Presentation on theme: "Unit 6 Towards a Gender Free Society Lesson One. Preview Warm-up New word study Background Global understanding Detailed study of Text I Practices & Homework."— Presentation transcript:
Word Formation Singular curriculum bacterium medium stratum sanatorium phenomenon formula criterion Plural curricula bacteria media strata sanatoria phenomena formulae criteria
Word Differentiation segment vs. fragment She cleaned a small segment of the painting. Lines divided the area into segments. Market researchers often segment the population on the basis of age and social class. The worm has a segmented body. Police found fragments of glass near the scene. The shattered vase lay in fragments on the floor.
Word Differentiation stereotype vs. norm He doesnt conform to the usual stereotype of the businessman with a dark suit and briefcase. Its wrong to stereotype people as if they were all alike. Single parents seem to be the norm rather than the exception nowadays. Most people conform to the accepted social norms.
Word Differentiation disrupt; interfere; bar Demonstrators succeeded in disrupting the meeting. Bus services will be disrupted tomorrow because of the bridge closure. I wish my mother would stop interfering and let me make my own decision. Two police officers were barring her exit. We found our ways barred by rocks.
Word Differentiation gender vs. sex Gender inequality sounds more formal than sex discrimination. Please indicate your sex and date of birth below. Sex before/outside marriage is strongly disapproved of in our culture. Most young people are now receiving sex education.
Word Differentiation entail vs. denote The job entails a lot of hard work. The girls learn exactly what is entailed in caring for a newborn baby. It will entail driving a long distance every day. In this example X denotes the time taken and Y ~s the distance covered. (=represent) The red triangle denotes danger.
Word Differentiation conform vs. uniform Theres considerable pressure on teenagers to conform. The building does not conform with safety regulations. (=comply) It did not conform to the usual stereotype of an industrial city. The walls were a uniform grey. Growth has not been uniform across the country. They tried to ensure uniformity across the different department.
Word Differentiation impose vs. impulse A new tax was imposed on fuel. This system imposed additional financial burdens on many people. She didnt want to impose her values on her family. It was noticeable how a few people managed to impose their will on the others. He had a sudden impulse to stand up and sing. I resisted the impulse to laugh.
Word Differentiation stature; statue; statute; status Both his parents are fairly small in stature. The orchestra has grown in stature. They plan to erect a statue to the hero. She achieved celebrity status overnight. Penalties are laid down in the statute. Under the statutes of the university they had no power to dismiss him.
Word Differentiation prescribe; describe; portray Valium is usually prescribed to treat anxiety. He may be able to prescribe you something for that cough. Let me describe to you how it happened. The father in the film is portrayed as a fairly unpleasant character.
Word Differentiation sentimental; sensible; sensitive; sensational The ring wasnt worth very much but it had great sentimental value. Hes not the sort of man who gets sentimental about old friendships. I think the sensible thing would be to take a taxi home. Shes very sensitive about other peoples feelings. Some popular newspapers tend to attract the reader with sensational headlines.
Word Differentiation curriculum; course; subject Has computer studies been introduced into the school curriculum? Id like to do/take a writing course when I retire. History is my favorite subject at school. Our subject of discussion is school dropouts. Shes taking three subjects in her exams.
Word Expansion Transexual Why? There are both physical and emotional causes. Its rather a lifestyle.
Word Expansion Kathoeys = Ladyboys Many men in Thailand chose to be kathoeys because of poverty. Many of these people are talented in music and art.
Word Expansion Metrosexual = metropolis + sexual A word coined for David Beckham by Mark Simpson, a British critic
Word Expansion Macho: male in an aggressive way This is the traditional male image. Hunky: big, strong and sexually attractive
Word Expansion Is metrosexual replacing macho? Will the beautiful men become icons of Chinese men?
Buzz Words Lady-killer Heart stopper Average male Scruffy Jack the lad Nancy boy Boyish Sissy boy
Word Expansion Sassy girl Tomboy The gender gap is blurring.
Word Expansion What makes a man? stamina blokey Hererosexual: a person whose sexual orientation is toward people of the opposite sex Homosexual
Gender Imbalance Males often outnumber females in maths and science programs. Females often outnumber males in arts and humanities. Students in the minority might feel depressed and uncomfortable, lose their voice and feel ignored.
Gender Imbalance Proportion of women students on Chinese university campuses Chinese Ministry of Education Problems: Those in the majority gender may have to wait extra-long to use the toilets. They may have fewer chances to find a boyfriend or girlfriend.
