CONDITIONAL SENTENCES I will go to the park if Sarah comes with us Conditional Sentences are divided into two different parts: (Dos partes principales) Main clause: I will go to the park… (Frase principal) If-clause: …if Sarah comes with us (Condición)
Four types of Conditional Sentences:
General truths, scientific facts (Verdades generales o hechos científicos) If you heat ice, it melts Ice melts if you heat it (The order can be changed) (Se puede cambiar el order de las dos frases) Main clause: Ice melts… If-clause: …if you heat it Verbal Tenses: Main clause: Present Simple If-clause: Present Simple Type O or Zero Conditional:
It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled. ( Es muy posible que la condición llegue a realizarse ) If I find her phone number, I will send it to you If-clause: If I find her phone number… Main clause: …I will send it to you Verbal Tenses: Main clause: Future Simple If-clause: Present Simple Type I or Possible Condition: Esta fórmula no es fija, puede variar como podemos ver en la siguiente diapositiva
a.- variations of the main clause: 1. MAY / MIGHT (possibility). If the fog gets thicker the plane may/might be diverted 2. MAY (permission) or CAN (permission or ability) If your documents are in order you may/can leave at once 3. MUST / SHOULD or any expression of command, request or advice. If you want to lose weight you must / should eat less bread. If you want to lose your weight you had better eat less bread If you want to lose weight eat less bread. If you see Tom tomorrow, could you ask him to ring me? b.- variations of the if-clause: 1. PRESENT CONTINUOUS: to indicate a present action or a future arrangement. If you are waiting for the bus you'd better join the queue If you are looking for Peter you'll find him upstairs. If you are staying for another night I'll ask the manager to give you a better room. 2. PRESENT PERFECT If you have finished dinner I'll ask the waiter for the bill. Variations to type I (advanced)
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES : TYPE 1 ACTIVITIES 1.I'll look for your notebook and if I (find) it I (give) you a ring. 2.If you (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment the other passengers (object). 3.I'll wash the glasses in this nice hot water. No, don't. If you (put) them into very hot water they (crack). 4.If you (see) Tom, Tell him I have a message for him. 5.If he (win) he (get) $1,000; If he (come) in second he (get) $ If you (feel) too hot during the night turn down the central heating. 7.If he (want) more money he (have) to do more work. 8.If you (finish) with your dictionary I'd like to borrow it. 9.If he (stand) up in the canoe it (capsize). 10.The lift wasn't working when I was here last. If it still (not work) we (have to) use the stairs.
It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled. ( Es improbable que la condición llegue a realizarse ) If I saw her, I would tell her the truth If-clause: If I saw her… Main clause: …I would tell her the truth We usually use WERE for all the persons of verb TO BE If I were a rich man, Id help people in Africa Verbal Tenses: Main clause: Conditional Simple If-clause: Past Simple Type II or Unlikely Condition: Esta fórmula no es fija, puede variar como podemos ver en la siguiente diapositiva
a.- variations of the main clause: 1. - MIGHT / COULD If you tried again you might / could succeed. 2. CONTINUOUS CONDITIONAL FORM Peter is on holiday ; he is touring Italy. If I were on holiday I would / might be touring Italy too. 3. SIMPLE PAST : to express automatic or habitual reactions in the past If anyone interrupted him he got angry. b.- variations of the if-clause: 1. PAST CONTINUOUS: I hate flying. If we were going by boat I'd feel much happier. 2. PAST PERFECT: If he had taken my advice he would be a rich man now. Variations to type II (advanced)
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES: TYPE 2 ACTIVITIES 1.If I (give) her a diamond ring she (sell) it. 2.If you (go) on a diet you (lose) weight. 3.If we (work) all night we (finish) in time; but we have no intention of working all the night. 4You must never blow out a gas light. Do you know what (happen) if you (blow )out a gas light? 5.If I (see) a tiger walking along the street I (climb) a tree. 6.If it (be) summer the people (not sit) round that big fire. 7.If you (type) your notes they (be) a lot of easier to read.
It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past. ( Es imposible que la condición llegue a realizarse pues se refiere al pasado ) If I had found her phone number, I would have sent her a message for the party If-clause: If I had found her phone number… Main clause: …I would have sent her a message for the party Verbal Tenses: Main clause: Conditional Perfect (would+have+P.P.) If-clause: Past Perfect (had+P.P.) Type III or Impossible Condition: Esta fórmula no es fija, puede variar como podemos ver en la siguiente diapositiva
Variations to type III (advanced) a.Variations of the main clause 1. COULD OR MIGHT may be used instead of WOULD If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life. 2. The continuous form of the perfect conditional may be used. At the time of the accident I was sitting in the back of the car, because Tom's little boy was sitting beside him in front. If Tom's boy had not been there I would have been sitting in front. b. Variations of the if- clause 1. We can use the past perfect continuous in the If- clause. Luckily I was wearing a seat belt. If I hadn't been wearing one I would have been seriously injured.
Other possible changes 1. A combination of types 2 and 3 is possible: The plane I intended to catch crashed and everyone was killed: If I had caught that plane I would be dead now or I would have been killed. 2. In type 3 had can be placed first and the if omitted: If you had obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened Had you obeyed orders this disaster would not have happened
CONDITINAL SENTENCES: Type 3 ACTIVITIES 1.If she (not make) these calls, the bill (be) smaller. 2.What (you / do) if I ( not work)? 3.If he ( be born ) in Italy, he (be called ) Arturo. 4.If the man ( be looking ) the wrong way, he (see ) the car. Write the complete sentence 1.educated at university / got a better job 2.not worked at a library / not met Mary. 3.not won the TV quiz contest / spent honeymoon in England 4.married Sheila / lived in Middleford.
WRITE A SENTENCE BEGINNING WITH IF FOR THESE SITUATIONS. ExampleA doctor recommended his patient to have an operation. The patient refused and died. The doctor says: " If he...." If he had had the operation, he wouldn't have died. a. Joe told Fred to bet five pounds on a horse called Greased Lightning. Fred refused. Later Joe tells Fred that he bet five pounds a won a hundred pounds and adds: "If you..." b. Arthur says he can't pay his bills because he didn't make a budget and adds: "If I... c. Sheila tells Harry she saw him in the street yesterday and tells him off because he didn't speak to her. Harry protests that he didn't see her and adds: "If I..." d.The teacher is disappointed that Stephen didn't pass his examination. He knows that Stephen didn't do any work. He tells him: "If you..." e.Keith had arranged to fly to America on flight BA 329 last weekend. He couldn't go because he had 'flu. Unfortunately the plane crashed and there were no survivors. Keith says : "If I..." f. Mary missed the last bus home because she stayed talking to hi s girl-friend Liz. When she came home by taxi, Arthur says: "If you..." g. Dr Newton forgot to lock the back door and a burglar came and stole his First Aids kit and he says : "If I..."
If can be replaced by:
a menos que … Unless + affirmative verb = if + negative I wont phone you if you dont want me toI wont phone you unless you want me to UNLESS
por si… (different from in case (en caso de..) : e.g. In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible) We use in case to talk about doing something now to avoid a future problem. It gives a reason. Ill phone my parents in case theyre worried about me We use if to talk about a reaction to, or the result of, a future action My parents will be angry if I get home late tonightIll be in trouble if I get home late tonight IN CASE:
siempre que…; a condición de que… (but only if…) Provided (that) can replace if when there is a strong idea of limitation or restriction. It is chiefly used with permission You can camp here provided that you leave no mess Providing ( that) she studies hard, she might pass the examination PROVIDED (THAT) / PROVIDING (THAT):
si no fuera por… / si no hubiese sido por…My father sends me an allowance. But for that I wouldnt be hereThe storm delayed us. But for the storm we would have been in time BUT FOR: Suppose the plane is late? = What if / What will happen if the plane is late? SUPPOSE /SUPPOSING = What if…?
If only + present / will = hope ; e.g. If only he comes in time! If only + past / past perfect = regret ; e.g. If only he didnt drive so fast! If only + would… (regret) = I wish + would ; e.g. If only he would drive more slowly IF ONLY: si…! con tal de que…As long as you listen to my problems I wont feel so depressed AS LONG AS:
I WISH: ojalá…! We use the past for a present situation after wish. We use wish to say that we regret something, that something is not as we would like it to be: e.g. I wish I knew Sues telephone number. ( I dont know it) As in if – clauses, we can use were instead of was after wish e.g. I wish I were taller We use past perfect after wish when you say that you regret something that happened or didnt happen in the past e.g. I wish I had known that Ann was ill. I would have gone to see her. (I didnt know that she was ill)
I WISH: ojalá…! (Continued) We sometimes use would after I wish… Study this example: It is raining. Tom wants to go out, but not in the rain. He says: I wish it would stop raining This means that Tom is complaining about the rain and wants it to stop. We use I wish… would … when we want something to happen or somebody to do something. The speaker is complaining about the present situation. I wish someone would answer that telephone. Its been ringing for about five minutes The music next door is very loud. I wish they would turn it down. I wish you wouldnt drive so fast. It makes me nervous. We use I wish… would when we want something to change or somebody else to do something. So you cannot say I wish I would…