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Technician Licensing Class Chapter 6 Valid dates: July 1, 2010 – June 30, 2014 Communicating With Other Hams.

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Presentation on theme: "Technician Licensing Class Chapter 6 Valid dates: July 1, 2010 – June 30, 2014 Communicating With Other Hams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technician Licensing Class Chapter 6 Valid dates: July 1, 2010 – June 30, 2014 Communicating With Other Hams

2 2 Chapter 6 Contents Contact Basics Contact Basics Band Plans Band Plans Making Contacts Making Contacts Using Repeaters Using Repeaters Nets Nets Emergency Communications Emergency Communications Special Activities, Modes and Techniques Special Activities, Modes and Techniques

3 3 Contact Basics Always listen first Always listen first Identify regularly Identify regularly End of contactEnd of contact Every ten minutes during contactsEvery ten minutes during contacts Speak clearly and slowly Speak clearly and slowly Use International Phonetic Alphabet Use International Phonetic Alphabet

4 4 Phonetic Alphabet Alpha Alpha Bravo Bravo Charlie Charlie Delta Delta Echo Echo Foxtrot Foxtrot Golf Golf Hotel Hotel India India Sierra Sierra Tango Tango Uniform Uniform Victor Victor Whiskey Whiskey X-Ray X-Ray Yankee Yankee Zulu Zulu Juliet Juliet Kilo Kilo Lima Lima Mike Mike November November Oscar Oscar Papa Papa Quebec Quebec Romeo Romeo

5 5 Signal Reports RST System RST System Readability 1 - 5Readability Strength 1 - 9Strength Tone 1 - 9Tone Tone only used for CW usually 9 Tone only used for CW usually 9 RST 599 (CW) Voice 5 by 9 RST 599 (CW) Voice 5 by 9

6 6 Using a Frequency No one owns a frequency No one owns a frequency Courtesy is paramount Courtesy is paramount Listen/ask to make sure frequency is clear Listen/ask to make sure frequency is clear Nets Traditionally one should make way and move for a net if asked Nets Traditionally one should make way and move for a net if asked

7 7 Power Level FCC rules state one should use minimum power to make a given contact FCC rules state one should use minimum power to make a given contact Common sense – dont use 1 kW for local contact Common sense – dont use 1 kW for local contact Some specialize in QRP – low power Some specialize in QRP – low power QRP station getting 599 signal report is an accomplishment QRP station getting 599 signal report is an accomplishment

8 8 Locators Usually City and State or province Usually City and State or province Sometimes county Sometimes county Latitude and Longitude Latitude and Longitude 1 0 X 2 0 Grid Squares FN31pq DN17oq 1 0 X 2 0 Grid Squares FN31pq DN17oq Location referred to as QTH Location referred to as QTH

9 9 9 T8C: Grid Locators T8C5 A grid locator is a letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location.T8C5 A grid locator is a letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location.

10 10 Appropriate Topics Avoid controversial Avoid controversial Politics, sex, religion, foul language, ethnic references Politics, sex, religion, foul language, ethnic references Eventually you will hear everything on the air Eventually you will hear everything on the air

11 11 Signing Off Final Final QRU QRU QRT QRT Clear Clear Standing By Standing By Monitoring Monitoring

12 12 Q- Signals Developed early in ham radio to reduce character count in transmissions Developed early in ham radio to reduce character count in transmissions List of most common Q Signals on Manual Page 6-5 List of most common Q Signals on Manual Page 6-5 Also series of QNx signals for nets and traffic handling on page Also series of QNx signals for nets and traffic handling on page

13 13 Advising and Assisting Be patient, courteous, and tactful Be patient, courteous, and tactful Everyone was newly licensed at one time Everyone was newly licensed at one time Dont talk down Dont talk down Be helpful Be helpful

14 14 Radio and Antenna Checks Use a dummy load to test transmitter whenever possible Use a dummy load to test transmitter whenever possible Us low power to adjust antenna tuner Us low power to adjust antenna tuner Always identify with your call sign Always identify with your call sign General call for signal report is okay General call for signal report is okay Antenna comparison requesst very common Antenna comparison requesst very common Test counts or series of V on CW Test counts or series of V on CW

15 15 Noting Violations Hams largely self regulating Hams largely self regulating Ok to address issues etc Ok to address issues etc Be tactful Be tactful Dont violate regulations yourself Dont violate regulations yourself Log what you hear and observe for future collaboration with others Log what you hear and observe for future collaboration with others ARRL OO program ARRL OO program

