Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in India Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in India Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in India Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005

2 Health Role-modeling Caring & Relationship Low trust versus High trust Body soul dissociation Womens Disempowered status Supremacy Of family & Corruption Subjective Vs Objective cultures Time orientation Factors that affected the health caring Culture.

3 Womens disempowered status I Pregnant women were not allowed access to high caste practitioners Pregnant women were not allowed access to high caste practitioners Had to access low caste women traditional dais Had to access low caste women traditional dais Dais were illiterate women Dais were illiterate women

4 The eldest son of the family pays his last respects to his deceased father before completing the customary rituals and putting torch to the funeral pyre.

5 Erotic sculptures abound & temple prostitution was one of the results

6 Decorated Sati from a Hero-stone (Mahasati Stone)

7 TBA Donkey ride for pregnant women Donkey ride for pregnant women Massaging/kneading the abdomen Massaging/kneading the abdomen Pulling on the cord Pulling on the cord Cow dung as lubricant Cow dung as lubricant Took responsibility for female-feticide and disposal of body Took responsibility for female-feticide and disposal of body

8 No caring culture Lepers were burnt or buried alive Lepers were burnt or buried alive Sick in an epidemic were left to die Sick in an epidemic were left to die Female children were sold to buy food during an epidemic Female children were sold to buy food during an epidemic Mentally retarded, handicapped were chained to trees Mentally retarded, handicapped were chained to trees Sick had no recourse to help Sick had no recourse to help

9 Caring not role modeled: Religion sans caring-II If I am at prayer…I will not leavemy prayer and go to helpsomeone…I dont think it isimportant.If I leave my god and my karmaand help someone then my godwill get angry…my karma will belost…

10 Did god role model healing? There is no such example of God role modeling healing

11 IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY & THE BODY SOUL DISSOCIATION-III THE JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXT The Judeo Christian view would think of the person as one whole The Judeo Christian view would think of the person as one whole The body had intrinsic dignity however deformed or diseased. Even in death, the body needed to be respected The body had intrinsic dignity however deformed or diseased. Even in death, the body needed to be respected

12 One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. It is said that if successfully completed, the practice results in the attainment of supernatural powers

13 Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body.

14 Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while attempting to free his mind through meditation.

15 High and low trust societies SENSE OF COMMUNITY-IV IMPACT ON HEALTH/ ECONOMICS ACCORDING TO FRANCIS FUKUYOMA. Author of book on Trust

16 THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT SOLITARY WORSHIP LOW TRUST SOCIETIES LESS SPONTANEOUS SOCIALIBILITY LESS SOCIAL CAPITAL FAMILY BUSINESS ONLY LESS WEALTH CREATION

17 Cont.

18 Subjective culture vs Objective Low O/S ratio-V We believe that each organ of the body is influenced by some deity. When we deviate from the path of religion …the gods leave our side.. This is why we fall sick.

19 Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures Subjective Subjective Objective Objective Changing standards Absolutes Non-shared standards Widely shared standards Kings/Leaders above Standards Standards above Kings/Leaders Oral tradition; scripture not rooted in history Documentary tradition; rooted in history

20 Subjective cultures do not support scientific development because Interpret reality subjectively Interpret reality subjectively Access knowledge subjectively Access knowledge subjectively Subjective attitudes in justice and gender Subjective attitudes in justice and gender

21 Indian religions… In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them. In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them. WASAV (Widely Accepted & Shared Absolute Values) characterize an objective culture and needed for development. WASAV (Widely Accepted & Shared Absolute Values) characterize an objective culture and needed for development. Polytheistic idolatry does not produce a WASAV culture. Polytheistic idolatry does not produce a WASAV culture.

22 Family versus truth-VI A father and a husband is like a God

23 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 1Finland9, New Zealand9, Denmark9, Iceland9, Singapore9, Sweden9, Switzerland9, Norway8, Australia8, Netherlands8, United Kingdom8, Canada8, Austria8, Luxembourg8, Germany8, Hong Kong8,

24 Family values & corruption o Scale of familism (World Values survey code book 1994 & World Bank statistics) o Correlates well with the CPI.(Regression analysis) o Tribalism- Africa and India

25 Womens transformation Transformation of Ritualistic Hinduism & Jainism Role Modeling of care Sustainability of transformation What did the Christian Medical missionaries do?