Global Understanding Are there any boy schools or girl schools in China? Should boys and girls be taught differently? What do you think is a gender free society? A society without sex distinction
A Detailed Study of Text I Word review Text comprehension Structure analysis Language points
What is the word? quiet and easily controlled describe or represent sth/sb a wide range of easy to obtain noisily cheerful follow a standard clear difference being the same in all its parts docile portray spectrum accessible boisterous conform distinction uniform
Define the word stereotype curriculum autonomy polarization a fixed idea or image of what a particular type of person is like the subjects that are taught by a school or the things that are studied the ability to make ones own decisions without being influenced a process in which the differences between groups become ever more clear-cut and extreme
Match the word with its antonym. permanent deviance boisterous accessible masculine wavering uniform polarization feminine temporary inaccessible unwavering norm neutralization diverse docile
Text Comprehension What type of writing is the text? Argumentation. What is the authors purpose of writing? To argue that coeducation is the most desirable form of education. How does the author arrange the materials? By means of the deductive method.
Text Comprehension What is the theme of this argumentative essay? The single sex school does not realize the aim of education, while coeducation is the best way to educate young people. Are there any sentences that contribute to this main idea?
Topic Sentence The world is sharply divided into clearly/distinctly masculine and feminine, because that is the way we believe it the world should be. (para.1)
Topic Sentence The grounds on which the idea of The foundation single sex schools might be defended is based and might be protected are cut from under our feet. (para.2) is destroyed right before our eyes
Topic Sentences Coeducation is the most desirable form of education. (para.4) Coeducation has survived as the best way to educate young people. (para.5)
Topic Sentence Which do you think is the topic sentence of paragraph 3, the first or the second sentence? Why? The second sentence: But the single sex school… does anything but this. except What is paragraph 4 mainly about?
Structure of the Text Part I (para.1-2) the gender stereotypes are mentioned and logically rejected Part II (para.3-4) arguing against the single sex school and arguing for coeducation Part III (para.5) suggesting coeducation and a gender free society
Detailed Study Part I We hold this unwavering belief keep firm and take considerable effort to spend big amounts of extra energy keep this division. (para.1)
Detailed Study Part I From the time a child is born, he or she is expected to meet stereotypes boys are supposed to satisfy fixed sets of conventional expectation portrayed as boisterous and disruptive, described as lively and noisy and troublesome girls conform to the expectations when live up to they are sweet and docile. (para.1) gentle, lovely and submissive.
Detailed Study Part I People become the product of their biology. (para.1) People become what they are based on the biological differences.
Detailed Study Part I Their social roles and identity are predetermined by their permanent fixed or determined unchangeably from the very identifying attribute sex. (para.1) beginning by their eternal natural quality The different parts played by men and women and their distinctions existing in the society are fixed by their different sexes long before they enter it.
Detailed Study Part I Males are the producers of cool reasoning and capable of being leaders. (para.1) Males have the ability of reason calmly and form opinions based on logical reasoning so that they possess the capability of becoming leaders.
Detailed Study Part I However, no one feels sure that certain natural differences that exist between man biological and woman are relevant to be distinctions are connected with differences between male and female excellence… (para.2)
Detailed Study Part I Such uncertainty denotes a rejection of such This kind of indicate a refusal to accept concepts as gender appropriate and stereotyped sex roles which are only social norms invented by man, imposed on man, socially accepted standards artificially created by man; human beings are forced to accept them, but rest their logic nowhere. (para.2) but they are not reasonable at all.
Language Points Sharply (para.1) –Opinions are sharply divided. –Their experiences contrast ~ with those of other children. Take…effort (para.1) –It takes constant effort to become fluent in a language. –require/demand/need/put in effort
Language Points Conform to (para.1) –She refuses to ~ to the normal social conventions. –The building does not ~ to safety regulations. Biology (para.1) –How far is human nature determined by ~?
Language Points Identity (para.1) –She went through an ~ crisis in her teens. Predetermine (para.1) –The color of a persons eye is ~d by those of his parents. Identify (para.1) –Can you ~ your umbrella among all these one?
Language Points relevant to (para.2) –His nationality is not ~ to whether he is a good lawyer. appropriate (para.2) –You will be informed of the details at the ~ time. –His bright clothes were hardly ~ for such a solemn occasion.
Language Points rest… nowhere (para.2) –His fame rests more on his plays than on his novels. –Your argument rests on a statement that cant be proved. –Bad manners will get you nowhere. –We looked for her everywhere, but she was nowhere to be found. –The horse I bet on finished nowhere.
