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Presentation on theme: "www.theright2besafe.org Copyright The Right To Be Safe Programs and web-site are copyrighted by Karen A. Duncan, M.A. Feel free to send a link to the."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Copyright The Right To Be Safe Programs and web-site are copyrighted by Karen A. Duncan, M.A. Feel free to send a link to the program to family and friends! The program can also be shared by establishing a web-link to The Right To Be Safe web-site at If you have any questions please contact Karen A Duncan at This program is for the prevention of child sexual abuse and is not meant to replace intervention and treatment where sexual abuse has occurred. The bibliography for the RTBS program may be viewed on the web-site under the link Parent Education Programs. Updated July 10, 2009 copyright (c) 2009, Karen A. Duncan 2 Send a link to family and friends…

4 The Right To Be Safe Purpose: 1. Provide parents with information to prevent child sexual abuse from happening to their children and teens. 2. Help professionals to recognize and stop the traumatic crime of child sexual abuse. 3. Provide a resource for prevention education within our communities 4. Promote safety and well-being for youth and their families. Purpose: 1. Provide parents with information to prevent child sexual abuse from happening to their children and teens. 2. Help professionals to recognize and stop the traumatic crime of child sexual abuse. 3. Provide a resource for prevention education within our communities 4. Promote safety and well-being for youth and their families. Updated July 10, 2009copyright (c) 2009, Karen A. Duncan3

5 Whats in this section A brief overview of female violence and crime Women and child sexual abuse Adolescent girls and child sexual abuse Female sexual abuse and boys We cannot prevent child sexual abuse by defining victims and offenders by their gender! Karen A Duncan We cannot prevent child sexual abuse by defining victims and offenders by their gender! Karen A Duncan

6 Female Crime Women commit murder and assault against partners related to domestic violence. Women (58% of females) commit more forms of child maltreatment than do men (42% of males). Neither male or females should be harming anyone! Women commit murder against their children (29% of child murders in the United States are committed by mothers). Women also commit sexual crimes that include sexual exploitation (taking advantage of a childs dependency or age) of children for economic gain. Women also commit sexual crimes against other women. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders (2000); Bureau of Justice Statistics Homicide Trends, ; Child Maltreatment: Facts At A Glance, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008); Girshick (2002). Women commit murder and assault against partners related to domestic violence. Women (58% of females) commit more forms of child maltreatment than do men (42% of males). Neither male or females should be harming anyone! Women commit murder against their children (29% of child murders in the United States are committed by mothers). Women also commit sexual crimes that include sexual exploitation (taking advantage of a childs dependency or age) of children for economic gain. Women also commit sexual crimes against other women. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders (2000); Bureau of Justice Statistics Homicide Trends, ; Child Maltreatment: Facts At A Glance, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008); Girshick (2002). March 2009Karen A. Duncan5

7 Female Violence 53% of violent female offenders committed their offense while alone. 40% of females were with others, that included other females. 8% of violent female offenders committed their offense with at least one male offender. Females committing sexual abuse do so independently (alone) and with co-offenders (other males and females) and are also known to include children and teens. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders, (2000): Female Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Solo Offenders and Co-Offenders (2006). 53% of violent female offenders committed their offense while alone. 40% of females were with others, that included other females. 8% of violent female offenders committed their offense with at least one male offender. Females committing sexual abuse do so independently (alone) and with co-offenders (other males and females) and are also known to include children and teens. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders, (2000): Female Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Solo Offenders and Co-Offenders (2006). March 2009Karen A. Duncan6

8 Victims of Females 62% of female violent offenders had a prior relationship with their victims. (36% of male violent offenders had a prior relationship with their victims.) Their victims are more likely to be a relative or acquaintance. Female offenders are more likely than men to victimize someone they know. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders (2000). 62% of female violent offenders had a prior relationship with their victims. (36% of male violent offenders had a prior relationship with their victims.) Their victims are more likely to be a relative or acquaintance. Female offenders are more likely than men to victimize someone they know. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders (2000). March 2009Karen A. Duncan7