26 Womens health Women medical missionaries ushered in caring for women Women medical missionaries ushered in caring for women Women in India did not access hospitals Women in India did not access hospitals Only home visits allowed and that only by women doctors Only home visits allowed and that only by women doctors

27 Maharanis locket Elizabeth Bielby-1880 Elizabeth Bielby-1880 Maharani of Panna Maharani of Panna Locket message to Locket message to The Queen The women of India Suffer greatly

28 SOME POINEER WOMEN MEDICAL MISSIONARIES IN INDIA During the late 19th Century and early part of 20th Century Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 1. Clara Swain 1870 American Methodist Mission Bareilly, UP. 2. Sara Seward 1871 American Presbyterian Allahabad, UP Mission 3. Seeyle 1871 Womens Missionary Calcutta, WB Society of America 4. Sarah Norriss 1873 American Board of Medical Women Rose Greenfield 1875 Society for female Education in the east, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 6. Elizebeth Bielby 1876 Zenana Bible and Medical Mission UK. Lucknow, UP

29 7. Ms Hewlett 1877 England Zenana Mission Punjab 8. Ellen Mitchell 1878 American Baptist Board Burma 9. Fanny Butler 1880 Church of England Jabalpur, Mp. 10. Ida Faye 1881 American Baptist Mission Nellore, AP. 11. Anna Kugler 1883 Lutheran Mission, US Guntur, AP. 12. Elizabeth Beatty 1884 United Church of Canadian Mission Indore, MP. 13. Mana White 1886 United Presbyterian Church of America Siakot, (Jammu Border) 14. Jessie Carelton 1887 American Presbyterian Board Ambala, Punjab. 15. Matilda Machphail 1887 Free Church of Scotland Madras, TN 16. Ottoman 1890 Baptist Missionary Society Ganjam, Orissa Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival

30 Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 17. Edith Brown 1893 Society for Female Education in the East, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 18. Alene Calkins 1895 American Friends Mission Chhatrapur, UP. 19. Pearl Chute 1896 Canadian Baptist Mission Akkividu, AP. 20. Ida S Scudder 1900 Arcot American Mission Vellore, TN. 21. Gertude Hulet 1904 Canadian Baptist Mission Vuyyuru, AP. 22. Charlotte Pring 1915 Godavari Delta Mission Narsapur, AP. 23. Catherine ? American Methodist Episc. Board Jagadalpur, MP. 24. Annie Mackay 1926 Free Church of Scotland Lakhnadon, MP. 25. Katherine Lehmann 1928 ? Renigunta, AP.

31 Ida Scudder Not a medical college but the kingdom of God Not a medical college but the kingdom of God (1918) (1918)

32 Catherine-Methodist church- redefined access One Dr Catherine from the Methodist church in the US travelled by One Dr Catherine from the Methodist church in the US travelled by Ship for 6 months to Bombay Ship for 6 months to Bombay To Raipur by train for a week To Raipur by train for a week Horse by several days to access the mission station called Bastar Horse by several days to access the mission station called Bastar Methodist hospital built in Methodist hospital built in Largest Methodist congregation in India Largest Methodist congregation in India

33 Transformation of women The highest number of women doctors in the world The highest number of women doctors in the world India is a huge nurse factory India is a huge nurse factory % of all nurses were Christian! % of all nurses were Christian! All traceable to the womens medical colleges and nursing schools established by the missionaries All traceable to the womens medical colleges and nursing schools established by the missionaries

34 Ancient India did not have a culture of care By a caring culture I mean formalized caring eg. Orphanages/hospitals By a caring culture I mean formalized caring eg. Orphanages/hospitals Religion was divorced from loving your neighbor Religion was divorced from loving your neighbor No hospitals existed except during the time of King Asoka in 2 nd century BC No hospitals existed except during the time of King Asoka in 2 nd century BC Arya Vaidya Shalas existed for outpatient care for the privileged Arya Vaidya Shalas existed for outpatient care for the privileged

35 In what was a caring void Christian Medical missionaries ushered in a culture of care Christian Medical missionaries ushered in a culture of care The first hospital (Royal hospital,Goa)in 1514 AD and then thousands afterwards.. The first hospital (Royal hospital,Goa)in 1514 AD and then thousands afterwards.. Orphanages…home for widows… Orphanages…home for widows… Sanatoria for TB, leprosy homes and hospitals Sanatoria for TB, leprosy homes and hospitals Programs for epidemic care Programs for epidemic care

36 Social work in India… Social work in India… The kind of missionary work which we see in Christianity …that kind of this did not exist in India for a very long time. Now the social work being done in India…those going out to help and serve others is all because of missionary & global influences.

