at the intersection where the road from the eastern suburbs enters the city. A dark green sedan with a foreigners license plate crashed into a rickety old bicycle like a wild animal pouncing on its prey, crushing it on the other side of the yellow dividing line of the two – lane highway. A pickaxe was still securely fastened to the bicycle rack, which protruded from under the car, but the contents of a lunch box-mainly rice-that had been tied to the handlebars were scattered all over the street, the solitary salted egg that had accompanied the rice lying smashed at the edge of the safety island.(p.135) Source: Huang Chun-ming.(2001). (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.), The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories New York : Columbia University Press

52 Telling vs. Showing The rain was coming down harder now, and the puddle of congealed blood in front of the sedan was being washed away. Several foreign and local MPs were busily trying to determine the circumstances of the accident.(p.135) Source: Huang Chun-ming.(2001). (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.), The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories New York : Columbia University Press

53 53 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 3 This work is from the website and the photograph was published in 1954/01/23. The copyright of this work has expired because its public release date is over 50 years subject to Article 34 of Taiwan Copyright Act. It belongs to public domain and is available for public use. 4 This work is from the website and the photograph was published in 1954/01/23. The copyright of this work has expired because its public release date is over 50 years subject to Article 34 of Taiwan Copyright Act. It belongs to public domain and is available for public use. 4 This work is licensed by for the use of Course Database of General Education TW ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned entity and GET does not have the authorization right. Copyright privileges have to be negotiated with the copyright owner(s) for separately. 6 The US State Departments document, top secret…that the fall of Taiwan is anticipated. James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history (p. 46). Manchester University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 6 Western military and diplomatic representatives on Taiwan in May 1950 expected that Taiwan would fall by 15 July James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history (p. 46). Manchester University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 6 The Associated Press reported at the end of April 1950 that the PRCs invasion will be in July. James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history (p. 46). Manchester University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.

54 54 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 7 At the end of May 1950, the US Consulate-General in … Communist invasion within the next three months. James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history(p. 46). Manchester University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 7 Dean Acheson, at an Executive Session of the US …the early fall of Taiwan was probably inevitable. James Cotton, Ian Neary (1989). The Korean war in history(p. 46). Manchester University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 10 Domino Theory- On April 7,1954, President … was not new to U.S. containment policy. David L. Anderson (2002). The Columbia guide to the Vietnam War (p.112). New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 29 Life is preordained Show Foong (2003) Spots. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.) The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora (p. 59). New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 30 In recent years, however, his life and his emotional … the scenario of his fate can be ignored. Show Foong (2003) Spots. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.) The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora (p. 60). New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 31 The afternoon sun is warm. The white geese …a lone mallard dashes about among them-a bizarre picture. Show Foong (2003) Spots. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.) The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora (p. 61). New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.

55 55 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 32 Succeed or die Show Foong. (2003) Spots. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.) The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora (p. 61). New York : Columbia University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 33 The tattooing itself did not add to his worth, but its removal costs a million dollars. Ha! Everything in life is preordained. Chen Ying-chen. (1994). Death in a cornfield. Ching-hsi Perng and Chiu-kuei Wang (Eds.) Death in a cornfield and other stories from contemporary Taiwan. (p. 63). Hong Kong ; New York : Oxford University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 33 Wen Tienxiangs Song of Righteousness. Chen Ying-chen. (1994). Death in a cornfield. Ching-hsi Perng and Chiu-kuei Wang (Eds.) Death in a cornfield and other stories from contemporary Taiwan. (p. 63). Hong Kong ; New York : Oxford University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 35 Chinese lives were worthless! On the battledields of the Korean …Thrust!-Hey! But whos going to use a bayonet? Chen Ying-chen. (1994). Death in a cornfield. Ching-hsi Perng and Chiu-kuei Wang (Eds.) Death in a cornfield and other stories from contemporary Taiwan. (p. 64). Hong Kong ; New York : Oxford University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 36 Why, no longer Anti- Communist? The young …just over twenty. What did this little brat know? Chen Ying-chen. (1994). Death in a cornfield. Ching-hsi Perng and Chiu-kuei Wang (Eds.) Death in a cornfield and other stories from contemporary Taiwan. (p ). Hong Kong ; New York : Oxford University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 37 Were you willing then, or were you coerced? Chen Ying-chen. (1994). Death in a cornfield. Ching-hsi Perng and Chiu-kuei Wang (Eds.) Death in a cornfield and other stories from contemporary Taiwan. (p. 66). Hong Kong ; New York : Oxford University Press. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.

56 56 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 37 Fourteen thousand were tattooed. Wouldnt it have been a shame not to go along? Chen Ying-chen. (1994). Death in a cornfield. Ching-hsi Perng and Chiu-kuei Wang (Eds.) Death in a cornfield and other stories from contemporary Taiwan (p. 66). Hong Kong ; New York : Oxford University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 39 Oddly enough, except for a momentary confusion, whenever I thought …mind, my child would also be five years old now. Show Foong. (2003) Spots. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.) The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora (p. 70). New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 40 Everythings gone, he suddenly realizes. Gone is Kill Zhu and … of a tree. He feels a little more secure. Show Foong. (2003) Spots. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.) The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora (p. 70). New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 41 Well talk about staying for good later. I know what Ill do …Home of the Honored Citizens. Dont forget! Show Foong. (2003) Spots. Pang-yuan Chi and David Der-wei Wang (Eds.) The Last of the Whampoa breed [electronic resource] : stories of Chinese diaspora (p. 71). New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 43 In the story, according to the American junior …which the States had the closest ties of Friendship. Huang Chun-ming. (2001) The taste of apples. (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.). The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories (p.136)New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 44 Following this remark, the children and Ah-gui all began …succumbed to the temptation. Ah-zhu, he said, hand me one of those. Huang Chun-ming. (2001) The taste of apples (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.). The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories (p.156)New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.

57 57 Copyright Declaration PageWork LicensingAuthor/Source 45 a great place for a game of hide-and-seek Huang Chun-ming. (2001) The taste of apples (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.). The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories (p.136)New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 46 Oddly enough, except for a momentary confusion, whenever I thought …mind, my child would also be five years old now. Huang Chun-ming. (2001) The taste of apples (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.). The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories (p.144)New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 48 The foreign affairs policeman and Ah-jis teacher both seem …probably still be lying in the road, covered with a grass mat Huang Chun-ming. (2001) The taste of apples (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.). The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories (p.154)New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 49 The homeroom teacher gave Ah-ji a real hard time: just because …child was made to stand in the corner in the classroom as punishment. Huang Chun-ming. (2001) The taste of apples (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.). The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories (p.140)New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 51 During the early morning hours, as thick layers of clouds were beginning …rice lying smashed at the edge of the safety island. Huang Chun-ming. (2001) The taste of apples (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.). The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories (p.135)New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. 52 The rain was coming down harder now, and the puddle …were busily trying to determine the circumstances of the accident. Huang Chun-ming. (2001) The taste of apples (Howard Goldblatt, Trans.). The taste of apples : Taiwanese stories (p.135)New York : Columbia University Press It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.


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