16 16 Logging and Confirming Contacts FCC no longer requires log FCC no longer requires log Still a good idea to maintain log Still a good idea to maintain log Paper log is fine Paper log is fine Lots of Logging Software available Lots of Logging Software available LOTW (Log Book Of The World) LOTW (Log Book Of The World) Long info – Date, Times, call signs of stations worked, power, emission Long info – Date, Times, call signs of stations worked, power, emission Name QTH, other informaton Name QTH, other informaton QSL Cards QSL Cards

17 17 T2B10 What is the "Q" signal used to indicate that you are receiving interference from other stations? A. QRM B. QRN C. QTH D. QSB

18 18 T2B11 What is the "Q" signal used to indicate that you are changing frequency? A. QRU B. QSY C. QSL D. QRZ

19 19 T8C05 What is a grid locator? A.A letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location B.A letter-number designator assigned to an azimuth and elevation C.An instrument for neutralizing a final amplifier D.An instrument for radio direction finding

20 20 Band Plans See Table 6-4 on Page 6-9 See Table 6-4 on Page 6-9 Concentrate compatible modes and uses in various portions of the band Concentrate compatible modes and uses in various portions of the band Reduces interference and allows for planning etc. Reduces interference and allows for planning etc. Voluntary, but very advisable and strongly encouraged by ARRL and FCC Voluntary, but very advisable and strongly encouraged by ARRL and FCC By tradition and general use – Published by ARRL and other organizations By tradition and general use – Published by ARRL and other organizations

21 21 Calling Frequencies & Beacons Most bands have one or more calling freq Most bands have one or more calling freq Used to establish initial contactUsed to establish initial contact Then QSY to another frequencyThen QSY to another frequency 2 Meters2 Meters SSB Calling Frequency MHz SSB Calling Frequency MHz National FM Simplex Calling Frequency MHz National FM Simplex Calling Frequency MHz Beacons – automated transmissions used to tell if a band is open to and area of the world where the beacon is located Beacons – automated transmissions used to tell if a band is open to and area of the world where the beacon is located

22 22 HF Beacons

23 23 Beacons Other beacons besides those shown Other beacons besides those shown Numerous beacons on 10 and 6 meters Numerous beacons on 10 and 6 meters Also beacons on VHF and UHF bands Also beacons on VHF and UHF bands Beacons on satellites Beacons on satellites

24 24 Why Band Plans? Keep compatible operations together to reduce interference Keep compatible operations together to reduce interference Voluntary, but strongly encouraged Voluntary, but strongly encouraged Determined by tradition Determined by tradition Published by ARRL and others Published by ARRL and others FCC considers band plans good practice FCC considers band plans good practice Amateur service not restricted to channels or spot assignments. Plans make sense Amateur service not restricted to channels or spot assignments. Plans make sense

25 25 T2B01 What is the term used to describe an amateur station that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency? A. Full duplex communication B. Diplex communication C. Simplex communication D. Half duplex communication

26 26 MAKING CONTACTS Repeater Contacts Repeater Contacts Listening Most Important Listening Most Important SSB, CW and Digital Contacts SSB, CW and Digital Contacts Taking Turns and Breaking in Taking Turns and Breaking in Simplex Channels Simplex Channels

27 27 Using Repeaters Finding Repeaters Finding Repeaters Repeater Offset or Shift Repeater Offset or Shift Repeater Access tones Repeater Access tones Accessing a Repeater Accessing a Repeater ID and Control Topics ID and Control Topics Repeater Systems Repeater Systems Autopatch Autopatch Open, special us and private repeaters Open, special us and private repeaters Digital Repeaters Digital Repeaters

28 28 Finding Repeaters Directories Directories ARRL Web Site ARRL Web Site Local Club Listings Local Club Listings Other local amateurs Other local amateurs Internet searches Internet searches Scan band and listen Scan band and listen

29 29 Repeater Offset or Shift 10 Meters -100 KHz 10 Meters -100 KHz 6 Meters Varies –500 kHz –1Mhz –1.7MHz 6 Meters Varies –500 kHz –1Mhz –1.7MHz 2 Meters + or – 600 kHz 2 Meters + or – 600 kHz 1.25 Meters -1.6MHz 1.25 Meters -1.6MHz 70cm + or – 5 MHz 70cm + or – 5 MHz 902 MHz 12 MHz 902 MHz 12 MHz 1296 MHz 12 MHz 1296 MHz 12 MHz

