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As far as we can see, knowledge can be roughly acquired from two sources: books and experience. The latter is no less valuable than the former. Believe.

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Presentation on theme: "As far as we can see, knowledge can be roughly acquired from two sources: books and experience. The latter is no less valuable than the former. Believe."— Presentation transcript:

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3 As far as we can see, knowledge can be roughly acquired from two sources: books and experience. The latter is no less valuable than the former. Believe it or not, one of the best means of getting knowledge of the latter is to travel since traveling provides a much more direct means of understanding people, culture and the world. In the modern world, travel is still motivated by the desire to expand ones horizons, to experience other cultures, and to connect with other people. Like reading a fascinating book, traveling is in many respects an exhibition of mans fundamental curiosity. To see is to believe. Only through travel can one personally experience and satisfy this curiosity. For example, you must have a lot of idea of what Shanghai is like before you pay a visit there. Whats your first impression of the city? What are you eager to know about it? Well, pay a visit there and you can gain your personal insight and perspective, which can in no case be obtained through other means. Now, you are to have an opportunity to make a trip to several world famous cities. Lets see what we can get during this short journey. (Ask students to open the book to P. 236-237, quickly read the brief introduction about each city. Then, prepare to answer the following questions. These questions are primarily intended to test students ability to locate key information from among details. It is advisable to ask students to have something like a contest and see who or which group is the quickest and the best to give the correct answers.) Now, to have a further understanding of each city, our guide puts forward several review questions to test our memory and knowledge. Preparation

4 1. Which historical places can one pay a visit to in Beijing? (the Great Wall, the Ming Tomb, the Imperial Palace) 2. Which city is said to have the cleanest train in the world? What about its speed? (Osaka in Japan, over 210 kilometers) 3. Which city is a city of contrasts? Or in which city can you see the rich and the poor, the sacred and the worldly side by side? (Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia) 4. Which city is a fascinating mixture of old and new? (Manila) 5. Which city has the largest population? (Beijing, 9 million) 6. Which city can never make travelers feel tired? (Manila) 7. Which city still has the influence of Dutch and Portuguese? (Jakarta) 8. In which city is there a big casino? (Seoul) 9. Which city was originally founded by the Spanish explorers? (Manila) 10. Which city is mainly a commercial and industrial city? (0saka) 11. How many capital cities are mentioned ? What are they ? (4 capital cities, they are Jakarta, Beijing, Manila, and Seoul ) 12. Which city has the castle as its tourist attraction? (Osaka)

5 (When finishing this exercise, be sure to draw students attention to the following useful expressions: the sacred and the worldly, be said to be, be situated in, as early as, a mixture of, be bored with, a commercial city, a tourist resort/attraction, a bullet train, have a population of, have a collection of, go for a drive ) Through this trip, I am sure you must have got in a good harvest. I also hope in time to come, you will have opportunities to make a real journey there. Traveling can not only accumulate our knowledge about history, culture, geography, and local traditions, but also bring us many other benefits. For instance, traveling can even develop into an industry called tourism, which is the primary source of national income for some countries. Now you are going to listen to a short passage on Benefits of Travel. While listening, try to fill in the missing parts. Then quickly look through the whole passage again and see what benefits you can obtain from it. Travel can __________(1 widen) our knowledge and ___________(2 broaden our horizons) which we can never get from books and classrooms. Through traveling we can get the knowledge of ____________(3 geography), customs, cultures, and life-style of different places and countries. In travel, we can make more friends and know more about the _______________(4 development) in other countries and the different ways of thinking. Travel is also one of the best ways of __________(5 pastime). After long period of hard and _________(6 tense) work, we can ___________(7 relax) ourselves in a free ________(8

6 mental) state ___________(9 completely) by traveling to enjoy the beautiful _____________(10 scenic spots), to visit _____________(11 historic interest), to see different cities or countryside, to meet distinctive people and to taste _________(12 peculiar) food. Furthermore, travel can _____________(13 strengthen) our health. One who keeps him indoors all day long is likely to be sick. By traveling we can get the chance to climb mountains, walk on foot, do more exercises and _________(14 breathe) more fresh air. Especially in recent years, owing to the _____________(15 environmental pollution), more and more people look for clean destinations where they can breathe fresh air and __________(16 admire) nature in its unspoiled state. Nowadays, with all the comforts _____________(17 available) in route and modern modes of ___________(18 transportation), many people find it more convenient to travel to other places and even other countries just for the sake of _____________(19 pleasure) and sightseeing. To sum up, it is well worth our time and money since traveling is _____________(20 beneficial) to people in so many ways. As is discussed in the above passage, most people travel mainly for the purpose of enrich ing experiences, getting fun, strengthening health or having relaxation. However, have you ever heard traveling can even transform a person? In other words, traveling can create a new self? Well, read the passage Transformative Travel and see what changes have been brought about to the authors life by traveling.

