3 II. An Urban Age and a Consumer Society Farms and CitiesFor the last time in American history, farms and cities grew togetherAmerican agriculture entered what would later be remembered as its “golden age”The city became the focus of Progressive politics and of a new mass consumer societyNew York was the largestThe city captured the imagination of artists, writers, and reformers
4 II. An Urban Age and a Consumer Society (con’t) The MuckrakersA new generation of journalists writing for mass-circulation national magazines exposed the ills of industrial and urban lifeLincoln SteffensIda TarbellMajor novelists of the era took a similar unsparing approach to social illsTheodore DreiserUpton SinclairThe Immigrant CityBetween 1901 and 1914, 13 million immigrants came to the United StatesEllis IslandAsian and Mexican immigrants entered in fewer numbers
5 II. An Urban Age and a Consumer Society (con’t) The Immigrant Quest for FreedomProgressive-Era immigration formed part of a larger process of worldwide migration set in motion by industrial expansion and the decline of traditional agricultureLike their nineteenth-century predecessors, the new immigrants arrived imagining the United States as a land of freedomSome immigrants were “birds of passage,” who planned on returning to their homelandThe new immigrants clustered in close-knit “ethnic” neighborhoods
6 II. An Urban Age and a Consumer Society (con’t) Consumer FreedomThe advent of large department stores in central cities, chain stores in urban neighborhoods, and retail mail-order houses for farmers and small town residents made available to consumers throughout the country the vast array of goods now pouring from the nation’s factoriesLeisure activities also took on the characteristics of mass consumptionVaudeville
7 II. An Urban Age and a Consumer Society (con’t) The Working WomanTraditional gender roles were changing dramatically as more and more women were working for wagesMarried women were working moreThe working woman became a symbol of female emancipationCharlotte Perkins Gilman claimed that the road to women’s freedom lay through the workplaceBattles emerged within immigrant families of all nationalities between parents and their self-consciously “free” children, especially daughters
8 II. An Urban Age and a Consumer Society (con’t) The Rise of FordismHenry Ford concentrated on standardizing output and lowering prices of automobilesFord revolutionized manufacturing with the moving assembly lineFord paid his employees five dollars a day so that they could buy his car
9 II. An Urban Age and a Consumer Society (con’t) The Promise of AbundanceEconomic abundance would eventually come to define the “American way of life,” in which personal fulfillment was to be found through acquiring material goodsThe desire for consumer goods led many workers to join unions and fight for higher wagesA Living WageEarning a living wage came to be viewed as a “natural and absolute” right of citizenshipFather John A. RyanMass consumption came to occupy a central place in descriptions of American society and its future
10 III. Changing Ideas of Freedom The Varieties of ProgressivismProgressives wished to humanize industrial capitalismIndustrial FreedomFrederick W. Taylor pioneered “scientific management”Eroded freedom of the skilled workersWhite-collar workers also felt a loss of freedomMany believed that union embodied an essential principle of freedom—the right of people to govern themselves
11 III. Changing Ideas of Freedom (con’t) The Socialist PresenceThe Socialist Party brought together surviving late-nineteenth-century radicalsSocialism flourished in diverse communities throughout the countryNew YorkMilwaukeeEugene Debs was socialism’s loudest voice
12 III. Changing Ideas of Freedom (con’t) AFL and IWWThe AFL sought to forge closer ties with forward-looking corporate leaders willing to deal with unions as a way to stabilize employee relationsA group of unionists who rejected the AFL’s exclusionary policies formed the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)William “Big Bill” Haywood
13 III. Changing Ideas of Freedom (con’t) The New Immigrants on StrikeImmigrant strikes demonstrated that while ethnic divisions among workers impeded labor solidarity, ethnic cohesiveness could also be a basis of unityLawrence strike demonstrated that workers sought not only higher wages but the opportunity to enjoy the finer things of lifeNew Orleans dockworker strike showed interracial solidarityLudlow strike ended soon after many strikers were killed
