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Technician Licensing Class T8 Valid dates: July 1, 2010 – June 30, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Technician Licensing Class T8 Valid dates: July 1, 2010 – June 30, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technician Licensing Class T8 Valid dates: July 1, 2010 – June 30, 2014

2 2 Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS T1 - FCC Rules, descriptions and definitions for the amateur radio service, operator and station license responsibilities. T2 – Operating Procedures T3 – Radio wave characteristics, radio and electromagnetic properties, propagation modes T4 – Amateur radio practices and station set up T5 – Electrical principles, math for electronics, electronic principles, Ohms Law T6 – Electrical components, semiconductors, circuit diagrams, component functions T7 – Station equipment, common transmitter and receiver problems, antenna measurements and troubleshooting, basic repair and testing T8 – Modulation modes, amateur satellite operation, operating activities, non-voice communications T9 – Antennas, feedlines T0 – AC power circuits, antenna installation, RF hazards

3 3 3 T8A: Modulation modes; bandwidth of various signals T8A1 Single sideband is a form of amplitude modulation. Carrier only CWTones produce both side bands or AM Remove one sideband and suppress carrier becomes SSB Voice or Phone Station

4 4 4 T8A: Modulation modes; bandwidth of various signals T8A2 FM is the type of modulation most commonly used for VHF packet radio transmissions. T8A3 SSB is the type of voice modulation most often used for long- distance or weak signal contacts on the VHF and UHF bands. T8A4 FM is the type of modulation most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters. T8A5 CW is the type of emission that has the narrowest bandwidth. T8A6 The sideband normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF and UHF single-sideband communications is upper sideband. Upper sideband is always used on VHF & UHF

5 5 5 T8A: Modulation modes; bandwidth of various signals T8A7 The primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice transmissions is that SSB signals have narrower bandwidth. SSB uses less bandwidth than FM signals. T8A8 3 kHz is the approximate bandwidth of a single sideband voice signal. SSB signals are Amplitude Modulated (AM) with the carrier and one sideband suppressed.

6 6 6 T8A: Modulation modes; bandwidth of various signals T8A9 The approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM phone signal is between 5 and 15 kHz. T8A10 The typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV transmissions on the 70 cm band about 6 MHz. Amateur TV signals can be received on a variety of equipment – even a small hand-held monitor.

7 7 7 T8A: Modulation modes; bandwidth of various signals T8A Hz is the approximate maximum bandwidth required to transmit a CW signal. CW Signal 500 Hz wide SSB Signal kHz wide FM Signal kHz wide UHF Fast-Scan TV ~ 6 MHz

8 8 8 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B1 Any amateur whose license privileges allow them to transmit on the satellite uplink frequency may be the control operator of a station communicating through an amateur satellite or space station. T8B2 The minimum amount of power needed to complete the contact is how much transmitter power should be used on the uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station. Just a repeat of previous mention about amount of power output To work satellites with your handheld, buy a small directional antenna for your satellite radio. You probably wont hear much with your rubber duck antenna.

9 9 9 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B3 Talking to amateur radio operators in other countries can be done using an amateur radio satellite. T8B4 Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license may make contact with an amateur station on the International Space Station using 2-meter and 70 cm band amateur radio frequencies. International Space Station has a big ham station on board. Many Astronaults are licensed radio amateurs. The International Space Station downlink, FM is MHz. Use an HT to listen when its passing over you.

10 10 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B5 A satellite beacon is a transmission from a space station that contains information about a satellite. T8B6 A satellite tracking program can be used to determine the time period during which an amateur satellite or space station can be accessed. Computer programs and websites can show you where and when an amateur satellite or the Space Station will be in range of your ham station.

11 11 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B7 With regards to satellite communications Doppler shift is a change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between the satellite and the earth station. T8B8 The statement that a satellite is operating in "mode U/V" means that the satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the downlink is in the 2 meter band. Frequency BandsFrequency RangeModes High Frequency MHzMode H VHF MHzMode V UHF MHzMode U L band GHzMode L S band GHzMode S C band5.8 GHzMode C X band10.4 GHzMode X K band24 GhzMode K Doppler Effect

12 12 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B9 Rotation of the satellite and its antennas causes "spin fading" when referring to satellite signals. Rotation in space makes the signals fade in and out. This rotation keeps solar panels from overheating. Tracking and communicating through amateur satellites can be done with a cross-polarized satellite antenna

