Presentation on theme: "Amateur Extra License Class Chapter 2 Operating Practices."— Presentation transcript:
Amateur Extra License Class Chapter 2 Operating Practices
General Operating Extra Class HF Frequencies 80m: MHz to MHz 75m: MHz to MHz 40m: MHz to MHz 20m: MHz to MHz 20m: MHz to MHz 15m: MHz to MHz 15m: MHz to MHz Most DX operations in lower-end of the band. Extra class portions of the bands are less crowded.
General Operation Frequency Selection Be aware of the band edges! Carrier Frequency Carrier Frequency -2.8 KHz Lower Side band Upper Side band Carrier Hz Carrier Frequency +2.8 KHz Carrier +300 Hz
General Operating Frequency Selection (contd) ITU Regions 1, 2, & 3 allocations (especially 40m) Band Plans Alternate bands/frequencies. Be flexible.
General Operating DXing Why DX? DX windows 160m: MHz to MHz 75m: MHz to MHz QSL managers.
General Operating DXing DX operating techniques Listen before you transmit! You cant work em if you cant hear em! Use your full call once or twice. Use standard (ICAO) phonetics. Pileup management Simplex Split By-the-numbers
General Operating DXing Split operation. DX station may be on a frequency not available to some answering stations. 40m. Separates calling stations from DX station. Calling stations can hear DX station without interference. Spreads out pile-up. Fewer calling stations on each frequency reduces interference & DX station can more efficiently pick out a station to answer.
General Operating DXing Propagation Conditions improving as Solar Cycle 24 ramps up. Propagation forecasting software. Propagation bulletins Beacons. Telnet/Packet spotting networks. Move to lower frequency band as DX stations get weaker.
E2C05 -- What is the function of a DX QSL Manager? A.To allocate frequencies for Dxpeditions B.To handle the receiving and sending of confirmation cards for a DX station C.To run a net to allow many stations to contact a rare DX station D.To relay calls to and from a DX station
E2C10 -- Why might a DX station state that they are listening on another frequency? A.Because the DX station may be transmitting on a frequency that is prohibited to some responding stations B.To separate the calling stations from the DX station C.To reduce interference, thereby improving operating efficiency D.All of these choices are correct
E2C11 -- How should you generally identify your station when attempting to contact a DX station working a pileup or in a contest? A.Send your full call sign once or twice B.Send only the last two letters of your call sign until you make contact C.Send your full call sign and grid square D.Send the call sign of the DX station three times, the words this is, then your call sign three times
E2C12 -- What might help to restore contact when DX signals become too weak to copy across an entire HF band a few hours after sunset? A.Switch to a higher frequency HF band B.Switch to a lower frequency HF band C.Wait 90 minutes or so for the signal degradation to pass D.Wait 24 hours before attempting another communication on the band
General Operating Contesting Why contest? §97.1(c) -- Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio service of trained operators…. Categories (single-op, multi-op, multi-multi, etc.). Spotting networks, CWSkimmer. Self-spotting generally prohibited. Exchange. Multipliers.
General Operating Contesting Operating Methods. Search & Pounce. Running a frequency. Some contests restricted by band and/or mode.
General Operating Contesting No repeater contacts. Avoid recognized calling frequencies. VHF/UHF contest activity normally found in weak signal portion of each band near calling frequency.
General Operating Contesting Submitting logs. Paper logs. Original method. Generally discouraged. May be prohibited for large logs. Electronic logs. Cabrillo format. or website applet. Do NOT have to submit log to participate.
General Operating Contesting Finding contests. WA7BNM website. ARRL website. CQ Magazine website. National Contest Journal (NCJ) website.
E2C01 -- Which of the following is true about contest operating? A.Operators are permitted to make contacts even if they do not submit a log B.Interference to other amateurs is unavoidable and therefore acceptable C.It is mandatory to transmit the call sign of the station being worked as part of every transmission to that station D.Every contest requires a signal report in the exchange
E2C02 -- Which of the following best describes the term self-spotting in regards to contest operating? A.The generally prohibited practice of posting ones own call sign and frequency on a call sign spotting network B.The acceptable practice of manually posting the call signs of stations on a call sign spotting network C.A manual technique for rapidly zero beating or tuning to a stations frequency before calling that station D.An automatic method for rapidly zero beating or tuning to a stations frequency before calling that station
E2C03 -- From which of the following bands is amateur radio contesting generally excluded? A.30 meters B.6 meters C.2 meters D.33 cm
E2C04 -- On which of the following frequencies is an amateur radio contest contact generally discouraged? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz
E2C06 -- During a VHF/UHF contest, in which band segment would you expect to find the highest level of activity? A.At the top of each band, usually in a segment reserved for contests B.In the middle of each band, usually on the national calling frequency C.In the weak signal segment of the band, with most of the activity near the calling frequency D.In the middle of the band, usually 25 kHz above the national calling frequency
E2C07 -- What is the Cabrillo format? A.A standard for submission of electronic contest logs B.A method of exchanging information during a contest QSO C.The most common set of contest rules D.The rules of order for meetings between contest sponsors
Digital Mode Operating Packet Radio AX.25 protocol ASCII. Block of data – typically 256 bytes. Add header, & checksum. Receiving station responds with ACK or request for repeat.