14 III. Changing Ideas of Freedom (con’t) Labor and Civil LibertiesThe courts rejected the claims of laborLike the abolitionists before them, the labor movement, in the name of freedom, demanded the right to assemble, organize, and spread its viewsThe Free Speech FightsLabor had to fight to get the right to assemble and speak freely
15 III. Changing Ideas of Freedom (con’t) The New FeminismFeminists’ forthright attack on traditional rules of sexual behavior added a new dimension to the discussion of personal freedomHeterodoxy was part of a new radical “bohemia”The lyrical left made freedom the key to its vision of societyThe Rise of Personal FreedomIssues of intimate personal relations previously confined to private discussion blazed forth in popular magazines and public debatesSigmund Freud
16 III. Changing Ideas of Freedom (con’t) The Birth Control MovementEmma Goldman lectured on sexual freedom and access to birth controlMargaret Sanger placed the issue of birth control at the heart of the new feminismThe birth control issue became a crossroads where the paths of labor radicals, cultural modernists, and feminists intersected
17 IV. The Politics of Progressivism Effective FreedomProgressives assumed that the Modern era required a fundamental rethinking of the functions of political authorityDrawing on the reform programs of the Gilded Age and the example of European legislation, Progressives sought to reinvigorate the idea of an activist, socially conscious governmentProgressives could reject the traditional assumption that powerful government posed a threat to freedom because their understanding of freedom was itself in fluxJohn Dewey
18 IV. The Politics of Progressivism (con’t) Progressive PoliticsState and local governments enacted most of the era’s reform measuresGilded Age mayors Hazen Pingree and Samuel “Golden Rule” Jones pioneered urban progressivismThe most influential Progressive administration at the state level was that of Robert M. La Follette, who made Wisconsin a “laboratory for democracy”
19 IV. The Politics of Progressivism (con’t) Progressive DemocracyProgressives hoped to reinvigorate democracy by restoring political power to the citizenry and civic harmony to a divided societyBut the Progressive Era also witnessed numerous restrictions on democratic participationVoting was seen more as a privilege for a select few
20 IV. The Politics of Progressivism (con’t) Government by ExpertThe impulse toward order, efficiency, and centralized management was an important theme of Progressive reform“Mastery” required applying scientific inquiry to modern social problems
21 IV. The Politics of Progressivism (con’t) Spearheads for ReformOrganized women reformers spoke for the more democratic side of ProgressivismJane Addams founded Hull House in ChicagoThe “new woman” was college-educated, middle-class and devoted to providing social servicesSettlement houses produced many female reformersThe Campaign for SuffrageCampaign for women’s suffrage became a mass movementBy 1900, over half the states allowed women to vote in local elections dealing with school issues
22 IV. The Politics of Progressivism (con’t) Materialist ReformIronically, the desire to exalt women’s role within the home did much to inspire the reinvigoration of the suffrage movementMuller v. Oregon upheld the constitutionality of an Oregon law setting maximum working hours for womenLouis BrandeisA breach in liberty of contract doctrineThe Idea of Economic CitizenshipBrandeis argued that the right to government assistance derived from citizenship itself
23 V. The Progressive Presidents The process of nationalization was occurring throughout American lifeTheodore RooseveltRoosevelt regarded the president as “the steward of the public welfare”The Square Deal attempted to confront the problems caused by economic consolidation by distinguishing between “good” and “bad” corporations
24 V. The Progressive Presidents (con’t) Roosevelt and the TrustsRoosevelt used the Sherman Antitrust Act to dissolve Northern Securities CompanyRoosevelt helped mine workers during a 1902 coal strikeRoosevelt improved the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) and regulated the food and drug industry
25 V. The Progressive Presidents (con’t) The Conservation MovementRoosevelt also moved to preserve parts of the natural environment from economic exploitationJohn Muir and the Sierra ClubConservation also reflected the Progressive thrust toward efficiency and controlTaft in OfficeTaft pursued antitrust policy even more aggressively than RooseveltTaft supported the Sixteenth Amendment to the ConstitutionProgressive Republicans broke from Taft after the Ballinger-Pinchot affair
