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A Peer-to-Peer Traffic Safety Campaign Project Team: Laura Stanley, Carolyn Plumb, Erica Pimley, Kelly Borden, & Kaysha Young Western Transportation Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "A Peer-to-Peer Traffic Safety Campaign Project Team: Laura Stanley, Carolyn Plumb, Erica Pimley, Kelly Borden, & Kaysha Young Western Transportation Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Peer-to-Peer Traffic Safety Campaign Project Team: Laura Stanley, Carolyn Plumb, Erica Pimley, Kelly Borden, & Kaysha Young Western Transportation Institute College of Engineering Montana State University Sponsored by: Montana Dept. of Transportation

2 Introduction Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers – Per mile driven, teen drivers ages 16-19 are three times more likely to be in a fatal crash (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010) Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death in rural America – Rural teens are twice as likely as urban teens to be in a fatal crash (Brunet, 2009) – Rural teens more likely to drive at night, use a cell phone, and not wear seat belts (Texas Transportation Institute, 2011) Teens are greatly influenced by peers – Teen passengers can cause increased risky behaviors of young drivers (Allen and Brown, 2008) – When peers encourage anti-risk behaviors, teen drivers significantly increase safe driving behaviors (Shepherd et al., 2011)...when teens were with people their own age, their brains reward centers became hyperactivated, which made them more easily aroused by the prospect of a potentially pleasurable experience.

3 5 Highest Risks for Teen Drivers Driver inexperience, coupled with the following situations/ conditions: Driving at night/tired Speeding and street racing Distractions, such as cell phones and other teen passengers Low seat belt use Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs (Texas Transportation Institute, 2011)

4 A Peer-to-Peer Approach to Changing Traffic Safety Culture Teens in the Driver Seat® Program (TDS) - Started in 2002, is the first peer-to-peer program for teens that focuses solely on traffic safety and addresses all major risks for this age group: – Developed by Texas A&M Transportation Institute, 600 schools in Texas – Also active in CA, CT, GA, NB, and NC – Since 2003, Texas is the only state in the nation to experience a decline in fatal crashes involving teenage drivers each and every year (TTI, 2011)

5 May 22-23, 2006 I hear, and I forget; I see, and I remember; I do, and I understand. - Confucious

6 The Art of Doing… aka active learning

7 Source:

8 Texas Teen Traffic Fatality Trends/ Benchmarks in Texas w/respect to TDS 1995 On- Road Driving Test Removed 1995 On- Road Driving Test Removed Parent-taught Driver Ed Implemented GDL Implemented Teens in the Driver Seat® Implemented A 45% drop from 2002 peak for teens; 15% drop for drivers 25+ years old

9 Texas Teen Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes by Age, 2002-2009

10 Effective Peer-to-Peer Safety and Health Initiatives, Transportation Domain Positive peer pressure projects and service-learning activities implemented in six high schools in Ohio and Michigan (Bradley et al., 2007) – Seat belt use rose significantly Competition between schools used to encourage seat belt use in Denver, Colorado (Houston et al., 2010) – Students at different schools were provided with activities to encourage seat belt use

11 Effective Peer-to-Peer Safety and Health Initiatives, Non-Transportation Domain Why Waste Everything Smoking Tobacco – Scotland campaign focused on providing peer-to- peer education regarding tobacco use (W-WEST, 2013) Zero Alcohol for Youth Campaign – Peer-led program focused on engaging communities in preventing underage alcohol consumption (Texans Standing Tall, 2013)

12 Project Objectives Research objective: evaluate a peer-to-peer approach utilizing the Teens in the Driver Seat Program, where Montana teens will create and disseminate safety messages to increase young peoples awareness and behaviors of: – Dangers associated with driving/riding in a vehicle, – Measures they can take to mitigate these dangers, – Importance of taking responsibility for their own driving and the safety of their passengers.

