Presentation on theme: "THE FINAL DECADES 1970-2000 on to a new world. Important Soviet Slogans Khrushchev– Peaceful Co-existence We must learn to work together to save the world."— Presentation transcript:
THE FINAL DECADES on to a new world
Important Soviet Slogans Khrushchev– Peaceful Co-existence We must learn to work together to save the world for our grandchildren. It is this theme that lead Polish and Hungarian peoples to look for liberalization of economic and intellectual opportunity.
Khrushchev & Solzhenitsyn Khrushchevs beginning was to discredit Stalin (de-Stalinization Program) He thus encouraged Russian writer Alex. Solzhenitsyn who wrote One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962). This book portrayed the horrors of life in a soviet prison camp. (NK was removed in 1964) by 1970 the soviet hard liners saw works like this as an affront to the soviet system the author in sent to prison.
Important Soviet Slogans Detante ( ) – A French term meaning to ease tension. Idea of Brezhnev. In the 1970s the goal was for the Super Powers to normalize relations between the rival blocks and to accept the permanent existence of the opposing side.
Leonid Brezhnev Brezhnev Doctrine If hostile forces turn a country toward capitalism--this will become a problem and will be stopped. Nations may have limited sovereignty but cannot leave the Warsaw Pact.
Treaty of Moscow 1970 Signed between West Germany and the USSR. It established diplomat relations between the two nations and recognized the split between E & W Germany. (on condition the both nations were admitted to the U.N.)
Life Under Brezhnev Think of the Potemkin villages in the time of Catherine. Russia was a façade or productive power to the outside worldbut utterly rotten on the inside.
Erected in 1862 in Novgorod Veliky by Emperor Alexander II it features 129 human figures of the Russian prominent monarchs, statesmen, warriors, scientists, poets, artists
Height 52 feet, gross weight 300 tons, bronze casts 65.5 tons. The monument was disassembled by the German invaders in December 1943 during their occupation of Veliky Novgorod Reconstructed in 1944 by Marshal Stalin's order.
Fear ye God, & keep off Russia
no experimentation The Face of Russia to the world Defenders of the Homeland Left-Medieval Warrior who turned out the Mongol. Centerousted Napoleon. RightRepelled Hitler
Russia is a riddle wrapped in mystery inside an enigma Winston Churchill
How could those "barbaric and submissive" Russians defeat overwhelmingly the best armies in the world, that of Napoleon in 1812, and respectively that of Hitler in ?
How could those "backward and drunk" Russians, whose country was still lying in ruins in most parts after the terrible war, how could they manage to launch in Space the first in the world sputnik (an artificial satellite) on October 4, 1957? And soon after that eventuated even more breathtaking triumph in Cosmos – Cosmonaut Number One, Yuri Gagarin – who became the first man in history to orbit round the planet Earth on April 12, 1961! Even more enigmatic and unbelievable.
Russian Barbarian?? The Russian Bear is not an aggressive beast, for he likes honey rather than flesh. But we Russians do always hate those uninvited "guests" who would frequently come with weapons upon our beloved land – Holy Russia. Such enemies like Napoleon's Grande Armée, Hitler's Wehrmacht, and a great lot of other godless scum. As is widely known, we do always convert the great bulk of the invaders eventually into the manure for our boundless fields.
We do not consider women to be equal to men. Nor did we ever think that way. They are not like us men. They are much better. We Russian men do positively adore our incomparable Russian women! And what is most essential is that our Russian women expect us Russian men to love, to cherish, to cosset, to defend and to protect them, our dear tender ones.
Russian Women are not materialistic Beauty and brains is a blessed combination, and Russian chess grandmaster Alexandra Kosteniuk has had them both.
Words can hardly describe all the feelings of delight and ecstacy that seize us Russians at a military parade. Not at the insipid, indolent "goose- stepping" western one, but at the REAL Russian military parade. This unparagoned manifestation of military mightiness and national unity does always leave a highly inspirational and indelible impression on its participants, as well as on the spectators, surpassing all imagination!