7 Text Information Analysis surface-level information analysis deep-level information analysis Language Points Difficult sentences Key Language Points 1.StickStick 2.ChallengeChallenge 3.TransformTransform 4.Pay offPay off 5.With all ones heart (and soul)With all ones heart (and soul) 6.In itself / oneselfIn itself / oneself 7.PushPush 8.ReinforceReinforce 9.IntendIntend 10.Back down / offBack down / off 11.PerspectivePerspective In-class Reading

8 1. How did the author feel before he went on a trip to Aruba? What caused his dissatisfaction ? or what was the author dissatisfied with then? ( para1-2 He felt hopeless and lost. He is dissatisfied with his job and his engagement.) 2. To get released from his distressing situation, the author decided to take a class, where he made his first important decision. What was he determined to do? (para3 Probably under the influence of the counseling course, he decided to quit his job and end his engagement. ) 3. When he finally got released, what did he feel then? Why? And how did he cope with the situation? (para 4 He was mixed with both excitement and anxiety. Excited because he enjoyed freedom then. Anxious because he was at a loss as to what to do next. He thus made his second important decision: booking a trip for a week in Aruba) 4. What did he do when he settled on the little island of Aruba? What appeared to be of greatest importance to the author there? (para 6 He made a careful schedule of his daily activities: he spent mornings …. To the author, the most important thing is the freedom to enjoy being different from his usual self. ) 5. How many stages of processes for change did the author undergo ? (para. 7-14 7. It is advisable to ask students to make a list of the key idea of each stage by following the topic sentence of each paragraph) What did the author think of his trip to Aruba? What did he learn from this trip? (para. 15 He thought his trip transformed him a great deal and decided his future traveling have some transformative dimension to it so as to continue his growth. ) Surface-level information analysis

9 Deep-level information analysis 1. Reading this story, we know the one-week trip to Aruba was rather costly as we know it may take a year for the author to pay it off. Did the author think it worthwhile to do so? Why? (The author believed it worthwhile to make this trip there since he was convinced that a single week in Aruba was worth three years in therapy. One thing that needs to be kept in mind is that the author made this trip not for pleasure or entertainment but for transformation. He just chose a very peculiar way to achieve this purpose and he made it. In this sense, his efforts paid off. What the trip brings in return to him is a new life, a new and promising self, which is something money cant buy. ) 2. What does the title Transformative Travel mean? (Travel can change a persons life. Through his own experiences, the author highly recommends the advantage of travel.)

10 Difficult Sentences 1. (para. 2 line 5) but I suppose it was the fantasy of … reality [explain the emphatic structure it was/is …that] 2. L12, S1, para4 find + oneself + participle / prepositional phrase [further explain the part excited by… yet …] Examples: Then I found myself surrounded by a dozen boys. Once or twice I found myself doubting my own judgment. Youll soon find yourself without any friends at all if you keep on being so rude to everybody. 3. (para. 6 line 21 ) I really could have been anywhere as long as nobody could reach me …I wanted to do. [Explain (1) the structure :could have been … (2) the meaning of the word reach here] 4. L47-48, S3, para11 to see how it felt (feel: to give you the feeling esp. when you touch or experience sth.): to find out what feelings I would have Examples: Her skin felt cold and rough. The metal felt smooth and cold. 5. (L52, S2, para12) There are times when = Sometimes Example: There are times when she makes me despair of the whole thing. 6. (L60, S1, para14) I made changes when I returned that continued the transformation that started while I was in Aruba. [explain the two that clauses. Both are attributive clauses. The first that clause that continued the transformation… in Aruba modifies the word changes, separated by when-clause. The second that clause that started modifies the word transformation.]

11 stick: (stuck, stuck) v. 1. be or become fixed; fail to work properly 2. push (sth pointed) (into, through, etc) ( ) 3. (cause to) be or become joined or fastened with, or as with, paste, glue, or other substance ( ) n. short thin branch used as a support, as a weapon or as firewood Usage : stick …on fasten to with paste, etc … … stick sth. in/through (sth) stick sth. into sth: push or thrust,esp. sth pointed into, through, etc sth stick to not abandon or change sth; keep to sth (cause sth to) become fixed, joined or fastened with a sticky substance … be faithful to(ones ideals, a friend, etc.) E.g.: (Hand out the material and ask the students to decide on the meaning of each sentence. Then teachers make a summary.) It looks as if Im stuck in the job of clearing up this mess. He was stuck awkwardly in the middle. ( ) Our car was stuck in traffic for hours. I was stuck over/on/in/with one word in that crossword puzzle.

12 Will you help me with this mathematical problem? Im stuck with/on/in/over it. The football fan stuck some pictures of the football stars on the wall by his bed. Just stick the stamps on all those letters. The key has stuck in the lock. Windows sometimes stick so that you cant open them. Powdered sand sticks to peoples hair and skin. If you stick to the truth, youve nothing to fear. Make sure you stick to the same story when youre questioned a second time. Once weve sorted out a program of events, lets for Heavens sake try to stick to it. We should stick to the main road since were not sure of the way. Dont keep changing your companions; get a few good friends and stick to them. Derivative : sticky a.