37 By 1940 AD…. There were 2000 Christian hospitals in India There were 2000 Christian hospitals in India Close to 40% of all beds were made up of Christian hospitals Close to 40% of all beds were made up of Christian hospitals TB sanatoria and leprosy institutions were predominantly Christian TB sanatoria and leprosy institutions were predominantly Christian

38 Dr. Alexander Duff Pioneer missionary educationist Pioneer missionary educationist English education can have a transformative effect on the Indian society English education can have a transformative effect on the Indian society Scripture education introduced but made optional Scripture education introduced but made optional Downward filter theory-working with High castes Downward filter theory-working with High castes Schools and colleges -Calcutta, Madras and Bombay Schools and colleges -Calcutta, Madras and Bombay

39 Christians ushered in a culture of care Started many NGOs that looked at specific needs of the poor and provided succor Started many NGOs that looked at specific needs of the poor and provided succor Role modeled caring Role modeled caring Taught caring Taught caring

40 Welfare-Social capital did not exist The only safety net for the poor was The only safety net for the poor was o The joint family o Individual philanthropy and o The caste system

41 The concept of the voluntary sector…. Indian culture did not have this concept of volunteerism Indian culture did not have this concept of volunteerism Activism for change was also not a part of Indian culture. (Barring a few exceptions no activists for social change) Activism for change was also not a part of Indian culture. (Barring a few exceptions no activists for social change)

42 The concept of the voluntary sector….. Christian missionaries pioneered the NPO and NGO sector (Pande 1967,Terry 1983) Christian missionaries pioneered the NPO and NGO sector (Pande 1967,Terry 1983) This time saw the emergence of major Christian voluntary sector church based and non-church based. (NGOs) This time saw the emergence of major Christian voluntary sector church based and non-church based. (NGOs) Hospitals, Schools, Orphanages and other welfare institutions flourished. Hospitals, Schools, Orphanages and other welfare institutions flourished.

43 As a result …1825 onwards Many Hindu bourgeoisie who studied in English medium schools Many Hindu bourgeoisie who studied in English medium schools Started social reform organizations for the purpose of caring Started social reform organizations for the purpose of caring Care of widows & remarriage Care of widows & remarriage Care of orphans & preventing child marriage Care of orphans & preventing child marriage

44 The many champions of caring Some were Christians Some were Christians Some liked Christian values but were not Christians Some liked Christian values but were not Christians Most were provoked by the Christian gospel to care but remained Hindus Most were provoked by the Christian gospel to care but remained Hindus

45 Raja Ram Mohan Roy ( ) founder of Brahmo Samaj A Hindu reformer and visionary, Roy is considered by many as the father of modern India. Oil Painting by Atul Bose Raja Ram drew inspiration from William Carey The first feminist

46 Rishi Dayanand Saraswati Founded Arya Samaj Founded Arya Samaj Spoke against idol-worship, casteism and female subjugation Spoke against idol-worship, casteism and female subjugation Assassinated in 1883 AD Assassinated in 1883 AD

47 The prime object of the arya samaj is to do good; that is to promote physical, social &spiritual good for everyone

48 Satyasodhak Samaj- Jyotirao Phule-1875 Educated in The Scottish mission school Became a great educationist Started caringinstitutions

49 Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar From he single-handedly wedged a battle against the extremist of the Hindu society and insisted in the implementation of the Widow-Remarriage Act in From he single-handedly wedged a battle against the extremist of the Hindu society and insisted in the implementation of the Widow-Remarriage Act in 1856.

50 As a result Indian religions were challenged to reform Vivekananda brought in a new understanding of Hinduism

51 Indian reformer Vivekananda Vivekananda Father was given to reciting from the Bible-for amusement! Father was given to reciting from the Bible-for amusement! Studied in Presidency college-Calcutta Studied in Presidency college-Calcutta Later in Scottish church college studied English literature and western logic which brought into sharp focus the short comings of Indian society Later in Scottish church college studied English literature and western logic which brought into sharp focus the short comings of Indian society Was influenced by Raja Ram Mohan Roy also. Was influenced by Raja Ram Mohan Roy also.