30 30 Repeater Access Tones Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System (CTCSS) aka PL (Private Line) or Privacy Codes Continuous Tone Coded Squelch System (CTCSS) aka PL (Private Line) or Privacy Codes Newer Technology Digitally Coded Squelch (DCS) Newer Technology Digitally Coded Squelch (DCS)

31 31 Typical CTCSS Tones

32 32 Accessing A Repeater Radios differ between brands and models Radios differ between brands and models Select Frequency Select Frequency Normally Repeater referenced by its OUTPUT frequency that you listen on Normally Repeater referenced by its OUTPUT frequency that you listen on Set offset if necessary Set offset if necessary Set in correct CTCSS tone if required Set in correct CTCSS tone if required Set for ENC (Encode if necessary) Set for ENC (Encode if necessary) Press to talk Press to talk

33 33 ID and Control Topics Time Out Time Out Courtesy Tone Courtesy Tone Autopatch Autopatch Time Time Weather Weather Other control operator functions Other control operator functions

34 34 Repeater Systems Control links Control links Multiple receivers Multiple receivers Auxiliary stations Auxiliary stations Networks and Systems Networks and Systems

35 35 Evergreen Intertie & KBARA

36 36 Autopatch Automatic Phone Patch Automatic Phone Patch Repeater connected to phone line Repeater connected to phone line Activated by DTMF tone code Activated by DTMF tone code User hears Dial Tone User hears Dial Tone User can then dial phone call User can then dial phone call Not as popular since cell phones Not as popular since cell phones Some repeaters with autopatch in areas that do not have good cell coverage Some repeaters with autopatch in areas that do not have good cell coverage

37 37 Open, Special use & Private Closed - not available for public use Closed - not available for public use Open – Available for public use Open – Available for public use Special Use – Emergency Use etc. Special Use – Emergency Use etc.

38 38 Digital Repeater Systems Ham Radio and Internet complementary Ham Radio and Internet complementary IRLP -Internet Radio Linking Project IRLP -Internet Radio Linking Project Echolink Echolink WIRES II – proprietary Yaesu system WIRES II – proprietary Yaesu system D-Star based on public D-STAR Standard D-Star based on public D-STAR Standard

39 39 Digital Repeater Systems Ham Radio and Internet complementary Ham Radio and Internet complementary IRLP -Internet Radio Linking Project IRLP -Internet Radio Linking Project Echolink Echolink WIRES II – proprietary Yaesu system WIRES II – proprietary Yaesu system D-Star based on public D-STAR Standard D-Star based on public D-STAR Standard

40 40 Digital Repeater related ILRP & Echo Link most common ILRP & Echo Link most common Must know ON code for your repeater Must know ON code for your repeater Must know code for distant repeater Must know code for distant repeater Entering both codes connects you to distant repeater Entering both codes connects you to distant repeater

41 41 T1A11 Which of the following stations transmits signals over the air from a remote receive site to a repeater for retransmission? A. Beacon station B. Relay station C. Auxiliary station D. Message forwarding station

42 42 T2A01 What is the most common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band? A.Plus 500 kHz B.Plus or minus 600 kHz C.Minus 500 kHz D.Only plus 600 kHz

43 43 T2A03 What is a common repeater frequency offset in the 70 cm band? A. Plus or minus 5 MHz B. Plus or minus 600 kHz C. Minus 600 kHz D. Plus 600 kHz

44 44 T2B02 What is the term used to describe the use of a sub-audible tone transmitted with normal voice audio to open the squelch of a receiver? A. Carrier squelch B. Tone burst C. DTMF D. CTCSS

45 45 T2B04 Which of the following common problems might cause you to be able to hear but not access a repeater even when transmitting with the proper offset? A. The repeater receiver requires audio tone burst for access B. The repeater receiver requires a CTCSS tone for access C. The repeater receiver may require a DCS tone sequence for access D. All of these choices are correct

46 46 T4B11 Which of the following describes the common meaning of the term repeater offset? A.The distance between the repeaters transmit and receive antennas B.The time delay before the repeater timer resets C.The difference between the repeaters transmit and receive frequencies D.The maximum frequency deviation permitted on the repeaters input signal

47 47 T8C09 How might you obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP? A.From the FCC Rulebook B.From your local emergency coordinator C.From a repeater directory D.From the local repeater frequency coordinator

48 48 T8C10 How do you select a specific IRLP node when using a portable transceiver? A.Choose a specific CTCSS tone B.Choose the correct DSC tone C.Access the repeater autopatch D.Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID

49 49 NETS TYPES – Social, Traffic, Emergency and Public Service TYPES – Social, Traffic, Emergency and Public Service Net Structure & Participation Net Structure & Participation NTS National Traffic SystemNTS National Traffic System OtherOther Emergency or Priority Traffic can always be sent. Break into net by saying Emergency or Priority Emergency or Priority Traffic can always be sent. Break into net by saying Emergency or Priority Emergency Nets Emergency Nets

50 50 Traffic Handling Most important job during emergencies and disasters Most important job during emergencies and disasters Radiogram has three parts Radiogram has three parts Preamble (including Address)Preamble (including Address) Body (Text)Body (Text) SignatureSignature

51 51 ARRL Radiogram

52 52 ARRL Radiogram Preable or Header uniquely identifies Preable or Header uniquely identifies Number, Precedence Handling Instructions, Station of Origin, Check, Place of Origin, Date and Time & Address Check – count of words in text Check does not include signature Check is text from BT to BT

53 53 Finding Nets ARRL Web Site Net Directory ARRL Web Site Net Directory Local radio clubs and net directories Local radio clubs and net directories Other hams Other hams

54 54 T2C06 Which of the following is common practice during net operations to get the immediate attention of the net control station when reporting an emergency? A. Repeat the words SOS three times followed by the call sign of the reporting station B. Press the push-to-talk button three times C. Begin your transmission with Priority or Emergency followed by your call sign D. Play a pre-recorded emergency alert tone followed by your call sign

55 55 T2C07 What should you do to minimize disruptions to an emergency traffic net once you have checked in? A. Whenever the net frequency is quiet, announce your call sign and location B. Move 5 kHz away from the net's frequency and use high power to ask other hams to keep clear of the net frequency C. Do not transmit on the net frequency until asked to do so by the net control station D. Wait until the net frequency is quiet, then ask for any emergency traffic for your area

56 56 T2C08 What is usually considered to be the most important job of an amateur operator when handling emergency traffic messages? A. Passing messages exactly as written, spoken or as received B. Estimating the number of people affected by the disaster C. Communicating messages to the news media for broadcast outside the disaster area D. Broadcasting emergency information to the general public

57 57 T2C10 What is the preamble in a formal traffic message? A. The first paragraph of the message text B. The message number C. The priority handling indicator for the message D. The information needed to track the message as it passes through the amateur radio traffic handling system

58 58 T2C11 What is meant by the term "check" in reference to a formal traffic message? A. The check is a count of the number of words or word equivalents in the text portion of the message B. The check is the value of a money order attached to the message C. The check is a list of stations that have relayed the message D. The check is a box on the message form that tells you the message was received

59 59 EMERGENCY COMMS Operating under emergency conditions Operating under emergency conditions EMCOMM and your employer EMCOMM and your employer Emergency Declarations Emergency Declarations Threats to Life and Property Threats to Life and Property Distress Calls Distress Calls Public Service Communications Public Service Communications Tactical Communications Tactical Communications ARES and RACES ARES and RACES

60 60 Emergency Communications Emergency Communications Training Emergency Communications Training You are of limited use in an emergency without trainingYou are of limited use in an emergency without training Assist but dont be part of the problemAssist but dont be part of the problem Maintain your safetyMaintain your safety Maintain radio disciplineMaintain radio discipline Never speculate or guessNever speculate or guess Protect personal informationProtect personal information Dont give out personal informationDont give out personal information News reports are not considered emergency trafficNews reports are not considered emergency traffic

61 61 EMCOM and your Employer No amateur shall transmit…Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary interested, including communications on behalf of an employer. No amateur shall transmit…Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary interested, including communications on behalf of an employer.

62 62 Emergency Drills Participating in training exercises and drills organized by your employer is allowed if two conditions are met: The drill must be government-sponsored and your employer is a government agency that has obtained a written waiver for the exercise from the FCC Participating in training exercises and drills organized by your employer is allowed if two conditions are met: The drill must be government-sponsored and your employer is a government agency that has obtained a written waiver for the exercise from the FCC

63 63 Two exceptions for payment Teachers that use ham radio as part of their instruction Teachers that use ham radio as part of their instruction Operators employed to operate a club station that transmits bulletins and code practice at least 40 hours per week on at least six amateur bands Operators employed to operate a club station that transmits bulletins and code practice at least 40 hours per week on at least six amateur bands Note some companies may allow a ham station. Use is okay if not on behalf of your employer Note some companies may allow a ham station. Use is okay if not on behalf of your employer