9 Women Offenders and Children Females are responsible for 5% of reported sexual offenses against children. This is considered a low estimate due to a lack of recognizing female sexual abuse that contributes to a lack of reporting. Mothers sexually offend against their daughters and sons over a period of months or years. It is difficult for society to accept that there are females who commit child sexual abuse. This lack of acceptance makes children more vulnerable to females intent on committing sexual abuse and less protected against females who commit sexual abuse. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders (2000); Faller (1995); Banning (1989). Females are responsible for 5% of reported sexual offenses against children. This is considered a low estimate due to a lack of recognizing female sexual abuse that contributes to a lack of reporting. Mothers sexually offend against their daughters and sons over a period of months or years. It is difficult for society to accept that there are females who commit child sexual abuse. This lack of acceptance makes children more vulnerable to females intent on committing sexual abuse and less protected against females who commit sexual abuse. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders (2000); Faller (1995); Banning (1989). March 2009Karen A. Duncan8

10 Consider this… Females account for 5-7% of reported sex offenses to law enforcement. How many are not reported? The National Crime Victimization (NCV) Survey indicates that females represent up to 6% of rapes or sexual assaults by a female acting alone. The NCV Survey also implicates females in up to 40% of sex crimes involving multiple offenders (2006). Victimization reports indicate that 65% of females and 27% of males report having been sexually abused by a female before the age of 18. Females account for 5-7% of reported sex offenses to law enforcement. How many are not reported? The National Crime Victimization (NCV) Survey indicates that females represent up to 6% of rapes or sexual assaults by a female acting alone. The NCV Survey also implicates females in up to 40% of sex crimes involving multiple offenders (2006). Victimization reports indicate that 65% of females and 27% of males report having been sexually abused by a female before the age of 18. March 2009Karen A. Duncan9 What beliefs in our society grants approval for less protection to children and teens when it comes to female sexual abuse?

11 Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Prevention efforts (awareness and education) can unintentionally disregard females committing crimes of sexual abuse against minors (and adults). Those who research sex offending may ignore or discount the female role in the development of sexual offending patterns in males and in females sexually abused by females. Professionals including law enforcement, psychiatrists, social workers and child protection workers have been found to disregard reports of female sexual abuse. Source: Allen, C. (1991); Banning, A. (1989); Duncan,K. (2004); Denov, M. (2003); Oliver, B. (2007). Prevention efforts (awareness and education) can unintentionally disregard females committing crimes of sexual abuse against minors (and adults). Those who research sex offending may ignore or discount the female role in the development of sexual offending patterns in males and in females sexually abused by females. Professionals including law enforcement, psychiatrists, social workers and child protection workers have been found to disregard reports of female sexual abuse. Source: Allen, C. (1991); Banning, A. (1989); Duncan,K. (2004); Denov, M. (2003); Oliver, B. (2007). March 2009Karen A. Duncan10

12 Reports from Other Countries Survey of Official Reports from other countries indicate there is a growing awareness that more awareness, information and action is needed regarding female child sexual abuse. In other countries, adult females are reported to commit the following percentages of child sexual abuse: Canada – 3.0% (2003)U.K. – 1.8% (2003) Australia – 7.9% (2004)New Zealand – 0.6% (2001) Sweden – 4-5% (2007) When we consider these official reports females are responsible for committing hundreds of sexual offenses and creating thousands of victims worldwide. Source: Cortoni and Hanson (2005) Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. Survey of Official Reports from other countries indicate there is a growing awareness that more awareness, information and action is needed regarding female child sexual abuse. In other countries, adult females are reported to commit the following percentages of child sexual abuse: Canada – 3.0% (2003)U.K. – 1.8% (2003) Australia – 7.9% (2004)New Zealand – 0.6% (2001) Sweden – 4-5% (2007) When we consider these official reports females are responsible for committing hundreds of sexual offenses and creating thousands of victims worldwide. Source: Cortoni and Hanson (2005) Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. March 2009Karen A. Duncan11