13 challenge: v. to invite sb. to compete against one in a fight, match, etc. to question the rightness, legality, etc., of; to dispute … n. an invitation to compete in a fight, match, etc. a questioning of the rightness, legality, etc., of sth. Usage: give a challenge accept/ meet/ respond to/ take up a challenge challenge + n. / pron.( sb.) to sth./to do sth. E.g.: (Hand out the material and ask students to work on them by themselves after class. Teachers may summarize its usage in class by giving the Chinese translations of some sentences and by asking students to do oral translation in English. ) Our school team challenged the local champion team to a football match. I challenge you to race me across the lake. The champion swimmer challenged the world to beat him. The difficulty of putting our ideas into practice challenged us to explore a new method. No one has ever challenged his authority in these matters. Im afraid it is out of place to challenge your superiors orders. Exploring outer space is/presents a great challenge to mankind. He accepted his friends challenge to swim across the river. The government will have to meet the challenge of rising unemployment. One of the biggest challenges facing the present government is that of creating new jobs opportunities.. Derivative: challenging a. needing the full use of ones abilities and effort; difficult, but in an interesting way

14 transform: v. to change completely in form, appearance, or nature Usage: transform…into E.g.: One form of energy can be transformed into another. Manual labor has transformed her completely. She is no longer what she used to be. A beard transformed him beyond recognition. Responsibility transformed him from a happy-go-lucky boy into a capable leader. We were surprised greatly at the plans that were transformed overnight into reality. Derivative: transformative a. transformation n. transformer n. Hints: Transform can only be used as a transitive verb. It denotes the great, sudden, mysterious, thorough and fundamental change of a person or thing in appearance, form and nature. Draw students attention to the prefix trans-, which means across, on or to the other side of. More example (It is advisable to ask students to make a list ): transplant / translate / translation / transfer / transport / transportation / transition / transmit /transmitter / transmission / transistor / transparent (a.) Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with the words listed below. Change the form where necessary. transform, transfer, transmit, transplant, transport, transparent

15 1) In only 20 years the country has been _____(transformed) into an advanced industrial power. 2) The head office has been ________(transferred) from Leeds to London. 3) Parents _________(transmit) some of their characteristics to their children. 4) In terms of modern technology, the medical means can ________(transplant) almost every organ of the human body. 5) As a result of speed in ______________(transport/transportation) and communication, the world is getting smaller and the peoples living in different parts of the earth are becoming more closely linked together 6) As is known to us all, iron _________(transmits) heat. 7) It was _________(transparent) that she was displeased. The remarks you had made on her performance must have offended her. 8) The land, factories and others sorts of production goods have been _____________(transferred) from the well-to-do families to the state. 9) In recent years his perceptions of the world have undergone a complete ______ (transformation). 10) Experts urged that students be educated on how to prevent sexually__________ (transmitted) diseases such as AIDS.

16 pay off: pay the whole of (a debt) pay in full and discharge from service be profitable or advantageous; be successful (No passive) E.g.: He had expected to pay off all his debts shortly but as a matter of fact it took him four years. The employees were paid off just before they quit for the holiday. Hardly had the bridge been completed when more than 50 employees were paid off. Stick to your goal and dont hesitate. Your efforts will pay off in the long run. John studied hard before the examination, and it paid off. He made an A. Hints: Draw students attention to its third figurative meaning, whose usage students often have difficulty grasping. In addition, review the following phrasal verbs concerning pay: pay for: give money, etc. in exchange for … … receive punishment or suffering for (sth) … … pay back: return / repay money give the same treatment as received … pay up: pay in full; pay what is owned pay out : to make a large payment for sth. Exercise: Choose the correct phrases to fill in the following blanks.

17 1). I assure you that he is trustworthy and will ___________(pay back) every cent he owes you. 2). Sometimes one has to dearly/heavily ______ ____(pay dearly/heavily for) the mistakes he has committed. 3). She knows she wasnt fair to him in the past, and now she is trying to _______________(pay for) it with kindness. 4). How can I _____________ (pay you back) you for all your kindness and generosity? 5). To his great relief, the monthly installments on the car were eventually ______________(paid up). 6). The damage is due to his neglect of duty, so hell have to ___________(pay for) it. 7). He took out an interest-free loan. That is to say, he just needs to _______________(pay back) the principal to the bank. 8). He is a kindly sort of fellow and will probably not try to ______________(pay back) for the insult. 9). He has ______________(paid out) a lot(or large sums of money) on school fees and uniforms

18 with all ones heart (and soul): completely and willingly; heart and soul; very earnestly E.g.: I wish you success with all my heart. Ill help you with all my heart. I love you with all my heart. Hints: The connotative meaning of the word heart is often dealt with, which can be reflected in a large number of its idiomatic phrases or expressions. Besides, a comparison between the word heart and mind in their application of different contexts is highly necessary. Ask students to do the following exercise first and then based on their understanding, summarize the relevant idiomatic expressions regarding the two words. Exercise: Please fill in the following blanks with heart or mind. 1) I hope with all my ___________(heart) that you will succeed in the speech contest. 2) He made up his ________(mind) not to keep company with those people any longer. 3) The heros death almost broke the _____________(heart) of his mother but she turned her grief into strength and had her youngest son sent to the front. 4) Dont lose _______(heart). The failure is just temporary and all will turn out well if you put your ________(heart) into it. 5) I dont think changing ones __________(mind) indicates a lack of mental stability.

