Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1
**Maths for Programming Contests**

2
**Basics Number Represenation in varius bases Basic operations**

Divisibility Reading long long long numbers Basic math functions like factorial

3
**GCD of Two Numbers If b|a then gcd(a,b) = b**

Otherwise a = bt+r for some t and r gcd(a,b) = gcd(b,r) gcd(a,b) = gcd(b,a%b) Lcm(a,b) = (a*b)/gcd(a,b) int gcd(int a, int b){ if (b==0) return a; else return gcd(b,a%b); }

4
**Prime Numbers Definition Checking if a number is prime**

Generating all prime factors of a number Generating all prime numbers less than a given number (Sieve of Eratosthenes)

5
**Modular Arithmetic (x+y) mod n = ((x mod n) + (y mod n))mod n**

(xy) mod n=((xy/2)mod n) ((xy/2)mod n)mod n a simple recursive function to compute the value in O(log n) time.

6
**Modular Exponentiation**

Another way to compute it in O(log n) time Y = a0 + a1*2 + a2*22+…+ak*2k X(a+b) = Xa*Xb Xab = (Xa)b XY = Xa0 + (X2)a1 + (X2^2)a2 +….+(X2^k)ak int exp(int x,int y,int mod){ int result=1; while(y){ if((y & 1) == 1){ result = (result*x)%mod; } y = y >> 1; x = (x*x)%mod; return result;

7
**Modular Multiplication**

int mulmod(int a,int b,int MOD){ int result = 0,tmp=a,x=b; while(x){ if(x&1){ result += tmp; if(result >=MOD) result -= MOD; } tmp += tmp; if(tmp >= MOD) tmp -= MOD; x = x>>1; return result;

8
**Euler’s totient function**

Φ(n) – Number of positive integers less than or equal to n which are coprime to n Φ(ab) = φ(a) φ(b) For a prime p φ(p) = p-1 For a prime p φ(pk) = pk-pk-1 = pk(1-1/p) N = (p1k1)*(p2k2)*…*(pnkn) Φ(N) = (p1k1(1-1/p1) )*…*(pnkn(1-1/pn)) Φ(N) = N(1-1/p1)(1-1/p2)…..(1-1/pn)

9
**Sieve technique for Euler’s function**

void prefill(){ int i,j; phi[1] = 0; for(i=2;i<=MAX;i++){ phi[i] = i; } if(phi[i] == i){ for(j=i;j<=MAX;j+=i){ phi[j] = (phi[j]/i)*(i-1);

10
**Euler’s Theorem When a and n are co-prime**

if x ≡ y (mod φ(n)), then ax ≡ ay (mod n). aφ(n) ≡ 1 (mod n) (actual theorem the above is a generalization) Euler’s Theorem is a genaralization for Fermat's little theorem

11
**Counting Product Rule Sum Rule Principle of inclusion and exclusion**

Closed form expression Recurrence Relations Use of DP to compute the values using the above recurren relations

12
**Additional things to look up**

Extended Euclidean algorithm for GCD Chinese Remaindering theorem Mobius Function and its computation using seive

13
**Practice http://www.spoj.pl/problems/AU12/**

Similar presentations

OK

Chapter 8 Introduction to Number Theory. Prime Numbers prime numbers only have divisors of 1 and self –they cannot be written as a product of other numbers.

Chapter 8 Introduction to Number Theory. Prime Numbers prime numbers only have divisors of 1 and self –they cannot be written as a product of other numbers.

© 2018 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google