2CONDITIONAL SENTENCES I will go to the park if Sarah comes with us I will go to the park if Sarah comes with us Conditional Sentences are divided into two different parts: (Dos partes principales) Main clause: I will go to the park… (Frase principal) If-clause: …if Sarah comes with us (Condición)
4Type O or Zero Conditional: General truths, scientific facts (Verdades generales o hechos científicos)“If you heat ice, it melts”“Ice melts if you heat it”(The order can be changed)(Se puede cambiar el order de las dos frases)Main clause: Ice melts…If-clause: …if you heat itVerbal Tenses:Main clause: Present SimpleIf-clause: Present Simple
5Type I or Possible Condition: It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.(Es muy posible que la condición llegue a realizarse)If I find her phone number, I will send it to youIf-clause: If I find her phone number…Main clause: …I will send it to youVerbal Tenses:Main clause: Future SimpleIf-clause: Present SimpleEsta fórmula no es fija, puede variar como podemos ver en la siguiente diapositiva
6Variations to type I (advanced) a.- variations of the main clause:1. MAY / MIGHT (possibility).If the fog gets thicker the plane may/might be diverted2. MAY (permission) or CAN (permissionor ability)If your documents are in order you may/can leave at once3. MUST / SHOULD or any expression of command, request or advice.If you want to lose weight you must / should eat less bread.If you want to lose your weight you had better eat less breadIf you want to lose weight eat less bread.If you see Tom tomorrow, could you ask him to ring me?b.- variations of the if-clause:1. PRESENT CONTINUOUS: to indicate a present action or a future arrangement.If you are waiting for the bus you'd better join the queueIf you are looking for Peter you'll find him upstairs.If you are staying for another night I'll ask the manager to give you a better room.2. PRESENT PERFECTIf you have finished dinner I'll ask the waiter for the bill.
7CONDITIONAL SENTENCES : TYPE 1 ACTIVITIES 1. I'll look for your notebook and if I (find) it I (give) you a ring.2. If you (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment the other passengers (object).3. I'll wash the glasses in this nice hot water. No, don't. If you (put) them into very hot water they (crack).4. If you (see) Tom, Tell him I have a message for him.5. If he (win) he (get) $1,000; If he (come) in second he (get) $500.6. If you (feel) too hot during the night turn down the central heating.7. If he (want) more money he (have) to do more work.8. If you (finish) with your dictionary I'd like to borrow it.9. If he (stand) up in the canoe it (capsize).10. The lift wasn't working when I was here last. If it still (not work) we (have to) use the stairs.
8Type II or Unlikely Condition: It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.(Es improbable que la condición llegue a realizarse)If I saw her, I would tell her the truthIf-clause: If I saw her…Main clause: …I would tell her the truthWe usually use WERE for all the persons of verb TO BEIf I were a rich man, I’d help people in AfricaVerbal Tenses:Main clause: Conditional SimpleIf-clause: Past SimpleEsta fórmula no es fija, puede variar como podemos ver en la siguiente diapositiva
9Variations to type II (advanced) a.- variations of the main clause:1. - MIGHT / COULDIf you tried again you might / could succeed.2. CONTINUOUS CONDITIONAL FORMPeter is on holiday ; he is touring Italy. If I were on holiday I would / might be touring Italy too.3. SIMPLE PAST : to express automatic or habitual reactions in the pastIf anyone interrupted him he got angry.b.- variations of the if-clause:1. PAST CONTINUOUS:I hate flying. If we were going by boat I'd feel much happier.2. PAST PERFECT:If he had taken my advice he would be a rich man now.
10CONDITIONAL SENTENCES: TYPE 2 ACTIVITIES 1 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES: TYPE 2 ACTIVITIES 1. If I (give) her a diamond ring she (sell) it. 2. If you (go) on a diet you (lose) weight. 3. If we (work) all night we (finish) in time; but we have no intention of working all the night. 4 You must never blow out a gas light. Do you know what (happen) if you (blow )out a gas light? 5. If I (see) a tiger walking along the street I (climb) a tree. 6. If it (be) summer the people (not sit) round that big fire. 7. If you (type) your notes they (be) a lot of easier to read.
11Type III or Impossible Condition: It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.(Es imposible que la condición llegue a realizarse pues se refiere al pasado)If I had found her phone number, I would have sent her a message for the partyIf-clause: If I had found her phone number…Main clause: …I would have sent her a message for the partyVerbal Tenses:Main clause: Conditional Perfect (would+have+P.P.)If-clause: Past Perfect (had+P.P.)Esta fórmula no es fija, puede variar como podemos ver en la siguiente diapositiva
12Variations to type III (advanced) Variations of the main clause1. COULD OR MIGHT may be used instead of WOULDIf we had found him earlier we could have saved his life.2. The continuous form of the perfect conditional may be used.At the time of the accident I was sitting in the back of the car, because Tom's little boy was sitting beside him in front. If Tom's boy had not been there I would have been sitting in front.b. Variations of the if- clause1. We can use the past perfect continuous in the If- clause.Luckily I was wearing a seat belt. If I hadn't been wearing one I would have been seriously injured.
13Other possible changes 1. A combination of types 2 and 3 is possible: The plane I intended to catch crashed and everyone was killed: If I had caught that plane I would be dead now or I would have been killed. 2. In type 3 “had” can be placed first and the “if” omitted: If you had obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened Had you obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened
14CONDITINAL SENTENCES: Type 3 ACTIVITIES If she (not make) these calls, the bill (be) smaller.What (you / do) if I ( not work)?If he ( be born ) in Italy, he (be called ) Arturo.If the man ( be looking ) the wrong way, he (see ) the car.Write the complete sentenceeducated at university / got a better jobnot worked at a library / not met Mary.not won the TV quiz contest / spent honeymoon in Englandmarried Sheila / lived in Middleford.
15WRITE A SENTENCE BEGINNING WITH IF FOR THESE SITUATIONS. Example A doctor recommended his patient to have an operation. The patient refused and died. The doctor says: " If he ...."If he had had the operation, he wouldn't have died.a. Joe told Fred to bet five pounds on a horse called Greased Lightning. Fred refused. Later Joe tells Fred that he bet five pounds a won a hundred pounds and adds: "If you ..."b. Arthur says he can't pay his bills because he didn't make a budget and adds: "If I ...“c. Sheila tells Harry she saw him in the street yesterday and tells him off because he didn't speak to her. Harry protests that he didn't see her and adds: "If I ..."d.The teacher is disappointed that Stephen didn't pass his examination. He knows that Stephen didn't do any work. He tells him: "If you ..."e.Keith had arranged to fly to America on flight BA 329 last weekend. He couldn't go because he had 'flu. Unfortunately the plane crashed and there were no survivors. Keith says : "If I..."f. Mary missed the last bus home because she stayed talking to hi s girl-friend Liz. When she came home by taxi, Arthur says: "If you ..."g. Dr Newton forgot to lock the back door and a burglar came and stole his First Aids kit and he says : "If I ..."
17UNLESS a menos que … Unless + affirmative verb = if + negative I won’t phone you if you don’t want me toI won’t phone you unless you want me to
18IN CASE:por si… (different from in case (en caso de..) : e.g. In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible)We use in case to talk about doing something now to avoid a future problem. It gives a reason.I’ll phone my parents in case they’re worried about meWe use if to talk about a reaction to, or the result of, a future actionMy parents will be angry if I get home late tonightI’ll be in trouble if I get home late tonight
19PROVIDED (THAT) / PROVIDING (THAT): siempre que…; a condición de que… (but only if…)Provided (that) can replace if when there is a strong idea of limitation or restriction. It is chiefly used with permissionYou can camp here provided that you leave no messProviding ( that) she studies hard, she might pass the examination
20SUPPOSE /SUPPOSING = What if…? BUT FOR:si no fuera por… / si no hubiese sido por…My father sends me an allowance. But for that I wouldn’t be hereThe storm delayed us. But for the storm we would have been in timeSUPPOSE /SUPPOSING = What if…?Suppose the plane is late? =What if / What will happen if the plane is late?
21IF ONLY: si…! AS LONG AS: e.g. If only he comes in time! If only + present / will = hope ;e.g. If only he didn’t drive so fast!If only + past / past perfect = regret ;e.g. If only he would drive more slowlyIf only + would… (regret) = I wish + would ;AS LONG AS:con tal de que…As long as you listen to my problems I won’t feel so depressed
22I WISH: ojalá…!We use the past for a present situation after wish. We use wish to say that we regret something, that something is not as we would like it to be:e.g. “ I wish I knew Sue’s telephone number. ( I don’t know it)”As in if – clauses, we can use were instead of was after wishe.g. I wish I were tallerWe use past perfect after wish when you say that you regret something that happened or didn’t happen in the paste.g. I wish I had known that Ann was ill. I would have gone to see her. (I didn’t know that she was ill)
23I WISH: ojalá…! (Continued) We sometimes use would after I wish… Study this example:It is raining. Tom wants to go out, but not in the rain. He says: “ I wish it would stop raining”This means that Tom is complaining about the rain and wants it to stop. We use I wish… would … when we want something to happen or somebody to do something. The speaker is complaining about the present situation.I wish someone would answer that telephone. It’s been ringing for about five minutesThe music next door is very loud. I wish they would turn it down.I wish you wouldn’t drive so fast. It makes me nervous.We use I wish… would when we want something to change or somebody else to do something. So you cannot say “ I wish I would…”