19 6) Once he sets his __________(heart /mind) on something, he wont easily give up till he makes it. 7) Despite many difficulties on the way, he took _________(heart) and fulfilled the task in time. 8) She took her boyfriends ingratitude very much to__________( heart). 9) Please ____________(keep / bear in mind) the instructions the doctor has given you. 10) From the bottom of our _________(hearts) we hope that the friendship between our two peoples will last forever. 11) His manners are rough, but hes a kind man at ________(heart). 12) Most people agree with him, but to my ________(mind) he departs from the truth at least in that point. [The following can be referred to when teachers make the summary: (1) Idiomatic phrases concerning heart: at heart: in ones real nature; in spite of appearances; at bottom; in reality break sbs heart: make sb very sad (get / learn / know sth) by heart: from memory from (the bottom of) ones heart: sincerely in ones heart of hearts: in ones inmost feelings lose heart : be discouraged set ones heart on : be very anxious to do / have take heart: be confident take … to heart: be much affected by it; grieve over it to ones hearts content: as much as, or as long as, etc one wishes (2) Idiomatic phrases concerning mind: keep / bear sth in mind (remember sth); change ones mind (change ones purpose or intention); make up ones mind (come to a decision) to my mind in my eye have …in mind be considering sth. or sb. as suitable for set ones mind on sth. put all ones attention to sth. ]

20 in itself / oneself: E.g.: The talk was all right in itself but it went on too long. The fair( ) is in itself a symbol of the development of Chinas foreign trade. In a sense, an encyclopedia( ) is a library in itself. Hints: Compare the following easily confused phrases: by oneself / itself: of itself /oneself: for oneself: to oneself: Exercise: Choose the correct oneself phrases to fill in the following blanks 1) It took him almost two years but he fulfilled the tremendous task all ______ (by himself) 2) Victory will not come _________(of itself). 3) The door closed __________(of itself) and the light went out____________(of itself). 4) First of all, to live a meaningful life one should not live ___________(for oneself) alone. 5) We suspected that Mary knew the answer to the problem, but she kept it _______(to herself). 6) When Bob insisted on going, Joan left him ________(to himself). 7) The problem is unimportant _________(in itself) but its long-term effects could be very serious. 8) The wooden house stands there all __________(by itself) and the machine in it works ________(by itself).

21 push: v. use force in order to move sth away from oneself (forward or to a different position) try to make (sb) do sth (that he does not want to do; drive or urge) Usage: push sb to do sth / into doing sth ; push sb on /ahead / forward (continue on ones way; move forward with haste or determination) push sb about / around: (infml) (try to control sb in an unpleasant way, as by giving orders; order sb about / around) E.g.: We pushed him hard to take up science. She was pushed into going to university by her parents. Well be pushed to get there in time. (have difficulty getting …) Lets push on its nearly nightfall. If we push forward, we can get home before dark. Whatever happens, we must push ahead with our plans to increase production. We must push on with the work if we are to finish it on schedule. Stop pushing me around Im quite able to make my own decisions

22 reinforce: v. (1). to add strength or support to (2). to strengthen (a group, esp. an army) by the addition of men, equipment, etc. Usage: reinforce … with E.g.: Their arguments are strongly reinforced by the latest trade figures. Newspapers like this tend to reinforce peoples prejudices. This cement building is reinforced with bands of steel. It is easy to direct a childs pattern of behavior by reinforcing good behavior with some kind of reward. To put forward a convincing argument, one must reinforce it with facts. The rescue team was reinforced by 12 experienced miners. Derivative: reinforcement n.

23 intend: mean; have (a particular purpose or plan) in mind Derivative: intention n. Usage: intend to do/ doing sth; intend sb / sth to do(for)sth. [often used in be intended to do(for) sth. ] / intend sb. sth. / intend that-clause (usually in subjunctive mood); intend sth as sth (be intended as) E.g.: We intend her to set out at once./ We intended her for departure at once. What do you intend to do next? Can you iron out the misunderstanding? They intend you no harm. The fund is intended for emergency use only. They intend that this reform (should) be carried through this year. My remark was not intended as a joke Jims gift of flowers was intended as a way of saying that he was sorry that he had quarreled with Mary. I had intended to complete the assignment during the weekend, but something unexpected occurred.