13 Melissa Huckaby, 2009, arrested in San Joaquin County (California) for the rape and murder of 8 year old Sandra Cantu. While female teachers who commit sexual abuse can become media celebrities, females like Melissa Huckaby, accused of the rape and murder of an 8 year old girl, are seldom if ever given the same level of attention by the media. Their crimes are seldom covered with the intent to actually provide in-depth reporting or education about female sex offenders to parents and communities. While female teachers who commit sexual abuse can become media celebrities, females like Melissa Huckaby, accused of the rape and murder of an 8 year old girl, are seldom if ever given the same level of attention by the media. Their crimes are seldom covered with the intent to actually provide in-depth reporting or education about female sex offenders to parents and communities. Does the media have a role in creating and sustaining myths about female sex offenders?

14 Women and Child Sexual Abuse 2.1 million females are identified by victims as offenders of violent crime. 10,000 females are arrested each year for violent sexual offenses in the United States. Females (in the United States) were the perpetrators in approximately 12% of sexual abuse cases reported to police where victims were 6 years of age or younger. Females (in the United States) were the perpetrators in approximately 6% of sexual abuse cases reported to police where victims were between 6 and 11 years of age. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders, 2000; Greenfield and Snell (1999); Snyder, H.N. (2000) Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistic. 2.1 million females are identified by victims as offenders of violent crime. 10,000 females are arrested each year for violent sexual offenses in the United States. Females (in the United States) were the perpetrators in approximately 12% of sexual abuse cases reported to police where victims were 6 years of age or younger. Females (in the United States) were the perpetrators in approximately 6% of sexual abuse cases reported to police where victims were between 6 and 11 years of age. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, Report on Women Offenders, 2000; Greenfield and Snell (1999); Snyder, H.N. (2000) Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistic. March 2009Karen A. Duncan13

15 Adolescent Girls 3% of the 4,720 juveniles arrested for raped in the United States were females. Of the 19,400 juveniles arrest for sexual offenses (excluding prostitution- a type of child sexual abuse) 9% were females. These findings indicate that 7.8% of juvenile sex offenders (reported to police in the United States) were female girls. Girls sexually abuse both boys and girls most often their siblings and children they babysit. A British study found that 8% of juveniles (from a West Midlands city ) for sexually abusive behavior were female. Source: Snyder, H.N. (2000) Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; Snyder, H.N. (2004) Juvenile arrests 2002 bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, US Department of Justice; Taylor, J.F. (2003) Children and young people accused of child sexual abuse: A study within a community. Journal of Sexual Aggression (Vol. 9). 3% of the 4,720 juveniles arrested for raped in the United States were females. Of the 19,400 juveniles arrest for sexual offenses (excluding prostitution- a type of child sexual abuse) 9% were females. These findings indicate that 7.8% of juvenile sex offenders (reported to police in the United States) were female girls. Girls sexually abuse both boys and girls most often their siblings and children they babysit. A British study found that 8% of juveniles (from a West Midlands city ) for sexually abusive behavior were female. Source: Snyder, H.N. (2000) Sexual assault of young children as reported to law enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; Snyder, H.N. (2004) Juvenile arrests 2002 bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, US Department of Justice; Taylor, J.F. (2003) Children and young people accused of child sexual abuse: A study within a community. Journal of Sexual Aggression (Vol. 9). March 2009Karen A. Duncan14

