# Catch an asteroid Students team Hunters of an asteroids : Ivan Popov – 10 th grade Petar Daskalov – 11 th grade Aleksandar Ivanov – 11 th grade Teacher:

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Catch an asteroid Students team Hunters of an asteroids : Ivan Popov – 10 th grade Petar Daskalov – 11 th grade Aleksandar Ivanov – 11 th grade Teacher: Veselka Radeva Public astronomical observatory and planetarium Nicolaus Copernicus, Varna One project for luminous bodies, which could became an object for a space mission in the close future...... Who, why and how you will learn now from:

Introduction Asteroids are one of the most interesting, but still poorly studied object in our big home – the Solar system.. The project Catch an asteroid is our view towards one carbon asteroid. We introduce you to our telescopic observations of this object and our results from the processed images. Fig. 1 The team of the project and a photo collage of the asteroid Eros.

We tracked the movement of this asteroid in one night, as we measured his equatorial coordinates. These data we sent to the Center of minor planets in Harvard, where astronomical observations for the asteroids are collected. Introduction Measuring the brightness of the asteroid, we determined, that his important physical characteristic the period of rotation of the axis is 2.7072 hours. Fig. 2 The team of the project and the participants in the Summer astronomical-school in NAO-Rozhen

1.Asteroids – minor objects in the Solar system 2.Choice of asteroid 3.Observation of the asteroid 4.Determination of equatorial coordinates 5.Determination of period of rotation 6.Analysis of the results 7.Space mission to the asteroid

Asteroids – minor objects in the Solar system Type: minor objects with solid surface Location: mainly in the zone between Mars and Jupiter Dynamics: they circle around the Sun in ellipses Nature: carbon, silicate, metal Number: by December 2012 – 347 481 asteroids, from them over 16 000 with specified orbits and names Fig. 3 Asteroids – gallery

Equatorial coordinate system Astrometrical observations are made with the purpose of defining the equatorial coordinates (ascension and declination) of the asteroids. Fig. 4 Equatorial coordinates – designation on the celestial sphere.

Orbit elements Astrometrical observations, in which equatorial coordinates of the asteroids and comets are calculated with the purpose of defining their orbits. Orbit elements are: the length of the semi-major axis of the ellipse, perihelionical distance, eccentricity of the orbit, inclination of the orbit, length of the descending node, argument of perihelion, period of rotation of the object around the Sun, time of perihelion, anomaly and aphelion distance.. Fig. 5 Orbit elements.

Physical characteristics Absolute star magnitude Mass Density Geometric albedo Temperature Rotation period Fig. 6 Asteroids - gallery.

Classification of the asteroids There are two type of classification: 1) Of the astronomer Tolen (based on photometrical observations) 2) Spectral taxonomic classification SMASSII: K-class asteroids - mainly carbon, 75% C-class asteroids - mainly silicate, 17% M-class asteroids - metal, 8%.

Space missions to asteroids Galileo – 243 Ida NEAR Shoemaker (Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous) – 253 Matilda and 433 Eros Deep Space 1: 9969 Braile Cassini: 2685 Mazurski Muses-C: 1998 SF36 Rozetta&: 140 Siva and to 479 Otawara Fig. 7 Space missions to asteroids

Choice of an asteroid Criteria: Chemical composition: from the carbon group. Orbital motion of the asteroid: representative from the inside part of the main asteroid belt (the closer to Mars). Space mission to asteroids. Carbon asteroids are frequent objects of space studies, because they are rich in useful elements and compounds for the industry Visibility of the asteroid: It was important for us to choose an asteroid, visible for the time of the summer astronomical observation school.

4844 Matsuyama (1991 BA2) The asteroid was discovered in 23.01.1991 by the astronomers Seiji Ueda and Hiroshi Kaneda. Fig. 8 Orbital elements of the asteroid 4844

Orbital diagram for the date of observation of the asteroid Fig. 9 Orbital diagram for the date of observation

Physical parameters of the asteroid Matsuyama 4844 Fig. 10 Physical parameters of the asteroid: absolute star magnitude, rotation period and classification Fig. 11 The Schmidt telescope in NAO-Rozhen with which we made the observations of the asteroid 4844

Observations of the asteroid 4844 Matsuyama The summer astronomical observation school from 1 to 10 july 2012 in NAO-Rozhen. Фиг. 12. НАблюдения на астероида с 50/70 Шмит телескопа на НАО-Рожен

The observations of the asteroid 4844 Matsuyama we taken out with 50/70 cm Schmidt telescope in National astronomical observatory Rozhen Fig. 13 Scheme of the Schmidt telescope with which we took the observations of the asteroid

CCD observations of the asteroid 4844 Matsuyama Fig. 14 Image of the field in which is the asteroid made in every 30 minutes

Determination of the equatorial coordinates- ascension and declination Fig. 15 The procedure of determination of the equatorial coordinates of the asteroid for each of the 96 images with the program Astrometrica

Our report with the results of the measurement of the position of the asteroid 4844 was sent to the database in the Center of minor planets in Harvard. Our measurements became part of the database of the asteroid 4844 with which orbital elements and eventual changes to the asteroid motion under the impact of other asteroids in the Main asteroid belt will be made. Fig. 16 Report with the measured equatorial coordinates of the asteroid in images made with the Schmidt telescope.