64 64 Emergency Declarations FCC may make a declaration in the event of a serious emergency or disaster FCC may make a declaration in the event of a serious emergency or disaster Usually designates special frequencies Usually designates special frequencies This is the only exception to no one owns the frequency ruleThis is the only exception to no one owns the frequency rule FCC could shut everything down FCC could shut everything down

65 65 Threats to Live and Property No provision of these rules prevents the use of an amateur station of any means of radio communication at its disposal to provide essential communications needs in connection with the immediate safety of human live and immediate protection of property when normal communications are not available No provision of these rules prevents the use of an amateur station of any means of radio communication at its disposal to provide essential communications needs in connection with the immediate safety of human live and immediate protection of property when normal communications are not available

66 66 Distress Calls Voice Mayday Mayday Mayday Voice Mayday Mayday Mayday CWSOS SOS SOS CWSOS SOS SOS Origin of Mayday Origin of Mayday Always identify with your call Always identify with your call Give location in sufficient detail Give location in sufficient detail State nature of emergency State nature of emergency Describe type of assistance required Describe type of assistance required Give other pertinent information Give other pertinent information

67 67 Public Service Avoid providing communications when there is no benefit to the public such as a private event Avoid providing communications when there is no benefit to the public such as a private event Cannot be paid for services or charage an hourly rate etc Cannot be paid for services or charage an hourly rate etc Cannot trade services for something else value to you or your organization Cannot trade services for something else value to you or your organization Can be reimbursed for pocket expenses, to include mileage Can be reimbursed for pocket expenses, to include mileage

68 68 Tactical Operations/Callsigns Perfectly Legal Perfectly Legal Handy for long term operations when operators are changing Handy for long term operations when operators are changing Examples: Command Center, Station Five, Medical Tent, Net Control, Mobile Three Examples: Command Center, Station Five, Medical Tent, Net Control, Mobile Three Still must identify every 10 minutes and at the end of the communications Still must identify every 10 minutes and at the end of the communications

69 69 T2C01 What set of rules applies to proper operation of your station when using amateur radio at the request of public service officials? A. RACES Rules B. ARES Rules C. FCC Rules D. FEMA Rules

70 70 T2C04 What do RACES and ARES have in common? A. They represent the two largest ham clubs in the United States B. Both organizations broadcast road and weather traffic information C. Neither may handle emergency traffic supporting public service agencies D. Both organizations may provide communications during emergencies

71 71 T2C05 What is the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service? A. An emergency radio service organized by amateur operators B. A radio service using amateur stations for emergency management or civil defense communications C. A radio service organized to provide communications at civic events D. A radio service organized by amateur operators to assist non-military persons

72 72 T2C09 When may an amateur station use any means of radio communications at its disposal for essential communications in connection with immediate safety of human life and protection of property? A. Only when FEMA authorizes it by declaring an emergency B. When normal communications systems are not available C. Only when RACES authorizes it by declaring an emergency D. Only when authorized by the local MARS program director

73 73 Special Activities Modes and Techniques Dxing, Awards & Contesting Dxing, Awards & Contesting Special Events Special Events Satellites Satellites Special Modes Special Modes Fox Hunting Fox Hunting

74 74 Dxing, Awards, Contesting DXing Contacting as many foreign countries as possible (300 plus countries) DXing Contacting as many foreign countries as possible (300 plus countries) IOTA (Islands On The Air IOTA (Islands On The Air Working all states and counties Working all states and counties Doing above using power restrictions or on a single band or one type of mode Doing above using power restrictions or on a single band or one type of mode Usually Certificates and published recognition for achievements Dxing, Awards, Contesting Dxing, Awards, Contesting Usually Certificates and published recognition for achievements Dxing, Awards, Contesting Dxing, Awards, Contesting

75 75 Dxing, Awards, Contesting Hundreds or thousands of contests yearly Hundreds or thousands of contests yearly DX Contests DX Contests Field Day Field Day Sweepstakes Sweepstakes VHF VHF State QSO Parties State QSO Parties

76 76 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C4 A good procedure when contacting another station in a radio contest is to send only the minimum information needed for proper identification and the contest exchange. Chit chat is great for normal QSOs, but not for contests. Contesting needs your call sign and info for contest only.

77 77 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C5 A grid locator is a letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location.T8C5 A grid locator is a letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location.

78 78 Special Events Thousands world wide each year Thousands world wide each year Usually commemorate or celebrate an event Usually commemorate or celebrate an event Historical events, light houses, ships (Queen Mary or battleship) etc Historical events, light houses, ships (Queen Mary or battleship) etc

79 79 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C6 The purpose of a temporary "1 by 1" format (letter-number-letter) assigned call sign is for operations in conjunction with an activity of special significance to the amateur community.T8C6 The purpose of a temporary "1 by 1" format (letter-number-letter) assigned call sign is for operations in conjunction with an activity of special significance to the amateur community. W5PN3GW9IW5PN3GW9I T8C7 The maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models is 1 watt.T8C7 The maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models is 1 watt. Telecommand signals are unidentified commands permitted by rule. Telecommand signals are unidentified commands permitted by rule. Hams can use frequencies on the 6-Meter Band to radio control a model aircraft.

80 80 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C3 Contesting is a popular operating activity that involves contacting as many stations as possible during a specified period of time.T8C3 Contesting is a popular operating activity that involves contacting as many stations as possible during a specified period of time. Field Day Every June Enjoyed By Hams the World Over

81 81 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C1 Radio direction finding methods are used to locate sources of noise interference or jamming.T8C1 Radio direction finding methods are used to locate sources of noise interference or jamming. 2-element Yagi DF Antenna3-element Quad DF Antenna

82 82 T8C: Fox Hunting (Hidden Transmitter Hunt) T8C2 A directional antenna would be useful for a hidden transmitter hunt. T8C2 A directional antenna would be useful for a hidden transmitter hunt. Hidden Transmitter Hunts are called Fox Hunting All ages participate in a Fox Hunt

83 83 T7A09 Which of the following devices is most useful for VHF weak-signal communication? A.A quarter-wave vertical antenna B.A multi-mode VHF transceiver C.An omni-directional antenna D.A mobile VHF FM transceiver

84 84 T8C01 Which of the following methods is used to locate sources of noise interference or jamming? A.Echolocation B.Doppler radar C.Radio direction finding D.Phase locking

85 85 T8C02 Which of these items would be useful for a hidden transmitter hunt? A. Calibrated SWR meter B. A directional antenna C. A calibrated noise bridge D. All of these choices are correct

86 86 T8C03 What popular operating activity involves contacting as many stations as possible during a specified period of time? A.Contesting B.Net operations C.Public service events D.Simulated emergency exercises

87 87 T8C04 Which of the following is good procedure when contacting another station in a radio contest? A. Be sure to sign only the last two letters of your call if there is a pileup calling the station B. Work the station twice to be sure that you are in his log C. Send only the minimum information needed for proper identification and the contest exchange D. All of these choices are correct

88 88 Satellites and Space Station OSCAR – Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio OSCAR – Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio Communications possible between two stations that are in LOS of satellite Communications possible between two stations that are in LOS of satellite Legal to use satellites as long as UPLINK frequency is permissible for users class of license Legal to use satellites as long as UPLINK frequency is permissible for users class of license

89 89 Satellite Terms Apogee Apogee Beacon Beacon Doppoler shift Doppoler shift Keplerian elements Keplerian elements LEO (Low Earth Orbit) LEO (Low Earth Orbit) Elliptical orbit Elliptical orbit Spin fading Spin fading Pacsa Pacsa

90 90 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B1 Any amateur whose license privileges allow them to transmit on the satellite uplink frequency may be the control operator of a station communicating through an amateur satellite or space station.T8B1 Any amateur whose license privileges allow them to transmit on the satellite uplink frequency may be the control operator of a station communicating through an amateur satellite or space station. T8B2 The minimum amount of power needed to complete the contact is how much transmitter power should be used on the uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station.T8B2 The minimum amount of power needed to complete the contact is how much transmitter power should be used on the uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station. Just a repeat of previous mention about amount of power outputJust a repeat of previous mention about amount of power output To work satellites with your handheld, buy a small directional antenna for your satellite radio. You probably wont hear much with your rubber duck antenna.

91 91 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B3 Talking to amateur radio operators in other countries can be done using an amateur radio satellite. T8B3 Talking to amateur radio operators in other countries can be done using an amateur radio satellite. T8B4 Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license may make contact with an amateur station on the International Space Station using 2-meter and 70 cm band amateur radio frequencies. T8B4 Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license may make contact with an amateur station on the International Space Station using 2-meter and 70 cm band amateur radio frequencies. International Space Station has a big ham station on board. Many Astronaults are licensed radio amateurs. The International Space Station downlink, FM is MHz. Use an HT to listen when its passing over you.