16 Consider this…. Female sexual abuse is underreported due to: A lack of awareness which leads to females not being recognized. Female sexual abuse being considered harmless. Victims are often not believed ( especially males) when they report female sexual abuse. Girls are often blamed for the sexual abuse by (referring to them or the offenders as lesbianssexual orientation does not cause a female to commit sexual abuse) rather than seen as victims. Victim reports (rather than criminal reports) place females at around 30% of sexual abuse offenses against children and teens. Source: Center for Sex Offender Management, Report on Female Sex Offenders (March, 2007). Female sexual abuse is underreported due to: A lack of awareness which leads to females not being recognized. Female sexual abuse being considered harmless. Victims are often not believed ( especially males) when they report female sexual abuse. Girls are often blamed for the sexual abuse by (referring to them or the offenders as lesbianssexual orientation does not cause a female to commit sexual abuse) rather than seen as victims. Victim reports (rather than criminal reports) place females at around 30% of sexual abuse offenses against children and teens. Source: Center for Sex Offender Management, Report on Female Sex Offenders (March, 2007).

17 Consider this…. In a study of 17,337 adults (San Diego, HMO members) from 1995 to 1997 it was found that: 16% of the males and 25% of females in the study reported contact (hands-on) child sexual abuse. Men indicated females as the offenders in 40 % of the reports. Women reported females as the offenders in 6% of the reports. Source: American Journal Prevent Med. 2005;28: is a report on the negative health outcomes of child sexual abuse over the life span with a focus on females who commit child sexual abuse. In a study of 17,337 adults (San Diego, HMO members) from 1995 to 1997 it was found that: 16% of the males and 25% of females in the study reported contact (hands-on) child sexual abuse. Men indicated females as the offenders in 40 % of the reports. Women reported females as the offenders in 6% of the reports. Source: American Journal Prevent Med. 2005;28: is a report on the negative health outcomes of child sexual abuse over the life span with a focus on females who commit child sexual abuse. March 2009Karen A. Duncan16

18 Consider this…. These adults, who were victims of females in childhood, were found to have the following negative health outcomes from child sexual abuse in their adult lives: Twice as likely to have a history of suicide attempts. Increase of drugs and alcohol. Increase risk for depression. 40% increased risk of marrying an alcoholic. 40 to 50% increase of having current problems with their marriage. Question: Given these negative health outcomes can sexual abuse by females be considered harmless? These adults, who were victims of females in childhood, were found to have the following negative health outcomes from child sexual abuse in their adult lives: Twice as likely to have a history of suicide attempts. Increase of drugs and alcohol. Increase risk for depression. 40% increased risk of marrying an alcoholic. 40 to 50% increase of having current problems with their marriage. Question: Given these negative health outcomes can sexual abuse by females be considered harmless? March 2009Karen A. Duncan17

19 The study notes…. CSA risk is correlated [linked] with family-related factors such as divorce and domestic violence, and having members who abuse substances or who are emotionally unavailable. "Emphasis on a clearer understanding that children and adolescents of both genders are vulnerable to CSA is needed so that healthcare practitioners can meticulously screen for their occurrence in the pediatric setting. The recognition that both females and males perpetrate CSA is needed; this type of information helps to clarify characteristics related to this form of childhood maltreatment, especially in the development of prevention programs and interventions. (Quotes from the authors reported on Medscape Medical News, July 11, 2005) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supported this study and one of its authors, and the study is currently funded by a grant from the Garfield Memorial Fund at Kaiser Permanente. CSA risk is correlated [linked] with family-related factors such as divorce and domestic violence, and having members who abuse substances or who are emotionally unavailable. "Emphasis on a clearer understanding that children and adolescents of both genders are vulnerable to CSA is needed so that healthcare practitioners can meticulously screen for their occurrence in the pediatric setting. The recognition that both females and males perpetrate CSA is needed; this type of information helps to clarify characteristics related to this form of childhood maltreatment, especially in the development of prevention programs and interventions. (Quotes from the authors reported on Medscape Medical News, July 11, 2005) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supported this study and one of its authors, and the study is currently funded by a grant from the Garfield Memorial Fund at Kaiser Permanente.

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22 Sandra Geisel Pamela Turner Mary Kay Letourneau Debra LaFave Pamela Diehl Moore Sandra Geisel Do they look like sex offenders to you? How are sex offenders suppose to look?