The men on parade
It would be a shame for us hardy and virile Russian men to allow our beloved wives and sisters to serve in the Army and to die in action. For the last thousand years of Russian history we have had a tradition that it is a men's job, privilege and duty to rip the enemy's guts out in the final fierce bayonet fighting. Surely, it would be also a great insult for Russian women to be treated like men. They are our national treasure, our beloved ladies, whom we Russian men love, cherish and protect, first and foremost! But, IF NECESSARY, every Russian girl and every Russian woman will take weapons in her hands and will stand up for the defense of Holy Russia.
One of our greatest thinkers, IVAN ILYIN, once calculated that since 1368 to 1893 Russia had experienced 525 years of war, and only 329 years of peace, the ratio being almost 2:1. Since 1893 the years that have followed until the present day appeared to be no less turbulent and bloody. When considering the Russian Bear's alleged "aggressiveness", it is very important to remember the fact that 90 per cent of all those wars were waged on OUR own territory. This is an irrefutable proof of the fact that we have always been DEFENDING our country. Verily, there does not exist a more peace-loving, yet indomitable nation in the world than we the Russian people.
We used to live in brotherly concord with all of our non-Russian neighbours within the Russian Empire, as well as within the Soviet Union. We used to live well together even with those rather restive and rebellious tribes of the Imperial Borderlands who had initially been forced by us to learn to coexist peacefully.
In 1945 after the Great Patriotic War 25 million Russians had to live in dugouts like this
To the Soviet citizens FREE OF CHARGE, the monthly rent for a state-owned flat not exceeding 5 or 7 percent of the average worker's monthly salary.
NO HOMELESS PEOPLE EXISTED IN THE U.S.S.R. NO UNEMPLOYMENT (since 1932) NO STARVING PEOPLE NO BEGGARS IN THE STREETS A 28-DAY FULLY PAID HOLIDAY (VACATION) A YEAR NO MORTGAGE EXISTED – HENCE NO FINANCIAL BONDAGE FREE EDUCATION, INCLUDING THE HIGHER FREE MEDICAL CARE, INCLUDING COMPLICATED MAJOR SURGICAL OPERATIONS FREE SANATORIUM VOUCHERS, BED & FOOD INCLUDED, UP TO 14 DAYS A YEAR NO DRUG ADDICTION (NARCOMANIA) SPORADIC, MINIMAL STREET CRIME
Apartments & Parks
Russian towns are Green
Russian town of Glazov
Moscow Subway station
New York Subway
Brezhnev Legacy Soviets can boast of a successful space program. A strong active scientific community working on technological advancement. Tremendous Olympic success rate 1964ussr96 usa 90
Final End to Vietnam 1973 The US removed all military presence from South Vietnamallowing SV to stand on its own. In 1975 NV (aided by China) captured Saigon, the south capital, thus ending the war with Vietnams unification under communism (Seethe system is winning!)
Helsinki Accords Signed by ALL nations of Europe (including USA, USSR & Canada) This brings a formal end to WWII by acknowledging existing national boundaries (Germany) Human rights provisions allow for dissent within the Soviet Union and the Eastern European satellites (This is high point of détente)
BREZHNEV & PRAGUE SPRING This doctrine was put to the test in Prague in Soviet Military might won the day.
1971 SALT I 1979 SALT II SALT I--Placed freeze on number of ICBMs SALT II--Limits number of long range ICBMs and total number of nukes available
MARGARET THATCHER First woman to become Prime Minister Thatcherism: anti big government. Reduced government spending, increased interest rates, reduced taxes tried to break labor unions. Result; dramatically reduced inflation.
Falkland Island War 1982 In March Argentine forces captured South Georgia Island, killing British personnel. A 72 day war followed British war plans and surface craft sunk and damaged Argentine forces.
In the end Argentina lost 655 men, Britain 236. Britain recaptured the island Argentinas government was discredited and replaced. UN sanctions were placed on Argentina Thatcher enhanced her reputation with the victory.
The Irish Problem Division of Ireland Northern Ireland (Belfast) Protestants 60%, Catholics 40% The rest of Ireland is Catholic.
Bloody Sunday Jan 1972 Due to Irish terrorists actions Brit troops were called in to protect the protestants. Brit Troops killed 13 Irish Catholics.