52 Vivekananda He elevated the status of the service of fellow beings to the level of real worship of God. (PS Kamanant) He elevated the status of the service of fellow beings to the level of real worship of God. (PS Kamanant) Established Ramakrishna mission which began caring Established Ramakrishna mission which began caring

53 Ramakrishna mission was a reformist reaction to the Christian caring CalcuttaRamakrishna M. Institute of CultureAdvaitaAdvaita Ashram CalcuttaSRMSri Ramakrishna Math CalcuttaNarendrapurRamakrishna Mission College UdbodhanMother's HouseVidyapithRamakrishna VidyapithNew DelhiRamakrishna MissionRajkot/GujaratRamakrishna Mission AshramChennaiRamakrishna Math Mylapore ChennaiRamakrishna Mission AshramItanagarRamakrishna Mission Hospital APVidyapithRamakrishna Vidyapith ChennaiChengalpattuRamakrishna Mission Tamil NaduMaduraiRamakrishna Math CoimbatoreRamakrishna Mission Vidyalaya CalcuttaRamakrishna M. Institute of CultureAdvaitaAdvaita Ashram CalcuttaSRMSri Ramakrishna Math CalcuttaNarendrapurRamakrishna Mission College UdbodhanMother's HouseVidyapithRamakrishna VidyapithNew DelhiRamakrishna MissionRajkot/GujaratRamakrishna Mission AshramChennaiRamakrishna Math Mylapore ChennaiRamakrishna Mission AshramItanagarRamakrishna Mission Hospital APVidyapithRamakrishna Vidyapith ChennaiChengalpattuRamakrishna Mission Tamil NaduMaduraiRamakrishna Math CoimbatoreRamakrishna Mission Vidyalaya CalcuttaAdvaitaSRMNarendrapur UdbodhanVidyapithNew DelhiRajkot/GujaratChennai ItanagarVidyapithChengalpattuMadurai Coimbatore CalcuttaAdvaitaSRMNarendrapur UdbodhanVidyapithNew DelhiRajkot/GujaratChennai ItanagarVidyapithChengalpattuMadurai Coimbatore

54 Ramakrishna mission locale BangaloreVivekananda AshramKochiRamakrishna Math, KeralaRanchiRamakrishna MissionKaladiRamakrishna Advaita Ashram KeralaPuneRamakrishna Math and MissionHydrabadRamakrishna MathVaranasiRamakrishna M.- Home of Service RKMRamakrishna VidyashalaKayamkulamSri Ramakrishna Ashram, KeralaJharkhandTB Sanatorium - RanchiMangaloreRamakrishna Mission Ashram BangaloreVivekananda AshramKochiRamakrishna Math, KeralaRanchiRamakrishna MissionKaladiRamakrishna Advaita Ashram KeralaPuneRamakrishna Math and MissionHydrabadRamakrishna MathVaranasiRamakrishna M.- Home of Service RKMRamakrishna VidyashalaKayamkulamSri Ramakrishna Ashram, KeralaJharkhandTB Sanatorium - RanchiMangaloreRamakrishna Mission Ashram BangaloreKochiRanchiKaladiPuneHydrabadVaranasiRKMKayamkulamJharkhandMangalore BangaloreKochiRanchiKaladiPuneHydrabadVaranasiRKMKayamkulamJharkhandMangalore

55 Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda wrote in one of his letters : Swami Vivekananda wrote in one of his letters : Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda A hundred thousand men and women, will go over the length and breadth of the land, preaching the Gospel of salvation, the Gospel of help, the Gospel of social raising- up -- the Gospel of equality. A hundred thousand men and women, will go over the length and breadth of the land, preaching the Gospel of salvation, the Gospel of help, the Gospel of social raising- up -- the Gospel of equality.

56 Karsondas Mulji Social Reformer, Educationist, Writer, Pamphleteer Social Reformer, Educationist, Writer, Pamphleteer While in Elphinstone college…. influenced by missionary John Wilson While in Elphinstone college…. influenced by missionary John Wilson The Primitive Religion of the Hindus and the Present Heterodox Opinions in his journal led to the famous Maharaja Libel The Primitive Religion of the Hindus and the Present Heterodox Opinions in his journal led to the famous Maharaja Libel Widow remarriage-helped many Widow remarriage-helped many

57 Micheal Madusudandas English and Bengali writer AD- became a Christian AD- became a Christian Both The Captive Lady and Visions of the Past were written under the pen name Timothy. Both The Captive Lady and Visions of the Past were written under the pen name Timothy. Editor of The Hindu Patriot. He composed Bengali plays such as Sharmistha, Ekey Bole Savyata, Buro Shaliker Ghare Ro, Krishnakumari and Padmabati. Editor of The Hindu Patriot. He composed Bengali plays such as Sharmistha, Ekey Bole Savyata, Buro Shaliker Ghare Ro, Krishnakumari and Padmabati. In most of his plays, he criticized the lack of caring present in the society. In most of his plays, he criticized the lack of caring present in the society.