23 Female Offender - Child Exploiter The following females are examples of women who take advantage of children and teens for their own personal and sexual gains. They are females who were in a position of trust with parents and who manipulated this trust to exert control over their victim. Their victims begin to realize how they were exploited once they are away from the offender and as they mature in their understanding of how they were used. The following females are examples of women who take advantage of children and teens for their own personal and sexual gains. They are females who were in a position of trust with parents and who manipulated this trust to exert control over their victim. Their victims begin to realize how they were exploited once they are away from the offender and as they mature in their understanding of how they were used.

24 Stephanie Ragusa, 2008, arrested in Tampa for sexual abuse of two students. Female teachers are not held to the same level of accountability as male teachers who commit sexual abuse against their students. The number of adult males who make jokes about the criminal activity of female teachers is not that surprising given the negative stereotypes and overlooked sexualization of boys in our society.

25 Sandra Geisel, 42 years old convicted in New York (2005) for 3 rd degree rape for one male student and four other male students. Geisel provided alcohol and drugs to her victims. Described in the press as a needy and desperate woman, known to have impromptu sex encounters with several boys. She is the mother of four children and was married at the time.

26 Pamela Turner, 2005, pleaded no contest to four counts of sexual battery in Tennessee. Her victim was a 13 year old boy. At the time of her arrest she was a physical education teacher. She violated her probation by sending nude photos of herself to her victim. Turner was charged with two additional crimes for solicitation and sexual exploitation of a minor. The Judge revoked her probation and ordered Turner to serve her 7-year prison sentence.

27 Mary Kay Letourneau, 1996, was convicted of 2 nd degree rape against her 12 year old student. In Seattle, Washington. Upon her release from prison, she was allowed to marry her victim when he turned 18 years old. During their engagement, he was arrested for driving while under the influence. They married during the month of April which is National Sexual Violence Awareness month. Her victim was 8 years old at the time she first met him in her class as his 2 nd grade teacher. Her father is reported to have sexually abused a female student.

28 Pamela Diehl-Moore, 1999 convicted for sexual abuse of a 7 th grader in her class. Diehl-Moores stated in court, I would never hurt anybody. I tried to help this boy in a way that he professed to me his family didnt. Question: How did Diehl- Moore think sexual abuse would help her student? Question: What would you say to a male teacher who made the same statement?

29 Consider this… Judge Gaeta, who presided over Diehl-Moores case, stated in court that: I really dont see the harm that was done here and certainly society doesnt need to be worried, Gaeta explained. I do not believe she is a sexual predator. Its just something between two people [note: the child was 12 at the time] that clicked beyond the teacher-student relationship. Question: What makes Judge Gaeta think he is an expert on female sex offenders or child sexual abuse? Question: How often do you, or someone you know, think in a similar way when you hear reports of females committing child sexual abuse? Judge Gaeta, who presided over Diehl-Moores case, stated in court that: I really dont see the harm that was done here and certainly society doesnt need to be worried, Gaeta explained. I do not believe she is a sexual predator. Its just something between two people [note: the child was 12 at the time] that clicked beyond the teacher-student relationship. Question: What makes Judge Gaeta think he is an expert on female sex offenders or child sexual abuse? Question: How often do you, or someone you know, think in a similar way when you hear reports of females committing child sexual abuse? March 2009Karen A. Duncan28

30 Consider this… Superior Court judge William Meehan reviewed the case. Diehl-Moore was sentenced to three years in prison and required to register as a sex offender after her release. Gaeta was reassigned to civil court and a review of his handling of the case by a state panel on judicial conduct occurred. Superior Court judge William Meehan reviewed the case. Diehl-Moore was sentenced to three years in prison and required to register as a sex offender after her release. Gaeta was reassigned to civil court and a review of his handling of the case by a state panel on judicial conduct occurred. March 2009Karen A. Duncan29 What do you think Judge Gaeta learned from this action?