Troubles with Ireland Irish Catholics in Ulster began protests to move the British out. The IRA began a terrorist campaign to force out the British. The British army was called into maintain order.
Terrorist Violence continued through PM Tony Blair ( ) made it a priority to defuse the situation Good Friday Agreement Britain gave Ireland right to run its own parliament it they behaved and did not disturb the Protestants violence erupted again and Parl. was shut down for 5 yearsthen reopened. Threat of violence still remains.
France and the 5th Republic Charles de Gaulle created the 5th Republic in 1958 Major issue was Algeria who wanted independence, de Gaulle eventually gave in De Gaulle pulled France out of NATO
De Gaulle worked on foreign affairs which cost France colonies. He ignored affairs at home which resulted in the 1968 student riots in Paris. Several hundred thousand workers went on strike. De Gaulle tried to silence the students
University students wanted freedom of speech and assembly. Were aided by common folk who wanted free love, sexual freedom, & education. Were aided by the communists which upset the French population and thus the army was brought in to end the riots. De Gaulle resigned after the riots were ended.
De Gaulle was followed by Georges Pompidou and Valery Giscard. Both men tried to improve the common workers economic life. This reduced the hostility caused during the riots of To ease international tensions both men worked to promote Western European unity on political and economic fronts.
In 1981 Francois Mitterrand (Socialist Party) was elected president. He immediately nationalized Frances major banks. Additionally, he nationalized major businesses and industries that were highly profitable. For the lower classes he increased wages and benefits. Mitterrand was reelected in 1988.
ITALY Beginning with Gasperi in 1946 Italian government was unstable and usually failed to produce strong leader. In the 1960 the Christian Democratic- Socialists held power but had no more success then their predecessors.
POLITICS By the 1970s political terrorism was rampant. Italian Communist party was popular The country remained politically unstable. ECONOMICS Italian industry recovered quickly from the war. By the 1960s automobiles, appliances and office equipment were widely popular throughout Europe
The Red Brigade A militant, leftist Italian Terrorist group that Committed 14,000 acts of violence in the 1970s In 1978 they kidnapped and killed Prime Minister Aldo Moro
Croats have western ties Very Catholic Serbs and Greek Orthodoxtied to Russia In WWII Nazi created the USTASHE a fascist group which Croats joined. The committed atrocities against Serbs. Tito a nationalist fought Nazis Liberated country first from Nazi control.
MARSHALL TITO In 1948 Yugoslavias dictator defected. He was a communist but first a nationalist He did not owe his position to the Russian Army He served as a model to other eastern nations as to how the Soviets could be defeated
Tito kept control as a feared (loved) dictator. Accepted handouts from the Wests and the Russiansif they wanted to keep him. Developed a successful economy (Marshall Plan) so people followed him. Elected President for Life.
The End of Yugoslavia Since within these territories lived large numbers of Serbs (minority) violent ethnic cleansing movements took place from BOTH sides between Following Titos death in 1980 ethnic issues erupted again. Pro Western groups Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia voted for independence.
Slobodan Milosovic He is a strong SERBIAN nationalist who is upset the what has been done to the Serbs. He lead Yugo (now only Serbia and Montenegro to attack Bosnia and regain Serbian territory.
Remains of a Bosnian woman (Muslim) and her unborn baby from a mass grave filled in In recapturing their territory Serbian troops engaged in mass killing, rape, and destruction of homes. Croatians troops responded in kind. Croatian troops were supported by the western democracies
Europe was appalled at this Ethnic slaughter thought to be a throwback to the genocide of WWII.
Dayton Peace Accord 1996 Engineered by NATO and USA a cease fire was created. Both sides agreed to a partition of Bosnia along supposed ethnic lines. Efforts was enforced by UN peace-keepers.
The Dayton Accord took traditional lands away from the Serbs who were now left without adequate territory. Milosovic now turned to Kosovo, populated by mostly Albanians to seize land for his people
To halt this new campaign President Clinton led a NATO bombing operation against Serbian targets to end the killing. At the order of the NATO forces in 2001 Milosovic was removed from office and placed on trial at the Hague, Netherlands, for Crimes Against Humanity. He died of natural causes in 2006 before the trial was completed. He was judged guilty.