13 13 T8B: Amateur satellite operation; Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols. T8B10 The initials LEO tell you an amateur satellite is in a Low Earth Orbit. T8B11 A commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite is FM Packet. FM packet a very popular digital communications system Packets usually stored and forwarded, via satellite or space station Orbiting Satellites

14 14 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C1 Radio direction finding methods are used to locate sources of noise interference or jamming. 2-element Yagi DF Antenna3-element Quad DF Antenna

15 15 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C2 A directional antenna would be useful for a hidden transmitter hunt. Hidden Transmitter Hunts are called Fox Hunting All ages participate in a Fox Hunt

16 16 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C3 Contesting is a popular operating activity that involves contacting as many stations as possible during a specified period of time. Field Day Every June Enjoyed By Hams the World Over

17 17 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C4 A good procedure when contacting another station in a radio contest is to send only the minimum information needed for proper identification and the contest exchange. Chit chat is great for normal QSOs, but not for contests. Contesting needs your call sign and info for contest only.

18 18 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C5 A grid locator is a letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location.

19 19 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C6 The purpose of a temporary "1 by 1" format (letter-number-letter) assigned call sign is for operations in conjunction with an activity of special significance to the amateur community. W5PN3GW9I T8C7 The maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models is 1 watt. Telecommand signals are unidentified commands permitted by rule. Hams can use frequencies on the 6-Meter Band to radio control a model aircraft.

20 20 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C8 It is required that a label indicating the licensee's name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter in place of on- air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies. Strange radio control signals can be heard using RC: to 51.0 MHz and 53.1 to 53.9 MHz. Licensees call sign 50 MHz54 MHz 52 MHz 6-Meter Wavelength Band Privileges 51 MHz53.1 MHz53.9 MHz

21 21 T8C: Operating activities; radio directing finding, radio control, contests, special event stations, basic linking over Internet T8C9 You might obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP from a repeater directory. The Internet is your best source. ( But this is the question for the exam. ) T8C10 You can select a specific IRLP node when using a portable transceiver by use of the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID. T8C11 A gateway is the name given to an amateur radio station that is used to connect other amateur stations to the Internet. Similar to a Gateway in connection to a computer network Keypad on this rigs top corner and on back of microphone. ( Not necessarily this way on all rigs. )

22 22 T8D: Non-voice communications; image data, digital modes CW, packet, PSK31 T8D1 The following are examples of digital communications methods. Packet PSK31 MFSK. T8D2 The term APRS means Automatic Position Reporting System. Kenwood dual bander plugged into the Avmap G5 GPS position plotter.

23 23 T8D: Non-voice communications; image data, digital modes CW, packet, PSK31 T8D4 The type of transmission indicated by the term NTSC is an analog fast scan color TV signal. When youre ready, you can add the fun of ATV to your ham shack.

24 24 T8D: Non-voice communications; image data, digital modes CW, packet, PSK31 T8D5 Data emission modes may be used by a Technician Class operator between 219 and 220 MHz. 219 to 220 MHz for point-to-point digital message forwarding T8D6 The abbreviation PSK mean Phase Shift Keying Meter Wavelength Band Privileges 222 MHz225 MHz MHz 219 MHz220 MHz

25 25 T8D: Non-voice communications; image data, digital modes CW, packet, PSK31 T8D7 PSK31 is a low-rate data transmission mode. PSK-31 transmission rate is about normal typing speed. PSK is a remarkable digital mode that slices through interference and gets message across sometimes to the moon and back. You can connect a PSK-31 and RTTY data reader to your radio to decode messages

26 26 T8D: Non-voice communications; image data, digital modes CW, packet, PSK31 T8D8 Packet transmissions may include: A check sum which permits error detection; A header which contains the call sign of the station to which the information is being sent; Automatic repeat request in case of error. Laptop, TNC, and Handheld comprise Packet Station.