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32 Examples of female sexual abuse Behaviors violate the physical boundaries between the adult female and child. Sexual stimulation of a child in order to serve her sexual needs. Behavior that is intended to distort and humiliate the childs sexuality and sexual development. Sexual exploitation such as sex trafficking. Behavior that is overtly (explicit and in the open) sexualized contact between the female and the child. Behavior that has the intention of physically hurting the child through sexual behavior. Behaviors violate the physical boundaries between the adult female and child. Sexual stimulation of a child in order to serve her sexual needs. Behavior that is intended to distort and humiliate the childs sexuality and sexual development. Sexual exploitation such as sex trafficking. Behavior that is overtly (explicit and in the open) sexualized contact between the female and the child. Behavior that has the intention of physically hurting the child through sexual behavior.

33 A pathway to offending...

34 Male victims of females As a man, Im suppose to be the powerful one and the actions of women are not supposed to affect me. Im always supposed to have the upper hand. I took pride in the fact that I could turn on these young girls. I was already fully sexualized and there was a sense of pride. Source: Denov, M. (2004) Journal of Interpersonal Violence. As a man, Im suppose to be the powerful one and the actions of women are not supposed to affect me. Im always supposed to have the upper hand. I took pride in the fact that I could turn on these young girls. I was already fully sexualized and there was a sense of pride. Source: Denov, M. (2004) Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 2009Karen A. Duncan33

35 Male victims of females One of the men reported that as a youth he: Had trouble at school for touching girls. Sexually abused his 9 year old sister. Sexually assaulted two of his nieces. Sexually assaulted two girls outside the family. Source: Denov, M. (2004) Journal of Interpersonal Violence. One of the men reported that as a youth he: Had trouble at school for touching girls. Sexually abused his 9 year old sister. Sexually assaulted two of his nieces. Sexually assaulted two girls outside the family. Source: Denov, M. (2004) Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 2009Karen A. Duncan34 How many girls did this one male sexually abuse?

36 Male victims of females Another man made this connection: I escalated into exposing myself to young girls. I wanted to feel some kind of control, some kind of power…I wanted to hurt or shock the girls…That would fulfill a desire to want them to feel the same pain that I felt when I was sexually abused. Source: Denov, M. (2004) Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Another man made this connection: I escalated into exposing myself to young girls. I wanted to feel some kind of control, some kind of power…I wanted to hurt or shock the girls…That would fulfill a desire to want them to feel the same pain that I felt when I was sexually abused. Source: Denov, M. (2004) Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 2009Karen A. Duncan35 Who did the man want to hurt? The girls he actually harmed or the female who harmed him?

37 Male victims of females All the men seemed to forget they were boys when the sexual abuse happened. Source: Denov, M. (2004) Journal of Interpersonal Violence. All the men seemed to forget they were boys when the sexual abuse happened. Source: Denov, M. (2004) Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 2009Karen A. Duncan36 A real man is not a victim. For a man to be a victim is an embarrassment. A man who is a victim is a failure. Because I am a male, I should be able to control women. A real man is always in charge.

38 Consider this…. All the men held long-term beliefs about what sexual abuse by a female did to their sense of masculinity and male identity. Female sex offenders have a negative impact on boys and can contribute to male offending attitudes, behaviors and beliefs. All the men held long-term beliefs about what sexual abuse by a female did to their sense of masculinity and male identity. Female sex offenders have a negative impact on boys and can contribute to male offending attitudes, behaviors and beliefs. March 2009Karen A. Duncan37

39 A Pathway to Offending March 2009Karen A. Duncan38 Female sexual abuse of boys Female sexual abuse of boys Male Victims of females Male Victims of females

40 Consider these questions… What are we teaching our boys about: Human sexuality and their sexual development? Sexual values and sexual health? Victimization and offending? Child sexual abuse? Their self-worth? What are we teaching our boys about: Human sexuality and their sexual development? Sexual values and sexual health? Victimization and offending? Child sexual abuse? Their self-worth?


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