13 Methods The implementation of this program followed that of the Texas TDS Program Four Montana high schools: Case/Control Urban* and Case/Control Rural* – Urban Treatment: Bozeman High School – Urban Control: Helena High School – Rural Treatment: Sweet Grass County High School – Rural Control: Manhattan High School *Case vs. control school strategy was necessary to accurately measure effectiveness of program

14 Selection of Schools Developed from the research plan* balanced with the feasibility of program implementation: – Proximity to Montana State University – Similar geography – Similar school size – Meetings with school principals to garner interest and support of the program. *Schools were statistically similar enough to be considered demographically equal

15 Effectiveness Measurement Survey development followed that of the TDS survey instrument Distribution: Pre assessment surveys distributed November 2012, Post assessment surveys distributed May 2013 Response Rates: Post-Survey Total (n=2,488) Urban Total (n = 2,164) Urban Treatment (n = 1,307, 69% response rate) Urban Control (n = 857, 59% response rate) Rural Total (n = 324) Rural Treatment (n = 159, 92% response rate) Rural Control (n = 165, 93% response rate) Pre-Survey Total (n = 2,733) Urban Total (n = 2,407) Urban Treatment (n = 1,376, 73% response rate) Urban Control (n = 1,031, 71% response rate) Rural Total (n = 326) Rural Treatment (n = 155, 91% response rate) Rural Control (n = 171, 96% response rate)

16 Incentives Survey – Three $45.00 cash awards per school were awarded randomly for both pre and post surveys Focus Groups – Each focus group participant was compensated $10.00

17 Club selection For each treatment school, clubs were selected at each school, based on suggestions from the principal, to deliver peer-to-peer education by promoting awareness of the top five driving dangers – Urban Treatment School: Bozeman Student Council – Rural Treatment School: Serving and Volunteering Youth Club (SAVY)

18 Advisor Support Advisors were appointed from the faculties of Bozeman and Sweet Grass County High School Contacting advisors was difficult due to their limited available time. WTI staff met personally with all advisors on a regular basis.

19 Methods of Teen Messaging Incentive Structure for Awards - Points Earning Scale – Driving the Message Contest Poster entries Video entries – Hosting events – Promotional Items – Facebook page Safe driving reminders, contest updates, photos, etc.

20 Ex. Driving the Message Contest Bozeman High School: 13 posters Sweet Grass High School: 11 posters and 1 video Peer-led unbiased posters judging by a group of students from Harrison High School, scored by points system – Originality – Creativity – Technical Quality

21 School wide Events – Golf cart obstacle course Students drove golf carts through an obstacle course wearing drunk goggles or while texting to simulate the difficulty of dangerous driving behaviors 50 Bozeman High School students attended this event – School-wide Assembly Sweet Grass County High School students organized an assembly where they showed a video they had created warning against dangerous driving behaviors – Promotional items distributed Bozeman High School: 550 air fresheners and 75 key chains Sweet Grass County High School: 100 wristbands, 100 temporary tattoos, 200 air fresheners, and 75 key chains

22 Sample Poster Entries


24 Sweet Grass Video Entry (available upon request)

25 Methods – Focus Groups Demographics – Bozeman High School: 1 sophomore, 7 juniors, and 3 seniors 4 males, 7 females – Sweet Grass County High School: 6 freshmen, 5 sophomores, 5 juniors, and 4 seniors 15 males, 5 females Participants under the age of 18 were required to turn in parental consent forms. All participants were asked to sign a student consent form. Answers were recorded using a digital recording device. Students were compensated $10 for participation.

26 Results – Urban Treatment Perceived Driving Dangers Contributing to Teens Being Injured or Killed in a Car Crash Increase in awareness of sleep Decrease in awareness of phone

27 Results – Rural Treatment Perceived Driving Dangers Contributing to Teens Being Injured or Killed in a Car Crash Rural treatment had more promising results than UT Increase in awareness of alcohol, distractions, and driving at night No decreases in awareness of the top five factors

28 Results Rural treatment reported significantly higher exposure to posters, videos, promotional materials, the Driving the Message Contest, and school-wide activities

29 Results The Friend and Parent categories were cited most frequently by students Urban teens most frequently reported being influenced by peers Rural teens most frequently reported being influenced nearly equally by peers and parent

30 Focus Group Findings Urban Participants – Minimal change in awareness about driving dangers – More aware of dangers of drug use – More likely to text while driving – School news is effective Rural Participants – Overall increased awareness about driving dangers – More aware of fatigued/night driving and speeding – More likely to fail to wear a seat belt – Assemblies are effective

