Presentation on theme: "…by Canadian Astronomers ! Stéphanie Côté (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, NRC)"— Presentation transcript:
…by Canadian Astronomers ! Stéphanie Côté (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, NRC)
Overview 1. Planets around other stars 2. Center of our Galaxy 3.Supernovae 4. Formation of the first galaxies in the early Universe 5. The first Quasars 6. Gamma-ray Bursts Discoveries at Gemini by non-professional astronomers Brief Introduction of the Gemini Telescopes My role with Gemini in Canada Major discoveries with Gemini:
The Gemini Observatory United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Australia. Canada: 15% partner in the two 8m telescopes TWO 8m optical/infrared telescopes infrared optimized Located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and Cerro Pachón, Chile
How common are Earth-like planets, is there life somewhere else? How do stars form? How do galaxies form? What is the Universe made of? The biggest questions in Astronomy:
10 years since Gemini First Observations: The Center of Our Galaxy, October 2000 with Gemini: first image of such a large area of the Milky Way core with such clarity
I am a Canadian Gemini Support Astronomer since 1999: I help other astronomers (especially students) all over Canada to use GeminiI help other astronomers (especially students) all over Canada to use Gemini by answering their questions and helping them write successful proposals for Gemini time by answering their questions and helping them write successful proposals for Gemini time by explaining them how the instruments workby explaining them how the instruments work by helping them prepare their observations, and after helping them work on their databy helping them prepare their observations, and after helping them work on their data I also regularly go observing at Gemini-North (Hawaii) or Gemini- South (Chile) to help getting the dataI also regularly go observing at Gemini-North (Hawaii) or Gemini- South (Chile) to help getting the data Since 2007 I am the Group Leader of the Canadian Gemini OfficeSince 2007 I am the Group Leader of the Canadian Gemini Office My role with Gemini in Canada JohnBlakeslee Tim Davidge Eric Steinbring
Major Discoveries with Gemini: Almost 500 planets around other stars have now been discovered, but not by direct imaging. 1. Planets around other stars Indirect detection by wobbling of parent star (technique pioneered by a canadian team) Gordon Walker
To image directly an orbiting planet, one needs extremely good image quality: Adaptive Optics to correct for the effect of the atmosphere 1. Planets around other stars
Adaptive Optics to beat the atmosphere : ALTAIR on Gemini
FIRST direct image of an exoplanet! 1. Planets around other stars 1RXSJ First published in 2008, confirmed in 2010 with proper motions David Lafrenière & Ray Jayawaradhana
And FIRST direct image of a planetary system! 1. Planets around other stars HR8799: 130 light-years away, 3 planets of 7 to 10 Jupiter masses, at 25 to 70 AU from the star Christian Marois
2. Center of our Galaxy First time the Galactic region has been observed on such a large area and with such precision. Gemini discovered that IRS-8 is a high velocity star, flung around by the Milky Ways central supermassive black hole. It plows through and heats up the gas in its way, causing it to glow. Tim Davidge
3. Supernovae Supernova are exploding stars: -either a small white dwarf star accreting matter from larger companion -or a massive star (more than 8 times the Sun) imploding when fuel runs out Gemini has been excellent at studying Supernovae, because of it is capable of rapid- response observations, thanks to its queue- observations approach.
3. Supernovae Supernova SN2003gd, in M74: First time a red supergiant star is identified on its deathbed before going supernova Follow-up observations also showed that large quantities of dust is produced quickly after that explosion Rev. Rob Evans Doug Welch
Spiral galaxy NGC3370 Phoenix NGC625 Leo A 4. Formation of the first Galaxies in the Early Universe There are different types of galaxies: small dwarf galaxies, spiral galaxies, and elliptical galaxies. We think that many dwarfs merged to build a spiral galaxy; and that elliptical galaxies are formed by the mergers of spiral galaxies.