Determination of the rotational period of the asteroid Fig. 17 Image with the asteroid and stars for comparison

Fig. 18 Photometry of the asteroid 4844 Matsuyama: a compare between the brightness of the asteroid and the brightness of five standard stars

Fig.19. Graphic presenting of the photometric file of the asteroid 4844 Matsuyama.

Fig. 20. The observatory light curves, staged curved lights and the calculated period of rotation. On basis of the photometric file, we calculated that the period of rotation of the asteroid is 0,112801 days which is 2,7072 hours

Analysis of the results 1. The equatorial coordinates of the asteroid are measured. 2. Appointed period of rotation around its axis Our team: 2.7072 hours The astronomer Berend : 2.7232 hours The difference of 5,76 seconds is too small and it can be explained with the very slight delay of the rotating because of the possible gravitational perturbations when the asteroid is passing closer to bigger asteroids or because of the effect of the Yarkowsky. Figure 21.Illustration of the effect of Yarkowsky

Space mission to the asteroid Main objective: a detailed research of the movement, surface and composition of the asteroid 4844 Matsuyama. An important purpose of the space mission to the asteroid is an analysis of the chemical composition of the asteroid 4844 Matsuyama: content of minerals, organic compounds, water and other. Other objective of the mission is the detailed mapping of the asteroid: to collect information for the texture, chemistry and spectral characteristics of the regolith on all small and big forms on the asteroid.

Planning the mission Launching the spacecraft: Figure 22. An orbit diagram of the asteroid for the time on launching the space equipment to asteroid

Reaching the asteroid for three years! Researching the asteroid- for 6 months! Departure for the Earth with an asteroid probe! Fig. 23. An orbit diagram of the asteroid when drill is pointed to the Earth

Conclusion We think that we have successfully catched our object: first with the big Schmidt telescope and then- with a future cosmic mission to our asteroid. On basis of our knowledge about this asteroid, we simulated its own movement in the time to select the most appropriate time for launching a cosmic drill to it. We planned this cosmic mission in a way that we can in shortest time to explore in details its surface, sizes and composition. With this cosmic mission we are preparing for future using the resources of our object. Fig. 24. The team of the project is working on observations

Appreciation We pronounce our gratitude to associate professor Dr Tanyo Bonev, Director of IA s NAO. We are also thankful to astronomers from National Astronomical Observatory- Rozhen Dinko Dimitrov, Pencho Markishki, Dr Galin Borisov, Andon Kostov. We are grateful to students who study astrophysics from the University of Edinburgh- Verghil Yotov and Denitsa Sainova for giving an opportunity to work with the observing facilities, for advices, discussions, conversations- for this that they showed us how interesting and exciting is the work of astronomers! We are thankful to Professor Kyurkchieva from the Astronomical center of Shumen University for giving us a licensed professional computer programs Astrometrica and MaxImDL and for the supporting the preparation of our project.

References 1.Asteroids: Formation, Discovery and Exploration, http://www.space.com/51-asteroids-formation-discovery-and exploration.html 2. Minor Planet Names, http://www.ipa.nw.ru/PAGE/DEPFUND/LSBSS/englenam.htm 3.Minor Planet Names: Alphabetical List http://www.minorplanetcenter.org/iau/lists/MPNames.html 4. JPL Small-Body Database Browser - 4844 Matsuyama (1991 BA2), http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=4844+Matsuyama 5. Tholen, D. J., Asteroid taxonomic classifications. In Asteroids II (R. P. Binzel, T. Gehrels, and M. S. Matthews, Eds), pp. 1139-1150. Univ. of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1989. 6.Bus, S. J., Vilas, F. and Barucc, M. A., Visible-wavelength spectroscopy of asteroids in Asteroids III, pp.169, University of Arizona Press, 2002. 7. National Olympics of Astronomy, Equatorial coordinates, http://astro-olymp.org/9.html 8.Raab, H., Astrometrica – Shareware for research grade CCd Astrometry http://www.astrometrica.at/ 9.MaxIm DL : The Gold Standard, www.cyanogen.com 10. ESA, Past missions to the asteroids, http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Technology/NEO/Past_missions 11.National astronomical observatory, Rozhen, Bulgaria, http://nao-rozhen.org/index_bg.htm 12.50/70 Schmidt telescope, http://nao-rozhen.org/telescopes/fr17.htm 13.Minor Planet & Comet Ephemeris Service http://www.minorplanetcenter.net/iau/MPEph/MPEph.html 14.Behrend, R., Asteroids and comets rotation curves, ChR, http://obswww.unige.ch/~behrend/page5cou.html#004844 15.What is the Yarkovski effect? http://osiris-rex.lpl.arizona.edu/?q=faq#t2n68

Thank you for attention! For contacts: Team: Ivan Popov, ivanpopov_96@abv.bg Petar Daskalov, pepo.daskalov@gmail.com Aleksandar Ivanov, alexander.ivanov0711@gmail.com Couch: Veselka Radeva, veselka.radeva@gmail.com Astronomic Observatory and Planetarium, Varna

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