24 Hints: Draw students attention to the last example and further explain this usage to them. The sentence means I planned to complete the assignment during the weekend, but I couldnt. Without changing its meaning, the same sentence can be put this way: I intended to have completed the assignment … Other words having the similar usage can be referred to as follows: expect, wish, plan, mean, hope, want, be, etc. Exercise: Translate the following sentences into English. 1) (I was to have returned you the book, but I was too busy that day.) 2) (I intended to have come yesterday / I had intended to come yesterday, but I had to attend a meeting.) 3) (He had planned to go abroad / planned to have gone abroad next month but he was suddenly taken ill.) 4) (When I reached the corner, I had meant to drive / meant to have driven slowly, but I was talking to my friend and forgot.)

25 back down / off: (infml) yield in argument, point of view, or claims E.g.: The time for the action has arrived now. Its too late to back off, Im afraid. After several hours negotiations, they finally backed down on their unreasonable demands. After being shown conclusive evidence, the other side had to back down. The manager of the auto company is not willing to back off his prediction of a considerable gain. Hints: Review the related phrase back up we learned in Unit 2. back up: (cause to) move backwards e.g. He carefully backed his car up into the garage. give moral, physical support to e.g. Harris will back me up wholeheartedly as he used to. The lectures of this course are to be backed up by a comprehensive programme of field work.

26 perspective: n. the way in which a situation or problem is judged, so that proper consideration and importance is given to each part a view, esp. one stretching far into the distance Usage: in perspective / in its right perspective ; [ see, view, put out of perspective] in/from the perspective of … lack perspective E.g. :The comments of foreign critics often give us a new perspective on our literary achievements. The new evidence put an entirely different perspective on the case. From the top of the hill you can get a perspective of the entire park. We should see events in their historical perspective. Things have changed a lot, so we should view the situation from a new perspective. The objects in the background are in/ out of perspective. The drawing of the house is good, but the car is out of perspective.( ) We must get/keep the problem in perspective ; its not really that serious.

27 Text Information Analysis Key Language Points 1.CharacteristicCharacteristic 2.ScheduleSchedule 3.Bring onBring on 4.AdvantageAdvantage 5.Fix upFix up 6.RestoreRestore 7.LiveLive 8.BoardBoard 9.Pull in / intoPull in / into Passage II 10.DistressDistress 11.BoastBoast After-class Reading Passage One The Romance of Train Travel

28 Text Information Analysis In Passage I, the Romance of Train Travel, the author first comments on one of the characteristics of modern world-- -- speed. Then he states that many of us actually want to slow down. Each time we hear the sound of a train whistle, well have a strong sense of nostalgia. Thats because there is a sense of romance about a train that doesnt exist on a modern jet plane, and train whistles may remind us of the good old days when life was slower. Therefore, many railroad companies are taking advantage of the nostalgia for train travel to offer unique tours for travelers who arent in a hurry and who enjoy the romance of the past. Describing the romantic train travels, the author brings us back to those unforgettable trips on trains in the past. Now you are going to listen to some descriptions and then decide on which train the following situations often happen. (1) This train travel is specially offered to those interested in religion, passengers can have a chance to visit the place where Prince Gautama became Buddha. (The Great Indian Rover) (2). On this train, passengers can enjoy the natural beauty, they can even take photographs or have picnics during the trip. (Toy Train, a train of India) (3). This train travel was usually associated with excitement and danger; the traveling was the scene of mystery or crime. It was really like an adventure, giving people a sense of romance. (Orient Express) (4). This train takes you 7 days. Passengers can go sight-seeing to palaces, cities, where they can receive warm welcome. (Palace on Wheels ) (5). This train offers creative, entertaining games, in which the travelers act as detectives, helping to participate in solving the mystery and catch the criminal. (Mystery Express running from New York to Montreal) (6). On this train, travelers on board can enjoy an extra advantage, they can hear a lecture on a countrys history and culture. ( Trans-Siberian Special from Mongolia to Moscow )

29 characteristic: a. forming part of the character of a person or thing; typical n. distinguishing feature Usage: be characteristic of (be typical of) E.g.: Windy days are characteristic of March. Its characteristic of her that she never complains. It is characteristic of her to keep herself indoors all day long when in low spirits. Good planning is one of the characteristics of a successful business. The major characteristic of jazz is its heavy rhythm( ). Hints: Draw students attention to the two easily confused words: character and characteristic. Unlike characteristic (n.), which often describes objectively the specific feature or quality of sb or sth., character refers to the combination of qualities which make a particular person, thing, place, etc., different from others or that are regarded as valuable or admirable, such as honesty, etc. It can be interpreted in Chinese as etc. Roughly speaking, character is the sum of all the specific characteristics of a thing or person. In addition, character can have such connotations as a person who is very unusual or well-known( ), a person in a novel or play, etc. The following two phrases deserve to be discussed as well. in character

