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History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery CSD 5970.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery CSD 5970."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery CSD 5970

2 Sources White, W. (1998). Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Addiction http://www.ncadd.org

3 Perspectives Addiction is a social problem. Addiction should be treated as a crime. Addiction should be treated as a disease Addiction should be treated as a moral problem. Others?

4 1750 -1800 1750The first sobriety circles are formed within Native American tribes. 1752Benjamin Franklin flies his kite. 1774Anthony Benezet publishes the first American essay on alcoholism, Mighty Destroyer Displayed. 1784Dr. Benjamin Rush argues that alcoholism is a disease. Rushs writings mark beginnings of temperance movement.

5 1800-1830 1804Lewis and Clark begin their expedition to explore the Northwest Territory 1810Dr. Benjamin Rush calls for the creation of a sober house for the care of the confirmed drunkard. 1825Six Sermons of Intemperance by Rev. Lyman Beecher describes an insatiable desire to drink in those addicted to sin. 1830Dr. Samuel Woodward advocates inebriate asylums.

6 1831-1845 1831Nat Turner leads a revolt of enslaved African Americans in Virginia. 1840The Washingtonian Society is organized by and for hard cases. 1844The opening of Lodging Homes marks the beginnings of the inebriate homes. 1845Frederick Douglass calls for abstinence as a foundation of the drive to abolish slavery.

7 1846-1869 1849Swedish physician Magnus Huss describes the disease Alcoholismus chronicus – introduce the term alcoholic. 1857Baudelaire publishes a collection of poems called Flowers of Evil 1861Civil War Begins 1864New York opens the first inebriate asylum.

8 1870-1879 1870The American Association for the Cure of Inebriety is founded, publishes journal advocating disease model. 1872Water Street Mission opens, the first Salvation Army type of mission. 1879Dr. Leslie Keeley – alcoholism is a disease and I can cure it. The beginning of for profit clinics.

9 1880-1900 1880Freud recommends cocaine for the treatment of alcoholism and morphine addiction. The patent medicine business booms. 1893The Duryeas invent the first gasoline powered automobile. Keeley League advocates medical not penal treatment for the drunkard.

10 1901-1913 1901The Towns Hospital is the first private hospital for affluent addicts and alcoholics. 1907-1913 States begin passing laws calling for mandatory sterilization of defectives such as the mentally ill, developmentally disabled, and alcoholics and addicts.

11 1914-1919 1914The Harrison Act brings opiates and cocaine under federal control. The beginning of physician involvement in prescribing narcotics. 1919The supreme Court rules that a physician maintaining an addict on his/her customary dose is not acting in good faith. 1919 – 1924 Morphine maintenance open and then close under threat of federal indictment.

12 1920-1933 Prohibition

13 1920-1939 1920sMost inebriate homes, asylums, and private cure hospitals collapse. 1929Depression Begins 1935Shadel Sanatorium begins using aversive conditioning to treat addictions. 1935Dr. Bob and Bill W. meet 1939The book Alcoholics Anonymous is published.

14 1940-1950 1942Research Council on Problems of Alcohol advocates public education about alcoholism. 1944Marty Mann founds the National Council on Alcoholism 1948-1950The Minnesota Model emerges – Antabuse is introduced.

15 1950s AA membership surpasses 90,000 A halfway house movement begins – advocated by the Association of Halfway House Alcoholism Programs of North America. 1957The Veterins Administration begins developing alcoholism treatment units. 1958Synanon is founded – the first self- directed therapeutic community.

16 1960s Jellineck publishes The Disease Concept of Alcoholism 1961 American Bar Association/American Medical Association call for community- based treatment programs. 1963 The American Public health Association alcoholism is a treatable disease.

17 1960s continued 1964Methadone therapy is introduced 1964-197 Insurance payments lead to dramatic increase in addiction treatment. 1967American Medical Association adopts position that alcoholism is a complex disease.

18 1970s Hughes Act comprehensive alcohol abuse and alcoholism prevention act National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism founded. 1971Criteria for Diagnosis of Alcoholism published 1973Fetal Alcohol Syndrome first described

19 1970s 1974The first of a series of programs to credential alcoholism counselors. The field struggles with whether to clinically and administratively merge alcoholism and drug treatment. 1975Women for Sobriety is founded 1978Betty Ford discloses her addiction and treatment.

20 1980s The just say no campaign is launched. Federal support for treatment declines and the numbers of drug users incarcerated begins to rise. The war on drugs shifts focus to punishment and incarceration Block grants transfer funding and responsibility for treatment to states. 1985 crack cocaine appears – Rational Recovery is founded

21 1989 -1994 1989 The first Drug Court in Miami – Stanton Peele publishes Diseasing of America: Addcition Treatment Out of Control Insurance reimbursements for treatment begin to decline – the 28 day private programs close sparking a renewed recovery home movement.

22 1989-1994 The American Society for Addiction Medicine publishes Patient Placement criteria for the Treatment of Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders. 1995 USDA approves Naltrexone 1998 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment begins funding recovery community support projects

23 Perspectives Addiction is a social problem. Addiction should be treated as a crime. Addiction should be treated as a disease Addiction should be treated as a moral problem. Others?

24 Approaches Education Counseling Prayer Incarceration Punishment Medication

25 Exercise From each perspective – answer these questions. What should the individual addict do? What should the addicts family do? What should society do? What approaches make sense? What historical events were fueled by this perspective?


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