Digital Mode Operating Packet Radio Terminal Node Controller (TNC) Mostly VHF or UHF 1200 baud AFSK FM (2m)
Digital Mode Operating Packet Radio Digipeater. Satellite. PACSAT. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. Store & forward. DX packet cluster.
E2D04 -- What is the purpose of digital store- and-forward functions on an Amateur Radio satellite? A.To upload operational software for the transponder B.To delay download of telemetry between satellites C.To store digital messages in the satellite for later download by other stations D.To relay messages between satellites
E2D05 -- Which of the following techniques is normally used by low Earth orbiting digital satellites to relay messages around the world? A.Digipeating B.Store-and-forward C.Multi-satellite relaying D.Node hopping
Digital Mode Operating Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS)
Digital Mode Operating Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) Developed by Bob Bruniga, WB4APR. Standard packet transmission. AX.25 protocol. Unnumbered information (UI) frames. Typical frequency MHz (North America)
Digital Mode Operating Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) Applications. Position reporting. Uses GPS data to transmit latitude & longitude of station. Severe weather spotting. Public service events. Weather data gathering. Messaging.
Digital Mode Operating Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) Full-featured station. 2m FM transceiver. TNC. Computer. GPS.
Digital Mode Operating Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) Stand-alone tracker. 2m FM transmitter. TNC. GPS.
Digital Mode Operating Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS)
E2D06 -- Which of the following is a commonly used 2-meter APRS frequency? A MHz B MHz C MHz D MHz
E2D07 -- Which of the following digital protocols is used by APRS? A.PACTOR B C.AX.25 D.AMTOR
E2D08 -- Which of the following types of packet frames is used to transmit APRS beacon data? A.Unnumbered Information B.Disconnect C.Acknowledgement D.Connect
E2D10 -- How can an APRS station be used to help support a public service communications activity? A.An APRS station with an emergency medical technician can automatically transmit medical data to the nearest hospital B.APRS stations with General Personnel Scanners can automatically relay the participant numbers and time as they pass the check points C.An APRS station with a GPS unit can automatically transmit information to show a mobile station's position during the event D.All of these choices are correct
E2D11 -- Which of the following data are used by the APRS network to communicate your location? A.Polar coordinates B.Time and frequency C.Radio direction finding LOPs D.Latitude and longitude
Understanding Satellite Orbits Johannes Kepler (1571–1630). Mathematically described orbits of planets. Same laws apply to artificial satellites orbiting the Earth.
Amateur Satellites Understanding Satellite Orbits Keplers 1 st Law. All planetary orbits are elliptical with the Sun at one of the foci of the ellipse.
Amateur Satellites Understanding Satellite Orbits Keplers 2nd Law. A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
Amateur Satellites Understanding Satellite Orbits Keplers 3rd Law. The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. In plain English – The farther a planet is from the Sun, the longer it takes to complete one orbit around the Sun. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites typically have orbital periods of about 90 minutes. Satellites at about 25,000 miles above the Earth have orbital periods of about 24 hours and are called geosynchronous or geostationary satellites.
Amateur Satellites Understanding Satellite Orbits Keplerian elements. Sets of numbers that describe a satellites orbit. If you know the Keplerian elements for a satellite, you can determine its position at any given time. Software programs use Keplerian elements to plot the current positions of satellites. SatScape Orbitron SatPC32
Amateur Satellites Orbital Mechanics Definitions. Inclination. The angle of an orbit with respect to the Equator. An orbit with an inclination of 0° is always directly over the Equator. An orbit with an inclination of 90° will pass directly over both the North Pole and the South Pole. Apogee The point in an orbit where the satellite is farthest from the Earth. Perigee The point in an orbit where the satellite is closest to the Earth.
Amateur Satellites Orbital Mechanics Definitions. Node. A point in an orbit where the satellite crosses the Equator. Ascending node. The point in an orbit where the satellite crosses the Equator from south to north. Descending node. The point in an orbit where the satellite crosses the Equator from north to south.
Amateur Satellites Orbital Mechanics Definitions. Ascending pass. The pass of a satellite over a location while traveling from south to north. Descending pass. The pass of a satellite over a location while traveling from north to south.
Amateur Satellites Orbital Mechanics
Amateur Satellites Spin Modulation Satellites are often stabilized by having them spin about their axis like a gyroscope. The spin causes amplitude changes and polarization changes of the received signal. Effects of spin modulation are minimized by using circular polarization.
Amateur Satellites Faraday Rotation The polarization of a radio wave is shifted as it passes through the ionosphere. The polarization appears to be continuously rotating as seen by the receiving station. Effects of Faraday rotation are minimized by using circular polarization.