92 92 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B5 A satellite beacon is a transmission from a space station that contains information about a satellite. T8B5 A satellite beacon is a transmission from a space station that contains information about a satellite. T8B6 A satellite tracking program can be used to determine the time period during which an amateur satellite or space station can be accessed. T8B6 A satellite tracking program can be used to determine the time period during which an amateur satellite or space station can be accessed. Computer programs and websites can show you where and when an amateur satellite or the Space Station will be in range of your ham station.

93 93 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B7 With regards to satellite communications Doppler shift is a change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between the satellite and the earth station.T8B7 With regards to satellite communications Doppler shift is a change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between the satellite and the earth station. T8B8 The statement that a satellite is operating in "mode U/V" means that the satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the downlink is in the 2 meter band.T8B8 The statement that a satellite is operating in "mode U/V" means that the satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the downlink is in the 2 meter band. Frequency BandsFrequency RangeModes High Frequency MHzMode H VHF MHzMode V UHF MHzMode U L band GHzMode L S band GHzMode S C band5.8 GHzMode C X band10.4 GHzMode X K band24 GhzMode K Doppler Effect

94 94 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B9 Rotation of the satellite and its antennas causes "spin fading" when referring to satellite signals.T8B9 Rotation of the satellite and its antennas causes "spin fading" when referring to satellite signals. Rotation in space makes the signals fade in and out.Rotation in space makes the signals fade in and out. This rotation keeps solar panels from overheating.This rotation keeps solar panels from overheating. Tracking and communicating through amateur satellites can be done with a cross-polarized satellite antenna

95 95 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B10 The initials LEO tell you an amateur satellite is in a Low Earth Orbit.T8B10 The initials LEO tell you an amateur satellite is in a Low Earth Orbit. T8B11 A commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite is FM Packet.T8B11 A commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite is FM Packet. FM packet a very popular digital communications systemFM packet a very popular digital communications system Packets usually stored and forwarded, via satellite or space stationPackets usually stored and forwarded, via satellite or space station Orbiting Satellites

96 96 T8B01 Who may be the control operator of a station communicating through an amateur satellite or space station? A.Only an Amateur Extra Class operator B.A General Class licensee or higher licensee who has a satellite operator certification C.Only an Amateur Extra Class operator who is also an AMSAT member D.Any amateur whose license privileges allow them to transmit on the satellite uplink frequency

97 97 T8B02 How much transmitter power should be used on the uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station? A.The maximum power of your transmitter B.The minimum amount of power needed to complete the contact C.No more than half the rating of your linear amplifier D.Never more than 1 watt

98 98 T8B03 Which of the following can be done using an amateur radio satellite? A.Talk to amateur radio operators in other countries B.Get global positioning information C.Make telephone calls D.All of these choices are correct

99 99 T8B04 Which amateur stations may make contact with an amateur station on the International Space Station using 2 meter and 70 cm ban amateur radio frequencies? A.Only members of amateur radio clubs at NASA facilities B.Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license C.Only the astronaut's family members who are hams D.You cannot talk to the ISS on amateur radio frequencies

100 100 T8B05 What is a satellite beacon? A.The primary transmit antenna on the satellite B.An indicator light that that shows where to point your antenna C.A reflective surface on the satellite D.A transmission from a space station that contains information about a satellite

101 101 T8B06 What can be used to determine the time period during which an amateur satellite or space station can be accessed? A.A GPS receiver B.A field strength meter C.A telescope D.A satellite tracking program

102 102 T8B07 With regard to satellite communications, what is Doppler shift? A.A change in the satellite orbit B.A mode where the satellite receives signals on one band and transmits on another C.An observed change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between the satellite and the earth station. D.A special digital communications mode for some satellites

103 103 T8B08 What is meant by the statement that a satellite is operating in "mode U/V"? A.The satellite uplink is in the 15 meter band and the downlink is in the 10 meter band B.The satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the downlink is in the 2 meter band C.The satellite operates using ultraviolet frequencies D.The satellite frequencies are usually variable

104 104 T8B09 What causes "spin fading" when referring to satellite signals? A.Circular polarized noise interference radiated from the sun B.Rotation of the satellite and its antennas C.Doppler shift of the received signal D.Interfering signals within the satellite uplink band

105 105 T8B10 What do the initials LEO tell you about an amateur satellite? A.The satellite battery is in Low Energy Operation mode B.The satellite is performing a Lunar Ejection Orbit maneuver C.The satellite is in a Low Earth Orbit D.The satellite uses Light Emitting Optics

106 106 T8B11 What is a commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite? A.USB AFSK B.PSK31 C.FM Packet D.WSJT