26 V. The Progressive Presidents (con’t) The Election of 1912The election was a four-way contest among Taft, Roosevelt, Democrat Woodrow Wilson, and Socialist Eugene V. DebsIt became a national debate on the relationship between political and economic freedom in the age of big business
27 V. The Progressive Presidents (con’t) New Freedom and New NationalismWilson insisted that democracy must be reinvigorated by restoring market competition and freeing government from domination by big businessRoosevelt called for heavy taxes on personal and corporate fortunes and federal regulation of industries including railroads, mining, and oilThe Progressive Party platform offered numerous proposals to promote social justiceWilson’s First TermWilson proved himself a strong executive leader
28 V. The Progressive Presidents (con’t) With Democrats in control of Congress, Wilson moved aggressively to implement his version of ProgressivismUnderwood TariffClayton ActWilson abandoned the idea of aggressive trust-busting in favor of greater government supervision of the economyFederal Reserve systemFederal Trade Commission
36 fig18_02.jpgPage 677: Policemen stare up as the Triangle fire of 1911 rages, while the bodies of factory workers who plunged to their deaths to escape the blaze lie on the sidewalk.Credit: Brown Brothers.
37 fig18_06a.jpgPage 681 (left): A photograph by Lewis Hine, who used his camera to chronicle the plight of child laborers, of “breaker” boys who worked in a Pennsylvania coal mine (1911).Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
38 fig18_06b.jpgPage 681 (right): A photograph by Lewis Hine, who used his camera to chronicle the plight of child laborers, of a young spinner in a Georgia cotton factory (1909).Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, National Child Labor Committee Collection, LC-USZC
39 fig18_08.jpgPage 683: An immigrant from Mexico, arriving around 1912 in a cart drawn by a donkey.Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ
40 fig18_09.jpgPage 684: Mulberry Street, part of the densely populated immigrant neighborhood on New York’s Lower East Side, in a turn-of-the-century photograph.Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Photograph Collection, LC USZC
41 fig18_11.jpg Page 686 (top): Women at work in a shoe factory, 1908. Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ
42 fig18_12.jpgPage 686 (bottom): The Return from Toil, a drawing by John Sloan for the radical magazine The Masses, pictures working women not as downtrodden but as independent-minded, stylish, and self-confident.Credit: John Sloan, cover of The Masses, July 1913.
43 fig18_14.jpgPage 689: Cars entering the Holland Tunnel, which links New York City with New Jersey, in Most of the cars appear to be standardized Fords.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
44 fig18_16.jpgPage 692 (top): A Socialist Party campaign poster from 1904, with images of labor and technology and the party’s candidates.Credit: Corbis.
45 fig18_18.jpgPage 692 (bottom): Roller skaters with socialist leaflets during a New York City strike in A “scab” is a worker who crosses the picket line during a strike.Credit: Corbis.
46 fig18_19.jpgPage 695: Striking New York City garment workers carrying signs in multiple languages, 1913.Credit: Brown Brothers.
47 fig18_20.jpgPage 696: Striking textile workers at Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1912, carrying American flags, were confronted by the state militia.Credit: Reproduced from the Collections of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ
48 fig18_28.jpgPage 707: Two well-dressed Cincinnati women putting up a poster for women’s suffrage, 1912.Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ
49 fig18_29.jpgPage 711: Theodore Roosevelt and the conservationist John Muir at Glacier Point, Yosemite Valley, California, in Yosemite was set aside as a national park in 1890.Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZC
50 fig18_30.jpgPage 712: The Monopoly Brothers Supported by the Little Consumer, a cartoon from the New York American, April 2, 1912, shows the consumer supporting bloated monopolies and political bosses. Theodore Roosevelt marches by with a group of governors who had urged him to run for a third term, one of whom has abandoned him to support President Taft. Taft himself watches the performance on the upper left, seated next to a sheep representing the high tariff on woolen goods.Credit: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, LC-USZ
52 Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 18W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 18Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner