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Lecture 6 The Phenomenon of Stress Metical Principles and Parameters.

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1 Lecture 6 The Phenomenon of Stress Metical Principles and Parameters

2 Syllable Prominence Some words can be pronounced in one of two ways: Some words can be pronounced in one of two ways: NounsVerbs INcreaseinCREASe CONtestconTEST CONtrastconTRAST IMplantimPLANT Grammatical difference goes hand in hand with a difference in location of the words highest prominence. Grammatical difference goes hand in hand with a difference in location of the words highest prominence. The prominence in question is what we call STRESS. The prominence in question is what we call STRESS. Thus, one of the syllables of each English word is singled out as the stress carrier. Thus, one of the syllables of each English word is singled out as the stress carrier.

3 Word Prominence One of two words in a sequence is more prominent than the other: One of two words in a sequence is more prominent than the other: time FLIESTIME-flies A hierarchical structure is superimposed on syllables and words. A hierarchical structure is superimposed on syllables and words. This is functionally analogous to the prosodic structure that gathers segments into syllables. This is functionally analogous to the prosodic structure that gathers segments into syllables.

4 Metrical Grids The metical grid is the formal notation for the representation of the prosodic structure and consequently for stress: The metical grid is the formal notation for the representation of the prosodic structure and consequently for stress: a. *b. *Stress line * * * *Baseline * * * *Baseline (to) implant(an) implant **Stress line **Stress line * ***Baseline time fliestime-flies

5 Baseline In the baseline, all and only the segments that qualify to bear stress are marked with an asterisk. In the baseline, all and only the segments that qualify to bear stress are marked with an asterisk. Those are normally the syllable heads. Those are normally the syllable heads. The syllable head constitutes the core of the syllable; it is its sonority peak. The syllable head constitutes the core of the syllable; it is its sonority peak.

6 Stress line In contrast to the stress potential formalized by the baseline, the stress line signals the actual presence of stress on an element. In contrast to the stress potential formalized by the baseline, the stress line signals the actual presence of stress on an element. Stress can be interpreted as the projection of certain syllable heads onto a higher structural level. Stress can be interpreted as the projection of certain syllable heads onto a higher structural level.

7 Stress Movement In English double names, the second name is more prominent: In English double names, the second name is more prominent: *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 * *Baseline * *Baseline Sue Ann When a surname follows, main stress falls on the right- most item. However, of the preceding two, the first is now more prominent: When a surname follows, main stress falls on the right- most item. However, of the preceding two, the first is now more prominent: *Stress line 2 *Stress line 2 * *Stress line 1 * *Stress line 1 ** *Baseline ** *Baseline Sue Ann Cook Why? Why?

8 Clash What would the grid structure look like if Ann, rather than Sue, had a line 1 mark? What would the grid structure look like if Ann, rather than Sue, had a line 1 mark? *Stress line 2 *Stress line 2 * *Stress line 1 * *Stress line 1 * * *Baseline * * *Baseline Sue Ann Cook This grid contains a stress clash. There are two adjacent asterisks on stress line 1 that are not separated by an asterisk in the immediately lower level. This grid contains a stress clash. There are two adjacent asterisks on stress line 1 that are not separated by an asterisk in the immediately lower level.

9 The Rhythm Rule English, among other languages, strongly resists clash. English, among other languages, strongly resists clash. A stress clash is usually resolved by movement: A stress clash is usually resolved by movement: *Stress line 2 *Stress line 2 * *Stress line 1 * *Stress line 1 * * *Baseline * * *Baseline Sue Ann Cook Stress movement of this kind is generally seen as a result of the Rhythm Rule: Stress movement of this kind is generally seen as a result of the Rhythm Rule: **** *** *** The left-most of the clashing asterisks moves back by one position.

10 Retraction Stress retraction is impelled by clash: Stress retraction is impelled by clash: *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 * *Baseline antique * *Stress line 2 * *Stress line 2 * ** *Stress line 1 * ** *Stress line 1 * * ** * *Baseline antique chair antique chair

11 Retraction Failures Phrases like antique chair, with stress retraction, strikingly contrast with compounds like antique dealer, with no retraction in spite of the clash: Phrases like antique chair, with stress retraction, strikingly contrast with compounds like antique dealer, with no retraction in spite of the clash: *Stress line 2 *Stress line 2 * *Stress line 1 * *Stress line 1 * * * *Baseline antique dealer Why? Why?

12 Gap Notice what will happen if antique underwent stress retraction in the compound antique dealer: Notice what will happen if antique underwent stress retraction in the compound antique dealer: * * Stress line 2 * * Stress line 2 * ** * Stress line 1 * ** * Stress line 1 * * * ** * * * Baseline antique dealer antique dealer The retraction created a gap in the asterisk column on ti. The retraction created a gap in the asterisk column on ti.

13 Continuous Column Constraint Metrical grid columns must be continuous; they cannot have gaps. Metrical grid columns must be continuous; they cannot have gaps. This requirement is formulated in the universal Continuous Column Constraint: This requirement is formulated in the universal Continuous Column Constraint: Continuous Column Constraint Metrical grid columns must be continuous. This justifies the retraction failure in antique dealer. This justifies the retraction failure in antique dealer.

14 Retraction Failures Stress clash also persists in constructions like sports contest: Stress clash also persists in constructions like sports contest: *Stress line 2 *Stress line 2 * *Stress line 1 * *Stress line 1 * * *Baseline * * *Baseline sports contest Why? Why?

15 Movement Stress movement could be carried out in contest without contravening the Continuous Column Constraint: Stress movement could be carried out in contest without contravening the Continuous Column Constraint: *Stress line 2 *Stress line 2 * *Stress line 1 * *Stress line 1 * * *Baseline * * *Baseline sports contest The output of this operation is, however, illegitimate in English, where the Rhythm Rule only implements leftward movement. The output of this operation is, however, illegitimate in English, where the Rhythm Rule only implements leftward movement.

16 Evidence for Stress /t/ weakening Consider the following forms: Consider the following forms: (a)(b)(c) cuttingmasteryattain waitingafterretort [ ]/[ ][ ][ ] Two conditions for /t/ weakening: Two conditions for /t/ weakening: -intervocalic -a stressless following vowel t or / [-consonantal] _____ [- consonantal] t or / [-consonantal] _____ [- consonantal] condition: the second [-consonantal] does not support a gird column

17 Evidence for Stress Aspiration Consider the following forms: the voiceless stops in A and B are aspirated, but they are not in C and D: Consider the following forms: the voiceless stops in A and B are aspirated, but they are not in C and D: ABCD toneappendstonetomato kinentailskincanoe English voiceless stops are aspirated when initial in a stressed syllable. English voiceless stops are aspirated when initial in a stressed syllable.

18 So There is a hierarchy of prominence among syllables in words and among words in compounds and phrases. There is a hierarchy of prominence among syllables in words and among words in compounds and phrases. This prominence hierarchy is grounded in rhythm. This prominence hierarchy is grounded in rhythm. The drive to preserve rhythm can induce stress movement. The drive to preserve rhythm can induce stress movement.

19 Stress on the Edge We saw that in English phrasal collocations main stress falls on the right, whereas in binary compounds the greatest prominence tends to be on the left. We saw that in English phrasal collocations main stress falls on the right, whereas in binary compounds the greatest prominence tends to be on the left. This cross-linguistic tendency is formalized as follows: This cross-linguistic tendency is formalized as follows: END STRESS Project the right-most/left-most asterisk

20 Phrasal Collocations Phrasal stress can be assigned by applying End Stress in its right-most setting: Phrasal stress can be assigned by applying End Stress in its right-most setting: *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 * ** *Baseline time flies time flies End Stress [Right] The last baseline asterisk projects onto the newly created line 1. The last baseline asterisk projects onto the newly created line 1. The resulting grid appropriately expresses the fact that flies has greater prominence than time. The resulting grid appropriately expresses the fact that flies has greater prominence than time.

21 Compounds Applying the same procedure to the compound time-flies produces an identical output. Applying the same procedure to the compound time-flies produces an identical output. Such an output is unattested, however, since we know that the first word is more prominent in compounds. Such an output is unattested, however, since we know that the first word is more prominent in compounds. We need to introduce some change in the procedure. We need to introduce some change in the procedure.

22 Multiple Settings? One possible way to get the correct stress in compounds would simply be to switch the setting of End Stress: One possible way to get the correct stress in compounds would simply be to switch the setting of End Stress: *Stress line 1 * ** *Baseline time-flies time-flies End Stress [Left] This procedure is rejected on the grounds that it requires multiple settings for the same parameter in a single language. This procedure is rejected on the grounds that it requires multiple settings for the same parameter in a single language.

23 Extrametricality An alternative procedure, consistent with the right-most setting of End Stress involves concealing the right-most asterisk. An alternative procedure, consistent with the right-most setting of End Stress involves concealing the right-most asterisk. The device known as Extrametricality excludes the element it acts upon from the computations in the metrical grid: The device known as Extrametricality excludes the element it acts upon from the computations in the metrical grid:Extrametricality: Mark the right-most/left-most asterisk extrametrical. (* )

24 Peripherality Extrametrical behaviour has been found to be associated with peripheral elements. Extrametrical behaviour has been found to be associated with peripheral elements. This is formalized as follows: This is formalized as follows: Peripherality Condition Only peripheral elements can be extrametrical.

25 Compounds and Extrametricality So far, extrametricality is only relevant to compound structures: So far, extrametricality is only relevant to compound structures: * ** Baseline time-flies time-flies Extrametricality The output includes only one baseline asterisk: The output includes only one baseline asterisk: *Stress line 1 * * Baseline time-flies time-flies End Stress [Right] The action of End Stress [Right] places the main stress in the correct position. The action of End Stress [Right] places the main stress in the correct position.

26 Ordering The last baseline asterisk in compounds is a potential target for both: The last baseline asterisk in compounds is a potential target for both: -End Stress [Right] and -Extrametricality [Right] Unless Extrametricality applies first, a formally ambiguous output is created: Unless Extrametricality applies first, a formally ambiguous output is created: * *Stress line 1 * *Stress line 1 * * * * * Baseline * * * * * Baseline time-flies time-flies time-flies End Stress [Right]Extrametricality End Stress [Right]Extrametricality Therefore, the interaction between the two procedures needs to be regulated. Therefore, the interaction between the two procedures needs to be regulated.

27 Extrinsic Ordering We could simply stipulate that Extrametricality applies before End Stress. We could simply stipulate that Extrametricality applies before End Stress. However, this is an example of the disfavoured Extrinsic Ordering, in which the order of rules is stipulated by the analyst instead of being derived from universal principles. However, this is an example of the disfavoured Extrinsic Ordering, in which the order of rules is stipulated by the analyst instead of being derived from universal principles.

28 Restricted Environment The two rules function as follows: The two rules function as follows: End StressExtrametricality Inputright-most asterisk right-most asterisk Effectprojectmark extrametrical Environmentno contextcompounds The environment of Extrametricality is more restricted than that of End Stress. The environment of Extrametricality is more restricted than that of End Stress.

29 Elsewhere Condition The Elsewhere Condition, which is active throughout phonology, regulates the application of the two rules: The Elsewhere Condition, which is active throughout phonology, regulates the application of the two rules: Elsewhere Condition Given two rules such that: (i)their inputs are identical (ii)their outputs are incompatible (iii)the environment of one rule is the same as the environment of the other rule plus something extra then, the rule with the richer environment is ordered first, and, if it does apply, the other rule is skipped. As a consequence of the Elsewhere Condition, Extrametricality applies before End Stress. As a consequence of the Elsewhere Condition, Extrametricality applies before End Stress.

