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Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005

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1 Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005
What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in India Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005

2 Factors that affected the health “caring” Culture.

3 Women’s disempowered status I
Pregnant women were not allowed access to high caste practitioners Had to access low caste women traditional dais Dais were illiterate women

4 The eldest son of the family pays his last respects to his deceased father before completing the customary rituals and putting torch to the funeral pyre.

5 Erotic sculptures abound & temple prostitution was one of the results

6 Decorated Sati from a Hero-stone (Mahasati Stone)

7 TBA Donkey ride for pregnant women Massaging/kneading the abdomen
Pulling on the cord Cow dung as lubricant Took responsibility for female-feticide and disposal of body

8 No “caring culture” Lepers were burnt or buried alive
Sick in an “epidemic” were left to die Female children were sold to buy food during an epidemic Mentally retarded, handicapped were chained to trees Sick had no recourse to help

9 Caring not role modeled: Religion sans caring-II
If I am at prayer…I will not leave my prayer and go to help someone…I don’t think it is important. If I leave my god and my karma and help someone then my god will get angry…my karma will be lost…

10 Did god role model healing?
There is no such example of God role modeling healing

THE JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXT The Judeo Christian view would think of the person as one “whole” The body had intrinsic dignity however deformed or diseased. Even in death, the body needed to be respected

12 One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. It is said that if successfully completed, the practice results in the attainment of supernatural powers

13 Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body.

14 Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand
Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while attempting to free his mind through meditation.

15 High and low trust societies SENSE OF COMMUNITY-IV


17 Cont.

18 Subjective culture vs Objective Low O/S ratio-V
We believe that each organ of the body is influenced by some deity. When we deviate from the path of religion …the gods leave our side. This is why we fall sick.

19 Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures
Changing standards Absolutes Non-shared standards Widely shared standards Kings/Leaders above Standards Standards above Kings/Leaders Oral tradition; scripture not rooted in history Documentary tradition; rooted in history

20 Subjective cultures do not support scientific development because
Interpret reality subjectively Access knowledge subjectively Subjective attitudes in justice and gender

21 Indian religions… In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them. WASAV (Widely Accepted & Shared Absolute Values) characterize an objective culture and needed for development. Polytheistic idolatry does not produce a WASAV culture.

22 Family versus truth-VI
A father and a husband is like a God

23 Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used***
1 Finland 9, 2 New Zealand 9, 3 Denmark 9, Iceland 9, 5 Singapore 9, 6 Sweden 9, 7 Switzerland 9, 8 Norway 8, 9 Australia 8, 10 Netherlands 8, 11 United Kingdom 8, 12 Canada 8, 13 Austria 8, Luxembourg 8, 15 Germany 8, 16 Hong Kong 8,

24 Family values & corruption
Scale of familism (World Values survey code book 1994 & World Bank statistics) Correlates well with the CPI.(Regression analysis) Tribalism- Africa and India

25 What did the Christian Medical missionaries do?
Women’s transformation Transformation of Ritualistic Hinduism & Jainism Role Modeling of care Sustainability of transformation

26 Women’s health Women medical missionaries ushered in “caring” for women Women in India did not access hospitals Only home visits allowed and that only by women doctors

27 Maharani’s locket Elizabeth Bielby-1880 Maharani of Panna
Locket message to The Queen “The women of India Suffer greatly”

During the late 19th Century and early part of 20th Century Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 1. Clara Swain American Methodist Mission Bareilly, UP. 2. Sara Seward American Presbyterian Allahabad, UP Mission 3. Seeyle Women’s Missionary Calcutta, WB Society of America 4. Sarah Norriss American Board of Medical Women 5. Rose Greenfield Society for female Education in the east, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 6. Elizebeth Bielby Zenana Bible and Medical Mission UK Lucknow, UP

29 Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work
Arrival 7. Ms Hewlett England Zenana Mission Punjab 8. Ellen Mitchell American Baptist Board Burma 9. Fanny Butler Church of England Jabalpur, Mp. 10. Ida Faye American Baptist Mission Nellore, AP. 11. Anna Kugler Lutheran Mission, US Guntur, AP. 12. Elizabeth Beatty United Church of Canadian Mission Indore, MP. 13. Mana White United Presbyterian Church of America Siakot, (Jammu Border) 14. Jessie Carelton American Presbyterian Board Ambala, Punjab. 15. Matilda Machphail Free Church of Scotland Madras, TN 16. Ottoman Baptist Missionary Society Ganjam, Orissa

30 Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work
Arrival 17. Edith Brown Society for Female Education in the East, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 18. Alene Calkins American Friends Mission Chhatrapur, UP. 19. Pearl Chute Canadian Baptist Mission Akkividu, AP. 20. Ida S Scudder Arcot American Mission Vellore, TN. 21. Gertude Hulet Canadian Baptist Mission Vuyyuru, AP. 22. Charlotte Pring Godavari Delta Mission Narsapur, AP. 23. Catherine ? American Methodist Episc. Board Jagadalpur, MP. 24. Annie Mackay Free Church of Scotland Lakhnadon, MP. 25. Katherine Lehmann ? Renigunta, AP.