58 Dadabhai Naoroji Grand Old Man of India Grand Old Man of India Studied in Elphinstone college- influenced by Dr Wilson Studied in Elphinstone college- influenced by Dr Wilson Went from door to door recruiting girl students Went from door to door recruiting girl students Freedom fighter-concerned Freedom fighter-concerned for women Member of the house of commons Member of the house of commons

59 Initially Jains were into hospitals for birds and animals only Jain Bird hospital in Old Delhi Jain Bird hospital in Old Delhi Gaushalas are old age homes for cows Gaushalas are old age homes for cows

60 Jains now have many hospitals Bombay- Nanavati hospital, Sarvoday hospital, Matunga hospital, Lilavati hospital, Cardiac hospital in Matunga are all Jain. Bombay- Nanavati hospital, Sarvoday hospital, Matunga hospital, Lilavati hospital, Cardiac hospital in Matunga are all Jain. Surat Mahavir hospital is Jain Surat Mahavir hospital is Jain Ahmedabad Vadilal Sarabhai hospital is Jain. Ahmedabad Vadilal Sarabhai hospital is Jain. Sri AmarJain hospital- Jaipur Sri AmarJain hospital- Jaipur Bhagwan MahavirJain Hospital-Bangalore Bhagwan MahavirJain Hospital-Bangalore

61 In personal conversation with Jains We (Jains) will not survive as a religion unless we begin to care like the missionaries.. We (Jains) will not survive as a religion unless we begin to care like the missionaries.. Now Jains go abroad and raise money from the US and the UK for their hospitals and projects Now Jains go abroad and raise money from the US and the UK for their hospitals and projects

62 Emergence of Gandhian NGOs From 1947 to 1960 onwards many new Gandhian NGOs were started Hindu Kusht Nivaran Sangh was started at the behest of Gandhi. From 1947 to 1960 onwards many new Gandhian NGOs were started Hindu Kusht Nivaran Sangh was started at the behest of Gandhi. Shame on us…why should missionaries… (Gandhi) Shame on us…why should missionaries… (Gandhi)

63 Mushrooming of NGOs… Church related and Christian voluntary organizations led the way for the mushrooming of NGOs Church related and Christian voluntary organizations led the way for the mushrooming of NGOs Though not all the NGOs are into welfare more than 100,000 NGOs are into some form of caring Though not all the NGOs are into welfare more than 100,000 NGOs are into some form of caring

64 Ripple effect Transformation Xian NGOs Restructured Hinduism Christian Hospitals Training Womens status Activists Non-Xian hospitals Other caring NGOs Advocacy Doctors & Nurses Man power for mission

65 Disaster 1947 onwards Protestant hospitals in India 700 Protestant hospitals in India Many Indian trained D & N Many Indian trained D & N No visionary leaders!! No visionary leaders!! 400 Xian hospitals closed in 40 years 400 Xian hospitals closed in 40 years

66 Missionary failure- Developed programs but not people 1RUNNING PROGRAMSPEOPLE BUILDING 2Programs produces visible quick impact Harder and longer process involving several years 3Anyone with skill can run programs Requires rapport with people and will not happen unless you are a authentic human being 4Requires lot of capital for infrastructure specially in the healing ministry Does not require large capital for infrastructure 5Not sustainable after the pioneer has retired Long term – very sustainable & greater impact 6All about performing tasks or a task All about creating a visionary Paradigm shift

67 Programme Development to People Development - 2 Jesus – Follow me and I will make you fishers of men. Development of people more strategic than programs. Budgets do not reflect this – more used for programs. Learning from history – Disaster in India Paradigm shift

68 Medical Missions - Custodians of the Culture of Care 3 Types of Caring –Commercial caring –Professional caring –Christian caring

69 Christian Caring Commercial Professional Christian caring Professional Commercial Either way Christian caring is an endangered phenomenon IndiaWest


Download ppt "What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in India Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google