Presentation on theme: "Arts and Crafts Movement 1900-1939 By Chelsea, Lauren, Kirsten, and Carly."— Presentation transcript:
Arts and Crafts Movement 1900-1939 By Chelsea, Lauren, Kirsten, and Carly
Setting the scene… Rapid social, economic, technological, civic, and cultural change Industrialization – rise of machines and impersonal factory work Declining birth and death rates WWI Changing roles of women: women start gaining rights (e.g. the right to vote in 1920) Economic instability (The Great Depression begins in 1929)
Scientific View vs. Holistic View Scientific view of person and physiology of disease vs. holistic view of person (mind-body unity) X-Rays
Getting back to a simpler time John Ruskin mid-19 th century British university professor Believed that machines and factory work limited human happiness Advocated a return to simpler times
Dr. Herbert J. Hall, Adolf Meyer, and William Rush Dunton searched for ways to humanize the care of chronically ill patients Promoted the work cure rather than the rest cure Championed sheltered workshops where talented people earned a living by making authentic objects. The goal of this was to give spiritual support and to help employ people with mental and physical disabilities.
Arts and Crafts Societies Arts and Crafts Movement spread from Great Britain to the United States, mainly by Gustav Stickley. The U.S. was accepting of this movement because classes desired unique, authentic objects and criticized mass produced items, idleness Handicraft clubs and arts and crafts societies began popping up around the U.S. e.g. Boston Society of Arts and Crafts (1901) Herbert James Hall called his institution a school of handicrafts, where patients became artisans, tasting the wholesomeness of a life of labor without the hardships and trials [of] the real industrial world (Quiroga, 1995, p. 93).
Before WWI Clinics were created for patients with chronic physical illness e.g. Consolation House Goal of OT was to return clients to state of financial independence e.g. Arequipa Sanatorium – clients were encouraged to earn their keep by making pottery Vocational purpose of OT paves way for programs to treat wounded soldiers and sailors returning from WWI
During WWI Occupational Therapy was founded in 1917, the same year that WWI began. U.S. Army Rehabilitation program was based on the Reconstruction Model Society felt it was their social and moral responsibility to rehabilitate soldiers WWI forced field of OT to clarify its role and standardize training and practice
During WWI OT was a means to keep soldiers on the front. These war experiences showed us what was obvious before, that idleness is a dangerous thing. Every maimed soldier was likely to become a centre of social unrest and no nation can stand that. There were numerous cases of wounds in the hand. Three or four months were lost by these during ordinary medical treatments; with occupational therapy available, the time was brought down to as many weeks, and the men returned to the front. This is entirely possible in civil life (Quiroga, 1995, p. 145). –Joel Goldwait, orthopedic surgeon, in a lecture givenat the meeting of MAOT in 1921
After WWI There were six people in attendance at the first meeting for the National Society for the promotion of occupational therapy 300 people attended the societys third meeting in 1919 This demonstrates the development of OT as a field during WWI.
Womeons Changing Roles Women gained the right to vote in 1920 Elizabeth Upham started the first OT program at Milwaukee Downer College Women who were nurses were under the control of male physicians whereas OT was an opportunity for women to be autonomous.
Occupational Therapy Schools Glaser argued: eye, hand, mind, and creative imagination are stimulated by arts and crafts As a result, occupational therapy schools began to offer courses in occupations such as needlework, weaving, metalwork, bookbinding, and leatherwork. The missions and philosophies of occupational therapy and the arts-and-crafts-movement were so intertwined over time that it became hard to distinguish between the two.
Economic issues led to the demise of workshops However, the impact of the arts and crafts movement remained