107 107 Special Modes Video Video Meteor Scatter and Moonbounce Meteor Scatter and Moonbounce Radio Control Radio Control

108 108 Video Slow Scan (SSTV) Slow Scan (SSTV) Invented by AmateursInvented by Amateurs Fits in a single voice channel on HFFits in a single voice channel on HF Frame every 10 SecondsFrame every 10 Seconds ATV Fast Scan NTSC ATV Fast Scan NTSC Same as analog TV (not new digital HDTV)Same as analog TV (not new digital HDTV) 6 MHz wide sound is FM and video is VSB6 MHz wide sound is FM and video is VSB NTSC was US standard TV broadcastNTSC was US standard TV broadcast Useable 70 cm and higher frequenciesUseable 70 cm and higher frequencies

109 109 T8D: Non-voice communications; image data, digital modes CW, packet, PSK31 T8D4 The type of transmission indicated by the term NTSC is an analog fast scan color TV signal.T8D4 The type of transmission indicated by the term NTSC is an analog fast scan color TV signal. When youre ready, you can add the fun of ATV to your ham shack.

110 110 Meteor Scatter Touched on it in an earlier chapter Touched on it in an earlier chapter Always meteors entering atmosphere Always meteors entering atmosphere Certain times of year – meteor showers with sharp increase in meteors Certain times of year – meteor showers with sharp increase in meteors Signals bounce off of brief ionized trails Signals bounce off of brief ionized trails Short signals Short signals Modes which repeat data bursts and re- assemble received message very reliable Modes which repeat data bursts and re- assemble received message very reliable

111 111 Moonbounce Moonbounce Moonbounce Very challengingVery challenging Great distance and great signal lossGreat distance and great signal loss New data modes HSMS and WSJT very sensitive and allow keyboard to keyboard communications via moon bounce even for modest antennas and power levelsNew data modes HSMS and WSJT very sensitive and allow keyboard to keyboard communications via moon bounce even for modest antennas and power levels Must be able to point antenna right at moonMust be able to point antenna right at moon

112 112 Radio Control (RC) Models 27, 72 & 75 MHz channels for non- licensed Models 27, 72 & 75 MHz channels for non- licensed Channels in 6 Meter Band (50 Mhz) for hams to use Channels in 6 Meter Band (50 Mhz) for hams to use One watt power limitation One watt power limitation Do not have to identify on the air BUT must have call sign, name and address on the RC transmitter Do not have to identify on the air BUT must have call sign, name and address on the RC transmitter

113 113 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C8 It is required that a label indicating the licensee's name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter in place of on-air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies.T8C8 It is required that a label indicating the licensee's name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter in place of on-air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies. Strange radio control signals can be heard using RC:Strange radio control signals can be heard using RC: to 51.0 MHz and 53.1 to 53.9 MHz to 51.0 MHz and 53.1 to 53.9 MHz. Licensees call sign 50 MHz54 MHz 52 MHz 6-Meter Wavelength Band Privileges 51 MHz53.1 MHz53.9 MHz

114 114 Telecommand & Telemetry Telecommand Telecommand One-way transmission to initiate, modify, or terminate functions of the controlled deviceOne-way transmission to initiate, modify, or terminate functions of the controlled device Can be encryptedCan be encrypted Telemetry Telemetry One-way transmission that send measurements, parameters, or status information from a deviceOne-way transmission that send measurements, parameters, or status information from a device

115 115 T1A06 What is the FCC Part 97 definition of telecommand? A. An instruction bulletin issued by the FCC B. A one-way radio transmission of measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument C. A one-way transmission to initiate, modify or terminate functions of a device at a distance D. An instruction from a VEC

116 116 T1A07 What is the FCC Part 97 definition of telemetry? A. An information bulletin issued by the FCC B. A one-way transmission to initiate, modify or terminate functions of a device at a distance C. A one-way transmission of measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument D. An information bulletin from a VEC Congress of the United States

117 117 T8C07 What is the maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models? A.500 milliwatts B.1 watt C.25 watts D.1500 watts

118 118 T8C08 What is required in place of on-air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies? A.Voice identification must be transmitted every 10 minutes B.Morse code ID must be sent once per hour C.A label indicating the licensee's name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter D.A flag must be affixed to the transmitter antenna with the station call sign in 1 inch high letters or larger

119 119 T8D04 What type of transmission is indicated by the term NTSC? A.A Normal Transmission mode in Static Circuit B.A special mode for earth satellite uplink C.An analog fast scan color TV signal D.A frame compression scheme for TV signals

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