27 27 T8D: Non-voice communications; image data, digital modes CW, packet, PSK31 T8D9 The code used when sending CW in the amateur bands is International Morse. T8D10 The following devices can be used to transmit CW in the amateur bands: Straight Key Electronic Keyer Computer Keyboard T8D11 A "parity" bit is an extra code element used to detect errors in received data. Just like a parity bit in computers

28 Element 2 Technician Class Question Pool T8 Modulation modes; amateur satellite operation, operating activities, non-voice communications [4 Exam Questions – 4 Groups] Valid July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2014

29 29 T8A01 Which of the following is a form of amplitude modulation? A.Spread-spectrum B.Packet radio C.Single sideband D.Phase shift keying

30 30 T8A02 What type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF packet radio transmissions? A.FM B.SSB C.AM D.Spread Spectrum

31 31 T8A03 Which type of voice modulation is most often used for long-distance or weak signal contacts on the VHF and UHF bands? A.FM B.AM C.SSB D.PM

32 32 T8A04 Which type of modulation is most commonly used for VHF and UHF voice repeaters? A.AM B.SSB C.PSK D.FM

33 33 T8A05 Which of the following types of emission has the narrowest bandwidth? A.FM voice B.SSB voice C.CW D.Slow-scan TV

34 34 T8A06 Which sideband is normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF and UHF single-sideband communications? A.Upper sideband B.Lower sideband C.Suppressed sideband D.Inverted sideband

35 35 T8A07 What is the primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voice transmissions? A.SSB signals are easier to tune B.SSB signals are less susceptible to interference C.SSB signals have narrower bandwidth D.All of these choices are correct

36 36 T8A08 What is the approximate bandwidth of a single sideband voice signal? A.1 kHz B.3 kHz C.6 kHz D.15 kHz

37 37 T8A09 What is the approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM phone signal? A.Less than 500 Hz B.About 150 kHz C.Between 5 and 15 kHz D.Between 50 and 125 kHz

38 38 T8A10 What is the typical bandwidth of analog fast-scan TV transmissions on the 70 cm band? A.More than 10 MHz B.About 6 MHz C.About 3 MHz D.About 1 MHz

39 39 T8A11 What is the approximate maximum bandwidth required to transmit a CW signal? A.2.4 kHz B.150 Hz C.1000 Hz D.15 kHz

40 40 T8B01 Who may be the control operator of a station communicating through an amateur satellite or space station? A.Only an Amateur Extra Class operator B.A General Class licensee or higher licensee who has a satellite operator certification C.Only an Amateur Extra Class operator who is also an AMSAT member D.Any amateur whose license privileges allow them to transmit on the satellite uplink frequency

41 41 T8B02 How much transmitter power should be used on the uplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station? A.The maximum power of your transmitter B.The minimum amount of power needed to complete the contact C.No more than half the rating of your linear amplifier D.Never more than 1 watt

42 42 T8B03 Which of the following can be done using an amateur radio satellite? A.Talk to amateur radio operators in other countries B.Get global positioning information C.Make telephone calls D.All of these choices are correct

43 43 T8B04 Which amateur stations may make contact with an amateur station on the International Space Station using 2 meter and 70 cm ban amateur radio frequencies? A.Only members of amateur radio clubs at NASA facilities B.Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license C.Only the astronaut's family members who are hams D.You cannot talk to the ISS on amateur radio frequencies

44 44 T8B05 What is a satellite beacon? A.The primary transmit antenna on the satellite B.An indicator light that that shows where to point your antenna C.A reflective surface on the satellite D.A transmission from a space station that contains information about a satellite

45 45 T8B06 What can be used to determine the time period during which an amateur satellite or space station can be accessed? A.A GPS receiver B.A field strength meter C.A telescope D.A satellite tracking program

46 46 T8B07 With regard to satellite communications, what is Doppler shift? A.A change in the satellite orbit B.A mode where the satellite receives signals on one band and transmits on another C.An observed change in signal frequency caused by relative motion between the satellite and the earth station. D.A special digital communications mode for some satellites

47 47 T8B08 What is meant by the statement that a satellite is operating in "mode U/V"? A.The satellite uplink is in the 15 meter band and the downlink is in the 10 meter band B.The satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the downlink is in the 2 meter band C.The satellite operates using ultraviolet frequencies D.The satellite frequencies are usually variable

48 48 T8B09 What causes "spin fading" when referring to satellite signals? A.Circular polarized noise interference radiated from the sun B.Rotation of the satellite and its antennas C.Doppler shift of the received signal D.Interfering signals within the satellite uplink band

49 49 T8B10 What do the initials LEO tell you about an amateur satellite? A.The satellite battery is in Low Energy Operation mode B.The satellite is performing a Lunar Ejection Orbit maneuver C.The satellite is in a Low Earth Orbit D.The satellite uses Light Emitting Optics