Language Points grounds (para.2) –You have no ~ for constant complaining. –Her claim was disallowed on the ~ that she had not paid her premium. cut the ground from under sbs feet: destroy sbs plan or debate etc. by taking preactions
Detailed Study Part II The aim of education is to stimulate Education aims to provide the educated with impulses, encourage free thinking and stimuli, to encourage them to think freely and boldness in thought and keep alive boldly, and to help them develop and keep various interests. (para.3) active their various interests.
Detailed Study Part II But the single sex school by following the simple uniform structure and prescribing a identical offering separate curriculum for males and females different does anything but this. (para.3) not achieve this aim at all
Detailed Study Part II But at a very early stage, a single sex school kills the possibility for destroys the likelihood a vigorous youth to grow and an energetic youth develop into full stature. (para.3) fully into maturity
Detailed Study Part II The education in single-sex schools may lead to the fragmentation of knowledge result in the act of breaking knowledge into and unwholeness of individual identity. pieces and the inability for students to establish their personal identities (para.3)
Detailed Study Part II Girls persuade themselves that make themselves believe they have no head for can not deal with mechanical things. (para.3)
Detailed Study Part II Such sex polarization is also dangerous in an act of causing boys and girls to form into two groups a sense that it severs a sense of a way that it cuts off community by isolating people into two dividing gender groups. (para.3)
Detailed Study Part II Their attitudes remain hostile as if they do not belong to the same species. (para.3) Their attitudes continue to be unfriendly, as though they do not belong to the same human species.
Detailed Study Part II Coeducation is the most desirable form of education. (para.4) The system of educating boys and girls together in the same schools and classes is the most ideal form of education.
Detailed Study Part II With the full spectrum of experience offered, life is an open possibility for man as well as woman. (para.4) Life, which consists of rich, colorful experiences, offer equal opportunities to everyone, both man and woman.
Detailed Study Part II Everyone is anxious to let their minds flower into full blossom. (para.4) Men and women are all eager to develop fully / live up to their expectations.
Language Points Boldness (para.3) –The soldier is famous for his ~. –You can see the ~ of the outline of the mountain against the sky. Keep alive (para.3) –Doctors kept the baby alive for six weeks. –The people tried to keep the old traditions alive.
Language Points Expansion (para.3) –Metals undergo ~ when heated. –The new factory is large to allow room for ~. –Water expands when it freezes. I see no reason why… (para.3) –I see no reason why we should help her.
Language Points Self-determinism (para.3): the belief that one has the control of his/her own fate Determinism: (philosophy) the belief that people are not free to choose what they are like or how they behave, because these things are decided by their background, surroundings and other things over which they have no control
Language Points Bar from (para.3) –She was barred from (entering) the competition because of her age. –Traffic has been barred from the city center. Vigorous (para.3) –He is a ~ supporter of human rights. –My decision met with ~ opposition.
Language Points Fragmentation (para.3) –The ~ of metals occurs under certain conditions. –The ~ of a society into competing groups benefits social progress. Have no head for (para.3) –He has no ~ for figures. –My boyfriend has no ~ for business.
Language Points Enclose (para.3) –The monk lived an enclosed life. –The garden is enclosed by bushes. Save (para.3) –She did it herself to ~ argument. –If you phone for an appointment, itll ~ you waiting. –Thanks for sending that letter for me it ~d me a trip.
Language Points Parallel (para.3) –Their legal system ~s our own. –The rise in unemployment is ~ed by an increase in petty crime. In sense (para.3) –I am a worker in a sense that I work; I dont get paid for what I do. –You are right in a sense, but you dont know all the facts.
Language Points Sever (para.3) –His hand was ~ed from his arm in the accident. –The two countries have ~ed all diplomatic links. Hostile (para.3) –The speaker got a very ~ reception from the audience. –She was openly ~ towards her parents.
Language Points Integrated (para.4) –He has an ~ personality, showing a pleasing mixture of various qualities. –It is an ~ school with children of different races and social classes. Protest (para.4) –Students took to the streets to ~ against the decision. –She has always ~ed her innocence.
Language Points Flower into full blossom (para.4) –Their friendship has ~ed into full blossom. –Their love is flowering into full blossom. In full bloom –The roses are now in full bloom.
Detailed Study Part III As society moves ahead, the gender category becomes blurred. (para.5) With the development of the society, the gender difference is getting more and more indisdinct/unclear.
Detailed Study Part III May I venture to suggest that one day take the risk when male and female is a reproductive are only category only, but no longer central to biologically differentiated… play an important our identity… (para.5) part in establishing our identity…
Detailed Study Part III … I will call that A GENDER FREE SOCIETY, A HEALTHY SOCIETY. (para.5) I will call that a society without distinction of sex, a wholesome society.
