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Essential QuestionEssential Question: –How did differences in values affect distinct American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle.

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Presentation on theme: "Essential QuestionEssential Question: –How did differences in values affect distinct American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essential QuestionEssential Question: –How did differences in values affect distinct American subcultures in the Chesapeake, Southern, New England, & Middle colonies?

2 Life in 17 th Century English Colonies The Economic, Social, & Political Culture of the English Colonies

3 What did the English colonies look like in 1650?

4 What did the English colonies look like by 1700?

5 Colonial Society in the 17 th Century: New England

6 Families in New England New England society was much more stable than other colonies: families –New England Puritans migrated to America as families –Marriage was easy as most people shared common values –Colonists lived longer due to more a dispersed population, purer water, & a cooler climate Possibly the 1st society in history to reasonably expect to live long enough to see their grandchildren Towns became networks of intermarried families New England invented grandparents

7 17 th Century Life Expectancy

8 Education in New England NE towns regarded education as fundamental family responsibility; towns began to create elementary schools funded with local taxes: –NE had, by far, the highest literacy rate in America –In 1638, Harvard became Americas first college

9 Women in New England Was the colonial era the golden age for women? –Women contributed to society as wives & mothers, devout church members, & ran small-scale farms But were not equals with men: –Women could not legally own or sell property; divorce was difficult –Women did what God ordained

10 Social Hierarchy in New England Local gentry of religiously devout families guided town meetings Large population of yeomen farmers loyal to the local community Small population of landless laborers, servants, & poor NE churches focused on its members; outsiders were not welcomed & often moved away

11 Colonial Society in the 17 th Century: The Chesapeake

12 Women in Chesapeake Society Scarcity in #s gave some women bargaining power in the marriage market; allowed some women to improve their social status But women were vulnerable: –sexual exploitation –Childbearing was dangerous –Chesapeake women died 20 years earlier than women in NE

13 Families in the Chesapeake Normal, English family life was impossible in Virginia: young male – 70-85% of immigrants were young male indentured servants – High death rate (average age was 10-20 years lower than NE) – One married spouse often died within a decade – Children often never knew their parents (let alone grandparents)

14 Social Hierarchy in the Chesapeake Tobacco was the basis of wealth & cause of social inequalities The plantation gentry dominated society & the House of Burgesses Yeoman farmers were the largest class; Came as indentured servants; most lived on edge of poverty Indentured servants were often mistreated & cheated out of land African slaves

15 Chesapeake Culture By 1680, social mobility in the Chesapeake was limited: –An American-born elite class had emerged (this social aristocracy was absent earlier) –The plantation economy & ownership of slaves allowed the gentry to produce more tobacco –High death rates halted the development of schools & towns

16 Colonial Society in the 17 th Century: African Slaves

17 The Roots of Slavery The importation of African slaves was based on a need for labor: –Native Americans made poor slaves because they were decimated by European disease –Indentured servant-pool waned after 1660 An estimated 11 million slaves (mostly males) were brought to the English American colonies

18 The Roots of Slavery Slaves were originally treated as indentured servants but the growing black population in VA by 1672 prompted stricter slave laws: –Africans were defined as slaves for life; permanent slave status was passed on to slave children skin color –By 1700, slavery was based exclusively on skin color –Could even be used as collateral for loans.

19 Origins & Destinations of African Slaves, 1619-1760

20 The Slave Population In the Chesapeake & Southern colonies with large black populations, slaves found it easier to maintain their African culture self-sustainingBy 1720, the African population became self-sustaining: –Fertility rates exceeded immigration rates for the 1 st time –Did not occur in the Caribbean or in South America 60% in SC40% in VA Free & enslaved blacks were much less numerous in NE & Middle colonies

21 The Slave Population Widespread resentment of their slave status led to resistance in the 18 th Century: Stono Rebellion –Armed resistance such as the Stono Rebellion of 1739 (SC) –In 1741, 106 slaves were hung or deported due to a rumor that slaves planned to burn NYC –Runaway slaves were common 150 blacks rose up & seized munitions hold killed & killed several white planters

22 The Colonial Economy in the 17th Century: Commercial Empire

23 Economic Diversity of the English Colonies


25 Rise of a Commercial Empire salutary neglectEnglish govt largely ignored the colonies until the 1650s (salutary neglect); The colonies were not state-funded nor state protected But…Charles II initiated colonial intervention in 1660 to maximize exports, decrease imports, & generate more govt revenue

26 Response to Economic Competition MercantilismMercantilism became the blueprint for Englands empire: –Wanted more money & a favorable balance of trade –Wanted to eliminate Dutch rivals –Wanted a stronger navy Began to restrict colonial trade: –Navigation Act of 1660 –Navigation Act of 1663 No ship could trade in colonies unless it was made in England Enumerated goods (tobacco, sugar, cotton, rice, rosin, tar) could only be sent to English ports Goods shipped to English colonies must pass through England (Increased the price paid by colonial consumers)

27 Implementing the Acts NE merchants found loopholes to avoid paying taxes so the English made more restrictions (Am. Tradition! ) –In 1696, created a Board of Trade to oversee colonial trade –Created maritime courts to mediate disputes The Navigation Acts eventually benefited the colonial merchants & smuggling virtually ended (stay tuned!)

28 Colonial Factions Spark Political Revolt, 1676-1691

29 Colonial Factions Spark Revolt The English colonies began to experience unrest at the end of the 17 th Century: –This unrest was not a social revolution (or a forecast of the American Rev) but a contest between colonial ins & outs –Bacons Rebellion, King Philips War & witchcraft panic

30 Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia Former indentured servants living in the VA frontier suffered due to: –Poor tobacco prices in 1660s –Indian attacks in 1675 Nathaniel BaconThese farmers blamed VAs royal governor Berkeley who did little to help; Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion in 1676 against Berkeley & was joined by small farmers, blacks, & women

31 Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia The rebellion ended after Bacons death (dysentery) but the rebellion convinced VA gentry that: –Indentured servants were destined to become rebellious –African slaves were a better solution than rebellious whites because slaves had no ambitions for political power –Big Picture: Showed the potential power of lower class masses

32 Bacons Rebellion

33 King Philips War In 1675, Metacomet (King Philip) led the Wampanoag Indians against NE colonists: –1,000+ Indians & colonists died Dominion of New England –Large war debt led James II to annul the Mass Bay charter & create the Dominion of New England by combining Mass, Conn, RI, Plymouth, NY, NJ, & NH under a new royal charter under Gov. Edmund Andros

34 King Philips War


36 Dominion of New England Edmund Andros was hated by Puritans, moderates, & merchants Andros vigorously enforced Navigation Acts; made town meetings illegal; collected unapproved taxes In 1689, Andros was deposed when William & Mary began reign Massachusetts was given a new charter that incorporated Plymouth but shifted power from the elect" to those with property

37 Witchcraft in New England Charges of witchcraft were common in New England But the Salem panic of 1691 led to 20 public executions before the trials were halted in 1692 Possible causes: –argument over church ministers –poor farmers accusing rich farmers to gain land –reactions to independent women

38 Salem Witch Trials

39 Conclusions By 1700: –Englands attitude toward the colonies had changed dramatically –Sectional differences within the colonies were profound –All the colonies were all part of Great Britain but had little to do with each other

40 Discussion Question: How unified were the English colonies? –Are these colonies one society or four? –Explain with evidence –Consider political, economic, & social characteristics

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