50 50 T8B11 What is a commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite? A.USB AFSK B.PSK31 C.FM Packet D.WSJT

51 51 T8C01 Which of the following methods is used to locate sources of noise interference or jamming? A.Echolocation B.Doppler radar C.Radio direction finding D.Phase locking

52 52 T8C02 Which of these items would be useful for a hidden transmitter hunt? A.Calibrated SWR meter B.A directional antenna C.A calibrated noise bridge D.All of these choices are correct

53 53 T8C03 What popular operating activity involves contacting as many stations as possible during a specified period of time? A.Contesting B.Net operations C.Public service events D.Simulated emergency exercises

54 54 T8C04 Which of the following is good procedure when contacting another station in a radio contest? A.Be sure to sign only the last two letters of your call if there is a pileup calling the station B.Work the station twice to be sure that you are in his log C.Send only the minimum information needed for proper identification and the contest exchange D.All of these choices are correct

55 55 T8C05 What is a grid locator? A.A letter-number designator assigned to a geographic location B.A letter-number designator assigned to an azimuth and elevation C.An instrument for neutralizing a final amplifier D.An instrument for radio direction finding

56 56 T8C06 For what purpose is a temporary "1 by 1" format (letter-number- letter) call sign assigned? A.To designate an experimental station B.To honor a deceased relative who was a radio amateur C.For operations in conjunction with an activity of special significance to the amateur community D.All of these choices are correct

57 57 T8C07 What is the maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models? A.500 milliwatts B.1 watt C.25 watts D.1500 watts

58 58 T8C08 What is required in place of on-air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies? A.Voice identification must be transmitted every 10 minutes B.Morse code ID must be sent once per hour C.A label indicating the licensee's name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitter D.A flag must be affixed to the transmitter antenna with the station call sign in 1 inch high letters or larger

59 59 T8C09 How might you obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP? A.From the FCC Rulebook B.From your local emergency coordinator C.From a repeater directory D.From the local repeater frequency coordinator

60 60 T8C10 How do you select a specific IRLP node when using a portable transceiver? A.Choose a specific CTCSS tone B.Choose the correct DSC tone C.Access the repeater autopatch D.Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID

61 61 T8C11 What name is given to an amateur radio station that is used to connect other amateur stations to the Internet? A.A gateway B.A repeater C.A digipeater D.A beacon

62 62 T8D01 Which of the following is an example of a digital communications method? A.Packet B.PSK31 C.MFSK D.All of these choices are correct

63 63 T8D02 What does the term APRS mean? A.Automatic Position Reporting System B.Associated Public Radio Station C.Auto Planning Radio Set-up D.Advanced Polar Radio System

64 64 T8D03 Which of the following is normally used when sending automatic location reports via amateur radio? A.A connection to the vehicle speedometer B.A WWV receiver C.A connection to a broadcast FM sub- carrier receiver D.A Global Positioning System receiver

65 65 T8D04 What type of transmission is indicated by the term NTSC? A.A Normal Transmission mode in Static Circuit B.A special mode for earth satellite uplink C.An analog fast scan color TV signal D.A frame compression scheme for TV signals

66 66 T8D05 Which of the following emission modes may be used by a Technician Class operator between 219 and 220 MHz? A.Spread spectrum B.Data C.SSB voice D.Fast-scan television

67 67 T8D06 What does the abbreviation PSK mean? A.Pulse Shift Keying B.Phase Shift Keying C.Packet Short Keying D.Phased Slide Keying

68 68 T8D07 What is PSK31? A.A high-rate data transmission mode B.A method of reducing noise interference to FM signals C.A method of compressing digital television signal D.A low-rate data transmission mode

69 69 T8D08 Which of the following may be included in packet transmissions? A.A check sum which permits error detection B.A header which contains the call sign of the station to which the information is being sent C.Automatic repeat request in case of error D.All of these choices are correct

70 70 T8D09 What code is used when sending CW in the amateur bands? A.Baudot B.Hamming C.International Morse D.Gray

71 71 T8D10 Which of the following can be used to transmit CW in the amateur bands? A.Straight Key B.Electronic Keyer C.Computer Keyboard D.All of these choices are correct

72 72 T8D11 What is a "parity" bit? A.A control code required for automatic position reporting B.A timing bit used to ensure equal sharing of a frequency C.An extra code element used to detect errors in received data D.A "triple width" bit used to signal the end of a character


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