30 ( ) out of character ( ) e.g. Mary was a nice girl; her fit of temper was indeed out of character. Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with character and characteristic. 1) They resemble each other in appearance but are strikingly different in _________(character). 2) Cheerfulness is one of the girls distinguishing _________(characteristics) while the boy is usually of a strong __________(character). 3) The style of this painting is fairly _______ (characteristic) of his early work. 4) The fat actor was in ________(character) because the ______(character ) he played was supposed to be fat. 5) It really distressed my heart when I saw some people who even gave up their noble _______________(character) in return for the material benefits. 6) The ability to use language is one _________(characteristic) that distinguishes man from animals. 7) Let me list some of the _____________(characteristics) many outstanding top-achievers have in common. 8) The whole ____________(character ) of the village has changed beyond recognition since I was last here.

31 schedule: n. timetable, calendar, agenda or program for work v. plan, arrange Usage: on schedule: on time; as planned or expected ahead of schedule : ahead of time; before the planned or expected time behind schedule : after the planned or expected time; not on time ( according) to schedule: as planned be scheduled for / be scheduled to do sth E.g.: We are all aware of the importance of completing the project on schedule / ahead of schedule. This workshop has fulfilled its output quota( ) two months ahead of schedule. The train was half an hour behind schedule. If everything goes according to schedule, we should have the work finished by the end of the month. We were then badly behind schedule in our work. ( ) The arrival of the steamer is scheduled for the 18 th instant. ( 18 ) The president is scheduled for/ to make a speech tomorrow.

32 bring on: cause (sth such as an illness); cause to advance or improve E.g.: The sudden weather brought on his fever again. Reading in poor light may bring on a headache. The warm weather should bring on the crops nicely. Hints : Review the following phrasal verbs concerning bring : bring about: cause (sth); cause to happen, bring out: reveal, show ( ) offer to the public, bring up: ( Br.E ) educate; raise (a child),, mention or introduce (a subject), Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with the bring on, bring up, bring about, bring out. 1) Land reform ________(brought about) a great change in the lives of the common people. 2) The tutor( ) ___________(brought on) the backward boy until he was normal in intelligence. 3) Difficulties and hardship can _________(bring out) a persons best qualities.

33 4) The new environment _____________(brought about) a wonderful change in her character. She used to be very easily angered. 5) The farm machinery plant is _________(bringing out) a new walking tractor next month.( ) 6) The question of practicing economy was again _______(brought up) at yesterdays meeting. 7) The warm sunshine has ________(brought out) all the flowers on the fruit trees. 8) The crisis in our industry was _________(brought on) by intense competition from foreign producers. 9) The Peoples Publishing House will soon ________(bring out) a new series of childrens books.

34 advantage: n. sth. that may help one to be successful or to gain a favorable result a favorable condition resulting from a particular course of action; gain; benefit Usage : take advantage of (1). to make use of, profit from ( ) ( ) (2). to make unfair use of sb. or ones quality, exploit to advantage: to a good effect, favorably( ) to sbs advantage: to ones favor gain / get / win / have / obtain an advantage over or have the advantage of have a better position or opportunity … … … give sb. an advantage over: give sb a better position or opportunity E.g.: (When explaining the usage of the phrase take advantage of, teachers are advised to ask students to translate the following sentences into English. Then give some other English examples to further elaborate on its other expressions.) 1). (He often took advantage of my lack of experience.) 2) (I took advantage of the fine weather today to paint the doors and windows.) 3). (rivals) (He always takes full advantage the mistakes made by his rivals.)

35 4). (Dont try to take advantage of me; I know full well what youre up to.) 5). Toms university education gave him an advantage over boys who had not been to a university. Other examples to refer to in explaining other phrases: 6) This painting is seen to (better) advantage from a distance. 7) What they suggest would only be to their advantage and not ours. 8) He has the advantage of the other teachers in the group when he talks about American literature. 9) Her teaching experience gave her a big advantage over the other applicants for the job. 10) This method has the advantage of saving a lot of fuel. 11) The disadvantages of the proposal outweigh the advantages. ( ) Derivative: advantageous adj. (to) Antonym : disadvantage n.

36 fix up: restore: repair or improve make arrangements for, find a place to stay,, E.g.:The old machine was fixed up and put to work again. They fixed up a temporary platform at one end of the room so that the performance could be carried on. I hope you can fix up an appointment with the director recently. The hotel attendants fixed up the tired travelers for the night. Hints: Compare it with fix on / upon (1. decide about; choose 2. look intently at; gaze at ). E.g. Have you fixed on where to hold the party? After a long discussion we fixed on this site for the new reservoir. The trouble is that I cant fix my mind on what I am doing. v. (1). to bring back into use or existence; to put back into a former position or condition (2). to put (esp. an old building, piece of furniture, or work of art) back into its original state (3). to give back, Usage: restore … to … ; restore+(prep) in / into / out of E.g.: The relations between the two countries were restored to normal. Troops were sent to restore law and order to the city. The temple has been carefully restored to its original state. The stolen property was restored to its original owner. After the holiday, I feel completely restored to health.

37 Hints: Both the words restore and recover refer to getting back something that has been lost. Recover is more general; it can refer to finding a lost item by chance or accident as easily as by intention and effort. Restore suggests bringing back to an original or unimpaired condition after exhaustion, illness, dilapidation, etc. The two words also differ greatly in their usage, with recover used in recover(…)from and restore in restore …to. Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with restore or recover. 1) The new managers job is to ________(restore) the company to profitability. 2) He has completely ________(recovered) from his bad cold and will start to work next week. 3) They ________(restored) the house to the way it might have looked in the 18 th century. 4) The army was able to _____(recover) any of the territory it lost. 5) One of his eyes was injured in an accident, but after a delicate operation, he quickly ____________(recover )his sight. 6) Ill see to it that the lost child will be _______(restored) to his own parents. 7) The region soon _________(recovered) from effect of the earthquake. 8) The manager was asked to resign but was later ______(restored) to his former job. 9) He only ________(recovered) his position of eminence among his fellow scientists in the last day of his life.

38 live: a. having life (usu. as a modifier) charged with electricity (of sth broadcast) not recorded in advance (on tape or records) (4). of interest or importance at the present time Hints: Compare the three easily confused words: alive, live, living. Living may refer only to the condition of not being dead. E.g. He is the greatest living novelist in England. My grandfather is still living at the age of 93. By extension, living may also describe things that are full of energy and significance or are actually operative. e.g. a living language. Normally used as a predicative, alive applies to all degrees of life, from that which is barely evident to that which implies the very utmost of vitality and power. e.g. The wounded man was unconscious but still alive when taken to the hospital. She is so alive that her presence in the room brought a lot of laughter and fun. Live, which is usually placed before the noun modified, may describe the condition of appearing in the flesh rather than being depicted in photographs, paintings, etc. e.g. It is the first time the little child has seen a live monkey. In television and radio, a live program is one being performed at the time of transmission rather than appearing in a taped performance. When applied to certain things, live carries the idea of vital functioning. E.g. a live wire a live topic ( ) (

39 Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with live, alive and living. 1). They brought down an enemy plane last night. The pilot was captured ____(alive). 2). The lion only eats ______(live) animals. 3). It was said that several black people were burnt _______(alive) in the accident. 4). The dog was playing with a _______(live) rabbit. 5). The sleeping pattern of a __________(living) creature is determined by the food it eats. 6). While politicians argue about nuclear weapons, ordinary people are simply concerned with staying __________. (alive) 7). The laboratory is conducting experiments with a dozen ______(live) monkeys. 8). The wilderness is a ________(living ) museum of natural history. 9). Sunlight, air and water are very important to ________(living) things. 10). Peace talks are a ______(live) issue today.

40 board: v. to get on or into a bus, ship or plane,etc. n. long thin flat piece of cut wood; committee, council, group of people controlling a company or some other organization (cost of) daily meals(in rented accommodation) ( ) Usage: on board: aboard (on/in) a ship, bus, airplane, etc. above board: honest and open, without trick across the board: (infml) including everyone or all; so that all are included., E.g.: (Hand out the material and ask students to work on them after class first and teachers make a brief summary in class.) We boarded a taxi and headed for the airport immediately. The passengers will board the airplane at gate 9 at noon. She has a seat on the board of directors of a large company. He pays 40 a week for board and lodging. As long as everything is above board, I dont mind; but I hate anything underhand. On his first night on board he didnt sleep very much. Most of the night he lay awake. He wasnt on board the ship when it sailed. The ship set sail after all the passengers came on board. They asked for a pay increase across the board.

41 pull in / into: arrive(at); stop ones journey (at a place) (of a vehicle or boat) move to (one side) ( ) E.g.: The train is just pulling into the station. The bus pulled into the side of the road to let the cars pass. The express from Beijing pulled in on schedule. Find a good place to pull into for some tea on the way to London. Hints: Review the pull phrases. pull out: move away; (of a train/ boat, etc.) leave a station pull up: (cause to) come to stop ( ) e.g. The bus pulled up sharp at the foot of a bridge. The driver pulled up by the side of the road to give an old woman a lift. The driver pulls the bus up only in time to avoid hitting the child. The train bound for Shanghai will pull out in five minutes.