30 English Nouns Consider the following two groups of forms: Consider the following two groups of forms: cínemaaspáragus élephantmetamórphosis cústomerhippopótamus English noun stress is antepenultimate. English noun stress is antepenultimate.

31 Metrical Procedures Can we achieve this antepenultimate stress using the metrical procedures available at present? Can we achieve this antepenultimate stress using the metrical procedures available at present? *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * Baseline * * * * * * * * * * * * * Baseline hippopotamus hippopotamus hippopotamus The output *hippopotámus does not match the correct pattern. The output *hippopotámus does not match the correct pattern.

32 Rhythm English is one of those languages that favour stress in alternate syllables: English is one of those languages that favour stress in alternate syllables: lá la lá la lá la(S - W) Other languages may achieve this alternating rhythm differently: Other languages may achieve this alternating rhythm differently: la lá la lá la lá(W - S) Languages with alternating stress employ one of these two opposite metrical patterns. Languages with alternating stress employ one of these two opposite metrical patterns.

33 The Metrical Foot The pairing of (S - W) or (W - S) syllables is formally called a FOOT. The pairing of (S - W) or (W - S) syllables is formally called a FOOT. Binarity can be a property of metrical feet, where each is made up of precisely two elements (syllables). Binarity can be a property of metrical feet, where each is made up of precisely two elements (syllables). The strong element in the foot is the Head. The strong element in the foot is the Head. So, our metrical machinery is augmented with: So, our metrical machinery is augmented with: *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 -left-headed foot = (S W)(* *)Baseline *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 -right-headed foot = (W S)(* *)Baseline The location of the foot head is indicated by means of an asterisk in line 1. The location of the foot head is indicated by means of an asterisk in line 1.

34 Main Word Stress in English English noun stress algorithm: English noun stress algorithm: a.Mark the last element extrametrical b.Build a left-headed foot at the right edge *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 * * * * ** * * (* *) Baseline asparagus asparagus asparagus (a) (b) (a) (b) As a result of these two steps, main stress is correctly assigned to the syllable pa. As a result of these two steps, main stress is correctly assigned to the syllable pa.

35 Verbs and Adjectives The English noun stress algorithm works well for both nouns and suffixed adjectives (médicine - medícinal). The English noun stress algorithm works well for both nouns and suffixed adjectives (médicine - medícinal). However, it does not yield the correct stress pattern for verbs and unsuffixed adjectives (devélop - implícit): However, it does not yield the correct stress pattern for verbs and unsuffixed adjectives (devélop - implícit): *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 * * * * * (* *) Baseline implicit implicit implicit (a) (b) (a) (b) The output *ímplicit does not match the correct pattern. The output *ímplicit does not match the correct pattern.

36 Restricting Extrametricality To get the correct stress pattern for verbs and unsuffixed adjectives, extrametricality should be suppressed: To get the correct stress pattern for verbs and unsuffixed adjectives, extrametricality should be suppressed: *Stress line 1 *Stress line 1 * * ** (* *)Baseline implicit implicit Footing Restricting extrametricality to nouns justifies the difference of stress patterns in English verbs and nouns. Restricting extrametricality to nouns justifies the difference of stress patterns in English verbs and nouns.

37 Unreduced Vowels The procedure developed so far yields one (left- headed) foot per word. The procedure developed so far yields one (left- headed) foot per word. This could be interpreted as one stressed syllable per word. This could be interpreted as one stressed syllable per word. We know that unstressed short vowels in English undergo reduction. We know that unstressed short vowels in English undergo reduction. However, there are some words with more than one unreduced vowel (hippopotamus). However, there are some words with more than one unreduced vowel (hippopotamus). The fact that short vowels surface unreduced suggests that they are stressed. The fact that short vowels surface unreduced suggests that they are stressed.