Language Points Survive (para.5) –The government is unlikely to ~ the next election. –Doctors did not expect him to ~ the night. Move ahead (para.5) –Share prices have been moving ahead. –Urban civilization is moving ahead rapidly.
Language Points Blur (para.5) –Her eyes ~red with tears. –Tears ~red her eyes. Venture to (para.5) –I ~ to suggest that she might have made a mistake. –She hardly dared to ~ an opinion.
Language Points Reproductive (para.5) –Must all living creatures have ~ organs? –This is a picture of the female ~ system. Be central to (para.5) –His sudden disappearance was ~ to the plot of the book. –Reducing inflation is ~ to the governments economic policy. –Community involvement is ~ to our plan.
Practices & Homework Review of the text Translation practice Exercises of Unit 6 –Word differentiation –Grammar highlights Oral practice
Answer the following questions How are boys portrayed as from the time they are born? What are such concepts as gender appropriate and stereotyped sex roles? What is the aim of education according to the author?
Answer the following questions What may the education in single-sex school lead to? In what sense does the author say that sexual polarization is dangerous? To what extent in the authors opinion can a society be healthy?
Translation Practice She believes that she is not a good mother because she does not fit the stereotype of a woman who spends all her time with her children. Customers are tired of the stereotypical, fast-talking salesperson.
Translation Practice This system imposed additional financial burdens on many people. Economic sanctions have been imposed on the nation. The court has decided to impose a light sentence on the first offender. He imposed on me his own ideas about the novel.
Translation Practice The president lacks physical stature. His reputation has risen to world stature after the success of the film. She has grown in stature since winning the Tchaikovsky Piano Competition. Despite his lack of stature, he became a successful footballer.
Translation Practice The courses cover the full spectrum of levels. The group includes students from both ends of the social spectrum. We shall hear views from across the political spectrum. The newspaper covers a broad/wide spectrum of opinion.
Translation Practice The capacity to think is characteristic of our species. These sophisticated production techniques are characteristic of the more developed economics of the country. Its characteristic of her that she never complained. Windy days are characteristic of March. The need to communicate is characteristic of human society.
Translation Practice The case was dismissed on the grounds that there was not enough evidence. I think hes lying on the ground of his evasive answers. He resigned from his post on the ground of ill health /on health grounds. Employers cannot discriminate on grounds of sex.
Translation Practice The remote desert area is only accessible by helicopter. The cartoon strips are designed to make Shakespeare accessible to children. The instructions should be written in simple language so that they are immediately accessible to the customers. The beach should be accessible to the tourists.
Translation Practice She never allows her personal feelings to interfere with her work. Id get fired if he found out Id been interfering with his records. The sound of the TV upstairs interferes with my work. Whos been interfering with my papers?
Translation Practice A new dictionary must be very good if it is to compete with the many already in the market. Danny raised his eyes, interest competing with suspicion. We cant compete with the large companies on price.
Exercises of Unit 6 Word differentiation Grammar highlights
Word Differentiation Sex or gender? Nowadays educationalists are worried about the impact of ___ and violence in TV. The government is working on tackling ____ inequalities in employment. Masculine or male? People generally like to have __ dogs as pets. The ceremony is exclusively ____. sex gender male masculine
Word Differentiation Distinction or difference? Its hard to make any ____ between the two approaches to language teaching. All groups are entitled to this money without ______. Thought or thinking? Ill certainly have to do some fast ___, wont I? All kinds of ____ raced through my mind. distinction thinking thoughts
Word Differentiation Attribute, characteristic or feature? Organizational ability is an essential _____ for a good manager. The magazine runs a regular ____ on ethnic cooking. The two species have several ____ in common. attribute feature characteristic
Word Differentiation Live, alive, living or lively? The city comes ____ at night. Her dream was to earn her ____ as a singer. The band have never played this song ____ before. The subject produced a ____ debate in Parliament. alive living live lively
Word Differentiation Species, categories, classes or kinds? The towns investigated fell into two broad ______. Membership of gardening clubs is drawn from all social _____. Certain ____ of food are unsuitable for small children. The jungle is rich in different plant ______. categories classes kinds species
Grammar Highlights Transform the following into passive sentences where possible. Someone once taught me a Finnish song I was once taught a Finnish song without telling me what it really meant. In fact without being told… they played a nasty trick on me, because I was played a nasty trick on, because… when I sang it in Finland everyone blushed.
Oral Practice Proposition: Any form of education other than co-education is simply unthinkable