31 Ida Scudder Not a medical college but the kingdom of God (1918)

32 Catherine-Methodist church- redefined access
One Dr Catherine from the Methodist church in the US travelled by Ship for 6 months to Bombay To Raipur by train for a week Horse by several days to access the mission station called Bastar Methodist hospital built in 1892. Largest Methodist congregation in India

33 Transformation of women
The highest number of women doctors in the world India is a huge “nurse factory” % of all nurses were Christian! All traceable to the women’s medical colleges and nursing schools established by the missionaries

34 Ancient India did not have a culture of “care”
By a “caring culture” I mean formalized caring eg. Orphanages/hospitals Religion was divorced from “loving your neighbor” No hospitals existed except during the time of King Asoka in 2nd century BC Arya Vaidya Shalas existed for outpatient care for the privileged

35 In what was a caring “void”
Christian Medical missionaries ushered in a culture of care The first hospital (Royal hospital,Goa)in 1514 AD and then thousands afterwards.. Orphanages…home for widows… Sanatoria for TB, leprosy homes and hospitals Programs for epidemic care

36 Social work in India… The kind of missionary work which we see in Christianity …that kind of this did not exist in India for a very long time. Now the social work being done in India…those going out to help and serve others is all because of missionary & global influences.

37 By 1940 AD…. There were 2000 Christian hospitals in India
Close to 40% of all beds were made up of Christian hospitals TB sanatoria and leprosy institutions were predominantly Christian

38 Dr. Alexander Duff 1806-78 Pioneer missionary educationist
English education can have a transformative effect on the Indian society Scripture education introduced but made optional “Downward filter theory”-working with High castes Schools and colleges -Calcutta, Madras and Bombay

39 Christians ushered in a culture of “care”
Started many NGO’s that looked at specific needs of the poor and provided succor Role modeled caring Taught “caring”

40 Welfare-Social capital did not exist
The only safety net for the poor was The joint family Individual philanthropy and The caste system

41 The concept of the voluntary sector….
Indian culture did not have this concept of “volunteerism” “Activism” for change was also not a part of Indian culture. (Barring a few exceptions no activists for social change)

42 The concept of the ”voluntary” sector…..
Christian missionaries pioneered the NPO and NGO sector (Pande 1967,Terry 1983) This time saw the emergence of major Christian voluntary sector church based and non-church based. (NGO’s) Hospitals, Schools, Orphanages and other welfare institutions flourished.

43 As a result …1825 onwards Many Hindu bourgeoisie who studied in English medium schools Started social reform organizations for the purpose of “caring” Care of widows & remarriage Care of orphans & preventing child marriage

44 The many champions of “caring”
Some were Christians Some liked “Christian” values but were not Christians Most were provoked by the Christian gospel to “care” but remained Hindus

45 Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1774-1833) founder of “Brahmo Samaj”
A Hindu reformer and visionary, Roy is considered by many as the father of modern India. Oil Painting by Atul Bose Raja Ram drew inspiration from William Carey “The first feminist”

46 Rishi Dayanand Saraswati 1824-83
Founded Arya Samaj Spoke against idol-worship, casteism and female subjugation Assassinated in 1883 AD

47 The prime object of the arya samaj is to do good;
that is to promote physical, social &spiritual good for everyone

48 Satyasodhak Samaj- Jyotirao Phule-1875
Educated in “The Scottish mission school” Became a great educationist Started “caring”institutions

49 Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar
From he single-handedly wedged a battle against the extremist of the Hindu society and insisted in the implementation of the Widow-Remarriage Act in 1856.

50 As a result Indian religions were challenged to reform
Vivekananda brought in a new understanding of Hinduism

51 Indian reformer Vivekananda 1863-1902
Father was given to reciting from the Bible-for amusement! Studied in Presidency college-Calcutta Later in Scottish church college studied English literature and western logic which brought into sharp focus the short comings of Indian society Was influenced by Raja Ram Mohan Roy also.

52 Vivekananda He elevated the status of the service of fellow beings to the level of real worship of God. (PS Kamanant) Established Ramakrishna mission which began caring

53 Ramakrishna mission was a reformist reaction to the Christian “caring”
CalcuttaRamakrishna M. Institute of CultureAdvaitaAdvaita Ashram CalcuttaSRMSri Ramakrishna Math CalcuttaNarendrapurRamakrishna Mission College UdbodhanMother's HouseVidyapithRamakrishna VidyapithNew DelhiRamakrishna MissionRajkot/GujaratRamakrishna Mission AshramChennaiRamakrishna Math Mylapore ChennaiRamakrishna Mission AshramItanagarRamakrishna Mission Hospital APVidyapithRamakrishna Vidyapith ChennaiChengalpattuRamakrishna Mission Tamil NaduMaduraiRamakrishna Math CoimbatoreRamakrishna Mission Vidyalaya

54 Ramakrishna mission locale
BangaloreVivekananda AshramKochiRamakrishna Math, KeralaRanchiRamakrishna MissionKaladiRamakrishna Advaita Ashram KeralaPuneRamakrishna Math and MissionHydrabadRamakrishna MathVaranasiRamakrishna M.- Home of Service RKMRamakrishna VidyashalaKayamkulamSri Ramakrishna Ashram, KeralaJharkhandTB Sanatorium - RanchiMangaloreRamakrishna Mission Ashram

55 Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda wrote in one of his letters :
A hundred thousand men and women, will go over the length and breadth of the land, preaching the Gospel of salvation, the Gospel of help, the Gospel of social raising-up -- the Gospel of equality.

56 Karsondas Mulji Social Reformer, Educationist, Writer, Pamphleteer While in Elphinstone college…. influenced by missionary John Wilson The Primitive Religion of the Hindus and the Present Heterodox Opinions in his journal led to the famous Maharaja Libel Widow remarriage-helped many

57 Micheal Madusudandas English and Bengali writer
AD- became a Christian Both ‘The Captive Lady’ and ‘Visions of the Past’ were written under the pen name Timothy. Editor of “The Hindu Patriot”. He composed Bengali plays such as ‘Sharmistha’, ‘Ekey Bole Savyata’, ‘Buro Shaliker Ghare Ro’, ‘Krishnakumari’ and ‘Padmabati’. In most of his plays, he criticized the lack of “caring” present in the society.

58 Dadabhai Naoroji 1824-1917 Grand Old Man of India
Studied in Elphinstone college-influenced by Dr Wilson Went from door to door recruiting girl students Freedom fighter-concerned for women Member of the house of commons

59 Initially Jains were into hospitals for birds and animals only
Jain Bird hospital in Old Delhi Gaushalas are “old age homes” for cows

60 Jains now have many hospitals
Bombay- Nanavati hospital, Sarvoday hospital, Matunga hospital, Lilavati hospital, Cardiac hospital in Matunga are all Jain. Surat Mahavir hospital is Jain Ahmedabad Vadilal Sarabhai hospital is Jain. Sri AmarJain hospital- Jaipur Bhagwan MahavirJain Hospital-Bangalore

61 In personal conversation with Jains
We (Jains) will not survive as a religion unless we begin to care like the missionaries.. Now Jains go abroad and raise money from the US and the UK for their hospitals and projects

62 Emergence of Gandhian NGO’s
From 1947 to 1960 onwards many new Gandhian NGO’s were started Hindu Kusht Nivaran Sangh was started at the behest of Gandhi. “Shame on us…why should missionaries… (Gandhi)

63 Mushrooming of NGO’s… Church related and Christian voluntary organizations led the way for the mushrooming of NGO’s Though not all the NGO’s are into welfare more than 100,000 NGO’s are into some form of caring

64 Ripple effect Other caring NGO’s Non-Xian hospitals Advocacy
Doctors & Nurses Man power for mission

65 Disaster 1947 onwards.. 700 Protestant hospitals in India
Many Indian trained D & N No visionary leaders!! 400 Xian hospitals closed in 40 years

66 Missionary failure- Developed programs but not people
Paradigm shift Missionary failure- Developed programs but not people 1 RUNNING PROGRAMS PEOPLE BUILDING 2 Programs produces visible quick impact Harder and longer process involving several years 3 Anyone with skill can run programs Requires rapport with people and will not happen unless you are a authentic human being 4 Requires lot of capital for infrastructure specially in the healing ministry Does not require large capital for infrastructure 5 Not sustainable after the pioneer has retired Long term – very sustainable & greater impact 6 All about performing tasks or a task All about creating a visionary

67 Programme Development to People Development - 2
Paradigm shift Programme Development to People Development - 2 Jesus – “Follow me and I will make you fishers of men”. Development of people more strategic than programs. Budgets do not reflect this – more used for programs. Learning from history – Disaster in India

68 Medical Missions - Custodians of the Culture of Care
3 Types of Caring Commercial caring Professional caring Christian caring

69 Either way Christian caring is an endangered phenomenon
India West Christian caring Professional Commercial Christian Caring Commercial Professional Either way Christian caring is an endangered phenomenon

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