E2A01 -- What is the direction of an ascending pass for an amateur satellite? A.From west to east B.From east to west C.From south to north D.From north to south
E2A02 -- What is the direction of a descending pass for an amateur satellite? A.From north to south B.From west to east C.From east to west D.From south to north
E2A03 -- What is the orbital period of an Earth satellite? A.The point of maximum height of a satellite's orbit B.The point of minimum height of a satellite's orbit C.The time it takes for a satellite to complete one revolution around the Earth D.The time it takes for a satellite to travel from perigee to apogee
E2A10 -- Why may the received signal from an amateur satellite exhibit a rapidly repeating fading effect? A.Because the satellite is spinning B.Because of ionospheric absorption C.Because of the satellite's low orbital altitude D.Because of the Doppler Effect
E2A11 -- What type of antenna can be used to minimize the effects of spin modulation and Faraday rotation? A.A linearly polarized antenna B.A circularly polarized antenna C.An isotropic antenna D.A log-periodic dipole array
E2A12 -- What is one way to predict the location of a satellite at a given time? A.By means of the Doppler data for the specified satellite B.By subtracting the mean anomaly from the orbital inclination C.By adding the mean anomaly to the orbital inclination D.By calculations using the Keplerian elements for the specified satellite
E2A13 -- What type of satellite appears to stay in one position in the sky? A.HEO B.Geostationary C.Geomagnetic D.LEO
Amateur Satellites Satellite Operation There are 3 main types of satellite systems. Repeaters. Transponders. Digital store & forward.
Amateur Satellites Satellite Operation Repeaters. FM voice repeaters on satellites function exactly like repeaters on the surface of the Earth. Typically satellite repeaters are cross-band repeaters. Repeater input & output frequencies are on different bands. Some satellite repeaters can be accessed using a dual- band hand held radio with a handheld 2m/70cm beam. Repeaters are installed on the International Space Station (ISS), AO-27, & other satellites.
Amateur Satellites Satellite Operation Transponders. A linear translator that receives a range of frequencies in one band & shifts it to a range of frequencies in a different band. Many stations can communicate through the satellite simultaneously using different modes. Any type of signal can be sent using a transponder. Since all users share the available power, continuous-duty modes such as RTTY or FM are not normally used.
Amateur Satellites Satellite Operation Digital store & forward. Satellite-based file servers that can store messages for retrieval by another station at a different location in the orbit. Uses packet radio. AO-16 or PACSAT.
Amateur Satellites Satellite Operating Frequencies Satellite mode denotes uplink & downlink frequencies. Pair of letters. 1 st letter = uplink frequency. 2 nd letter = downlink frequency. Mode U/V means 70cm uplink & 2m downlink.
Amateur Satellites Satellite Operating Frequencies Mode Designators DesignatorBand H15m (21.0 MHz to MHz) 10m (28.0 MHz to 29.7 MHz) V2m (144 MHz to 146 MHz) U70cm (435 MHz to 438 MHz) L23cm (1.26 GHz to 1.2 GHz) S13cm (2.4 GHz to 2.45 GHz) C5cm (5.8 GHz) X3cm (10.45 GHz) K1.2cm (24 GHz)
Amateur Satellites Doppler Shift Because satellite is moving at high speed, apparent frequency changes as satellite moves past earth station. Apparent frequency is higher than actual frequency as satellite approaches earth station. Apparent frequency is lower than actual frequency as satellite moves away from earth station. Apparent frequency = actual frequency when earth station is 90° from satellite path.
Amateur Satellites Doppler Shift
E2A04 -- What is meant by the term mode as applied to an amateur radio satellite? A.The type of signals that can be relayed through the satellite B.The satellite's uplink and downlink frequency bands C.The satellite's orientation with respect to the Earth D.Whether the satellite is in a polar or equatorial orbit
E2A05 -- What do the letters in a satellite's mode designator specify? A.Power limits for uplink and downlink transmissions B.The location of the ground control station C.The polarization of uplink and downlink signals D.The uplink and downlink frequency ranges
E2A06 -- On what band would a satellite receive signals if it were operating in mode U/V? A MHz B MHz C MHz D.29.5 to 29.7 MHz
E2A07 -- Which of the following types of signals can be relayed through a linear transponder? A.FM and CW B.SSB and SSTV C.PSK and Packet D.All of these choices are correct
E2A08 -- Why should effective radiated power to a satellite which uses a linear transponder be limited? A.To prevent creating errors in the satellite telemetry B.To avoid reducing the downlink power to all other users C.To prevent the satellite from emitting out of band signals D.To avoid interfering with terrestrial QSOs
E2A09 -- What do the terms L band and S band specify with regard to satellite communications? A.The 23 centimeter and 13 centimeter bands B.The 2 meter and 70 centimeter bands C.FM and Digital Store-and-Forward systems D.Which sideband to use