42 distress: n. state of being in danger or difficulty and requiring help suffering caused by lack of money, food, etc. great pain, sorrow, suffering, etc., v. (usu. passive) cause great pain, sorrow, suffering, etc. to (sb./sth) Usage: be distressed to do sth.; be distressed about sth.; in distress; to sbs distress E.g.: (Hand out the material and ask students to work on these examples first. Then teachers make a summary in class ) The lifeboat went out to a ship in distress( ) after receiving the distress signal she sent out. The Government acted quickly to relieve the widespread distress( ) caused by the earthquake. The girls leaving home was a great distress to her family. To her distress, her husband engaged in drug trafficking again. If the storm continues on the mountain, the climbers will be in distress(in danger) by morning. The public is distressed about/at the potential economic impact of this move. The news of his death distressed us greatly. I was most distressed to hear the sad news of your fathers death. Derivative: distressful = distressing adj. causing distress

43 boast: v. talk (about ones own achievements, abilities, etc.) with too much pride and satisfaction. possess (sth. to be proud of) …… n. Usage: boast of/about sth; boast that… make a boast of E.g.: One boasts of his wealth, another boasts of his learning. Achievements only mean something in the past. There is nothing to boast of. He boasted of being the best player in the team./He boasted that he was the best player in the team. The city of York can boast (of) many historic buildings. A fishing village 30 years ago, it now boasts (of) an economic and industrial center. His boast that he was the strongest man in the village turned out not to be true. He often makes a boast of the gold medals he has won in the boxing matches.

44 Quiz 1 1. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate forms of the words according to the Chinese meanings given in brackets. The first letter has been given to you. (20 points) (1) Winning the c___________ ( ) put an end to his financial problems.(competition) (2) The new name was meant to give the party greater public a_____.(appeal) (3) My new laptop can p ____________( )information much more quickly than my old computer. (process) (4) The new threat on the horizon is u_________________( ) unemployment (5) He made public c__________( ) of what he intended to do so it would be harder to back down. (commitments) (6) After all the guests had left, she experienced a feeling of complete i_____________(, ). (isolation) (7) I am sure that this meeting will contribute to the r__________ of peace and security all over the world. reinforcement (8) This difficulty c________ my mind to find an answer. challenges (9) This seasons e__________ ( ) includes five new plays and several concerts of Chinese and Indian music. (entertainment) (10) In recent years the film industry has undergone a complete t______________. transformation

45 2 Make sentences with the following phrases or expressions. Make sure the sentences you make should be meaningful and concise( ). (40 points) a. pay off (vi.) b. of oneself c. from/in the perspective of d. at heart 3 Write from your memory some of the words, phrases or sentences of para.11and para. 15 of In-Class Reading Transformative Travel (40 points ) I pushed myself to ____________new ways of being. I _____________________and pretended to be a different person. I ______________________________(3) just to see how it felt. Whatever I would usually do(4)____________________________, I forced myself to (5)______________________.This(6)_________________________________, that I could do anything I wanted. I decided that much of my future traveling would have some transformative dimension to it. Although it is possible to (7)_______________________________________in a single week, transformative change (8)_________________________________. I promised myself that I would (9)_________________________________in order to (10)_____________________.

46 Quiz 2 I. Fill in the blanks with proper phrases according to the Chinese given in brackets. (20 points) 1. The trip on the Mystery Express is a safe, entertaining, and very c_________( ) game. (creative) 2. We see each other o__________, but not as often as we used to. (occasionally) 3. Many companies encourage their employees to use alternative means of t___________( ), rather than the car. ( transportation/transport) 4. The badly neglected furniture and paintings have all been carefully r___________( ) (restored) 5. This kind of exercise is most c__________( ), and therefore is a good test of the students c__________( ). ( challenging, competence ) 6. Ireland b___________( … ) beautiful beaches, great restaurants and friendly locals. (boasts) 7. She used to tell us that she was d___________ … from some Scottish Lord. (descended ) 8. She expressed much concern that the ship might be in d__________( ) (distress) 9. Aruba has many sports f__________ ( )for sailing, deep-sea fishing, water-skiing, golf, tennis and horse-back riding. facilities

47 II. Make sentences with the following phrases and expressions. (20 points) 1. fix up 2. on board 3. gain an advantage over 4. bring on 5. pull out III. Write from your memory some sentences, phrases or words of para.1-2 of Passage I The Romance of Train Travel (40 points) If there is one (1) ______________________of the modern world that makes our lives different from our grandparents, it is probably speed. We are always (2)___________, and we dont have much (3)_______________________________________. We want to get there, and we want to do it fast! (4)_____________________________ of mass transit systems all share a common goal. They are all trying to provide us with faster and faster ways to (5)_______________________________________. Nevertheless, many of us actually want to slow down.. Although (6)_______________________or when we (7)__________________________________, we also complain about always being in a hurry. (8)_______________, we (9)___________________________clear and high in the night airand we feel sad. There is strong sense of nostalgia for other places and other times, (10) _______________________________.

48 IV. Paragraph Writing (20 points) (This part will be done after-class as home assignment Time limit : 30 minutes at most ) Directions: Write ONE paragraph of the topic Travel. The topic sentence of this paragraph is given to you and you are required to supply the essential information and complete the paragraph. Before you write, remember to go over the writing basics discussed before (e.g. topic sentence, unity and coherence ). Considering the several factors, travel is of vital importance to both individuals and the country. _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________. (The End)


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