Elliptical galaxy: M104 The Sombrero 4. Formation of the first Galaxies in the Early Universe
Structure formation in the Universe: N-body simulations See movie at: 4. Formation of the first Galaxies in the Early Universe
Over 300 galaxies from when the Universe was 3 Billion years old: Many more fully-formed massive galaxies are seen at this epoch than expected. (this study is the most cited one of all Gemini discoveries) Bob Abraham Stephanie Juneau
5. The first Quasars A quasi-stellar radio source ("quasar") is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus. They are the most luminous objects in the universe. A quasar is a compact region in the center of a massive galaxy surrounding its central supermassive black hole. It can emit up to a thousand times the energy output of the Milky Way. Quasars were much more common in the early universe.
5. The first Quasars Gemini confirmed the distances of the most distant quasars in the Universe. These bright objects can also be used as beacons to probe the composition of the gas surrounding them a few hundreds of millions of years after the Big Bang. Chris Willott
Gamma-ray bursts are cosmic sources that emit an intense, short burst of gamma rays and X-rays. Gamma-ray bursts are the most violent and powerful event in the Universe. They may last from about one hundredth of a second to about ten seconds. GRBs are typically registered once or twice a day from random directions in space by orbiting spacecrafts. Gamma-ray bursts can be divided into two classes: -short bursts, which last between milliseconds and about two seconds, and produce very high-energy radiation -long bursts, which last between two and tens of seconds, and create less energetic gamma rays. Gemini queue-observations system has been optimised to catch these transient events in the act. 6. Gamma-Ray Bursts
Gemini observed the after-glow of XRF060218, and revealed a supernova associated with the burst: this proved the link between gamma-ray bursts and supernovae (to explain long gamma-ray bursts). Long-duration bursts are now generally reckoned to involve energy released along narrow jets during a specific kind of hypernova (a violent supernova) involving the final demise of stars that started their lives with masses of 40 to 100 times that of the Sun. In such cases, the remnant stellar core collapses immediately to form a black hole. 6. Gamma-Ray Bursts Bob Rutledge
6. Gamma-Ray Bursts Bob Rutledge Gemini can observe gamma-ray bursts just a few minutes after the burst. The after-glows are really faint because these objects are so far away, and they fade quickly. Gemini observed the after-glow of the record- breaking GRB This is the most distant object ever detected in the Universe! The Universe was only 630 millions of years old.
The Canadian Gemini Office initiated as a public outreach activity a Gemini GMOS Imaging Contest In 2002, open to schools in BC The image revealed Herbig-Haro jets with great clarity. Discoveries with Gemini by non-professional Astronomers Trifid Nebula, imaged by Ingrid Braul, 13years-old, from Southlands Elementary
In 2004, we ran a contest open to amateur astronomy clubs across Canada. This was to thank amateur astronomers for all the great work they do to inspire the public about astronomy. G.St-Onge from the Dorval Astronomy Club imaged Ry Tauri. Discovery of a jet associated with the young star in formation. Discoveries with Gemini by non-professional Astronomers Ry Tauri, imaged by Gilbert St-Onge, Dorval Astronomy Club
Discoveries with Gemini by non-professional Astronomers This is the second-most popular Gemini press releases of all! The story was published in many Astronomy magazines and newsletters and e-zines all over the world.
Discoveries with Gemini by non-professional Astronomers
Owl Nebula Discoveries with Gemini by non-professional Astronomers For IYA we ran a contest for high- school students across Canada. Emily Storer, Ecole Charlemagne
The Owl Nebula is one of the most extended in the North Hemisphere, but despite this only two research papers have been devoted it since the invention of the CCD. The Gemini data taken by Émilie Storer are the best data ever obtained on this object! Dr Sun Kwok, dean of the University of Hong- Kong, world expert on planetary nebulae, was consulted: It was always believed that this nebula was a simple ball of gas, but these observations show that the external structure is in the shape of a cylinder. The pair of eyes are two cavities that were formed by the rapid gas outflow. This outflow was not along the cylinder axis, but along an angle of 36degrees. An Astrophysical Journal paper is in the works! Discoveries with Gemini by non-professional Astronomers
The Canadian Gemini Office has helped the Australian and UK Gemini Office to launch their own Gemini Imaging contests last year. There are many more discoveries to come! Glowing Eye Nebula