38 Rhythm and Multiple Stress The unreduced vowels are located at equal intervals to the left of the vowel stressed by the algorithm: The unreduced vowels are located at equal intervals to the left of the vowel stressed by the algorithm: hamamelidánthemum The basic rhythm of English involves an alternation of strong and weak elements throughout the word, not just at the right edge. The basic rhythm of English involves an alternation of strong and weak elements throughout the word, not just at the right edge. This means that foot construction must sweep across the whole word. This means that foot construction must sweep across the whole word.

39 Multiple Foot Construction * * * * * * baseline * * * * * * baseline h a m a m e l i d a n t h e m u m footing * Stress line 1 * Stress line 1 * * * * (* *) baseline * * * * (* *) baseline h a m a m e l i d a n t h e m u m footing * * Stress line 1 * * Stress line 1 * * (* *) (* *) baseline * * (* *) (* *) baseline h a m a m e l i d a n t h e m u m footing * * * Stress line 1 * * * Stress line 1 (* *) (* *)(* *) baseline (* *) (* *)(* *) baseline h a m a m e l i d a n t h e m u m

40 Secondary Stresses Foot construction iterates from right-to-left. Foot construction iterates from right-to-left. As a result, a number of syllables end up supporting foot heads. As a result, a number of syllables end up supporting foot heads. Therefore, their vowels do not reduce. Therefore, their vowels do not reduce. These additional peaks of prominence are referred to as Secondary Stresses. These additional peaks of prominence are referred to as Secondary Stresses. Hence, the foot construction rule is modified as follows: Hence, the foot construction rule is modified as follows: b.Build left-headed feet iteratively from right to left (The direction of footing needs to be stipulated language by language.)

41 Word Headedness We have a number of left-headed feet in (hama)(meli)(danthe). We have a number of left-headed feet in (hama)(meli)(danthe). We know intuitively that stress on dan is the strongest. We know intuitively that stress on dan is the strongest. But, there is no structural difference between this syllable and the two other foot heads: ha and me. But, there is no structural difference between this syllable and the two other foot heads: ha and me.

42 Word Headedness To make up for this shortfall, we submit the final footing output to End Stress [Right]: To make up for this shortfall, we submit the final footing output to End Stress [Right]: *Stress line 2 *Stress line 2 * * * Stress line 1 * * * Stress line 1 (* *) (* *)(* *) Baseline (* *) (* *)(* *) Baseline h a m a m e l i d a n t h e m u m The head of the metrical word shows up as the words main stress, and the heads of the remaining feet as secondary stresses. The head of the metrical word shows up as the words main stress, and the heads of the remaining feet as secondary stresses.

43 Summing up A limited set of universal principles and parameters can account for the apparently varied and unpredictable stress patterns of English. A limited set of universal principles and parameters can account for the apparently varied and unpredictable stress patterns of English. Marking an element extrametrical accounts for contrasting stress patterns, while maintaining a single setting for the End Stress rule. Marking an element extrametrical accounts for contrasting stress patterns, while maintaining a single setting for the End Stress rule. Extrametricality is controlled by the Peripherality Condition. Extrametricality is controlled by the Peripherality Condition. Introducing the Foot as a level of analysis allows for assigning correct stress patterns in words made up of more than two syllables. Introducing the Foot as a level of analysis allows for assigning correct stress patterns in words made up of more than two syllables. Metrical feet are further substantiated by the alternating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables. Metrical feet are further substantiated by the alternating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables. The inventory of metrical parameters includes: The inventory of metrical parameters includes: - the location of the foots head, - the direction of foot construction, - the presence and edge setting of extrametricality, and - the edge setting of End Stress.

44 Next Week Chapters 13 and 14 Assignment: Key Questions (pages 379 and 406)


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