31 Conclusions Overall, awareness increased for treatment schools more profoundly than control schools Overall, dangerous driving behavior frequency increased for both treatment and control schools – Average age of students increased between pre- and post- surveys, therefore it is likely that their driving time exposure has increased – More students were enrolled in or had completed drivers education – Seasonal differences could have affected the students current driving concerns and behaviors Pre assessment surveys were distributed in the Fall (October-November) Post assessment surveys were distributed in the Spring (May) RT showed higher exposure to messages and media than UT – Smaller school population of RT, allowing more resources to be invested per student compared to UT – Dynamics of each schools extracurricular activities – Ease with which programs can be introduced into the school

32 Conclusions Disconnect between knowledge and behaviors for treatment schools – Awareness of dangerous driving dangers increased while self- reported dangerous driving behavior also increased Rural students appear to have an overall increased awareness of driving dangers following implementation when compared with urban students – Especially fatigued/night driving and speeding Friends and family members are the two most influential relationships – Urban students more influenced by friends – Rural students nearly equally influenced by friend and family RT reported increased exposure to messages and media related to TDS – Assemblies more effective in rural setting – School news more effective in urban setting

33 Recommendations Montana Teen Attitudes and Behaviors Efforts should be focused on low awareness factors including speeding, driving at night/fatigue, and use of seat belts. Montana teens are already aware alcohol and distractions as top factors. – Speeding was ranked low in top factors and had the highest rate of traffic tickets 11,332 speeding citations and warnings issued in MT in 2011 Listed as a contributing factor in MT crashes over 12,000 times between 2006 and 2010 (MDT) – Use of seat belts: 77% of urban students reported always wearing a seat belt compared to just 59% of rural students – Driving at Night was ranked low in top factors Students reported their most influential relationships as parents and best friend – A need to tap into the social networks of teens – Peer-to-Peer networks are powerful and other Peer-to-Peer health and safety programs have been successful Cultural shifts takes time, in Texas ~5 years of program implementation

34 Interested in starting the program? A Montana guidebook has been created at projects/safety/peer_to_pe er.shtml CONTACT: Russell Henk, Program Director Texas Transportation Institute 210-979-9411 TDS Website:

35 Acknowledgments A special thanks to all the faculty, staff, and students at Bozeman High School, Manhattan High School, Sweet Grass High School, and Helena High School for making this project possible! Sponsor: Montana Department of Transportation

36 Examples of teen created videos

37 References Allen, J. P., and B. B. Brown. (2008). Adolescents, Peers, and Motor Vehicles The Perfect Storm? American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35:289–293. Bradley, R., J. Eyler, I. Goldzweig, P. Juarez, D. Schlundt, and D. Tolliver. (2007). Evaluating the Impact of Peer-to-Peer Service-Learning Projects on Seat Belt use Among High School Students. In S. B. Gelmon and S. Billig (Eds.), Service Learning From Passion to Objectivity: International and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Service-Learning Research. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Brunet, M. (2009). Allstate Americas Teen Driving Hotspots Study. Retrieved December 18, 2009, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Teen Drivers: Fact Sheet. Retrieved from ml. ml Henk, R. (2012, July 19). Interview by B. Nickol and C. Polacek [Phone Call]. Questions regarding Texas TDS.

38 References (cont.) Henk, R. (2013, August 6). Interview by L. Stanley, E. Pimley, K. Borden, and K. Young [Audio Tape Recording]. Questions regarding Texas TDS, Montana Results, and Sustainability. Houston, M., V. Cassabaum, S. Matzick, T. Rapstine, S. Terry, and P. Uribe, and Mile-High 59 Regional Emergency Medical and Trauma Advisory Council. (2010). Teen Traffic Safety Campaign: Competition is the Key. Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection, and Critical Care 68:3, 511–514. Shepherd, J. L., D. L. Lane, R. L. Tapscott, and D. A. Gentile. (2011). Susceptible to Social Influence: Risky Driving in Response to Peer Pressure. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 41:4, 773–797. Texans Standing Tall. (2013) Zero Alcohol for Youth Campaign. Retrieved from Texas Transportation Institute. (2011). About TDS. Retrieved May 2011 from West, W. (2013). Welcome to W-WEST. Retrieved from http:// http://

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