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Who was the strongest contender for the leadership of the Party?

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Presentation on theme: "Who was the strongest contender for the leadership of the Party?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Who was the strongest contender for the leadership of the Party?

2 starter activity One murder is a tragedy, a million is a statistic. What does this quote tell us about Stalins personality?

3 Your task Your task Look at the list on p.135 and choose 6 that would have been advantageous to becoming a leader of the USSR in Be prepared to explain your reasons. Look at the list on p.135 and choose 6 that would have been advantageous to becoming a leader of the USSR in Be prepared to explain your reasons.

4 Your task Your task Study the information about Stalin on p.136 and construct a scales chart highlighting the successes and failures in his career or his character. Study the information about Stalin on p.136 and construct a scales chart highlighting the successes and failures in his career or his character.

5 Plenary Plenary On balance do you think Stalins weaknesses were outweighed by his strengths? Write a short judgement paragraph supporting your answer. On balance do you think Stalins weaknesses were outweighed by his strengths? Write a short judgement paragraph supporting your answer.

6 Your task Your task Your teacher will assign you a contender for the party leadership. You will become an expert on the strengths and weaknesses of different contenders for the party leadership. Research your own leader from the list below and then complete a table your teacher gives you. Your teacher will assign you a contender for the party leadership. You will become an expert on the strengths and weaknesses of different contenders for the party leadership. Research your own leader from the list below and then complete a table your teacher gives you. Stalin Stalin Trotsky Trotsky Zinoviev Zinoviev Kamenev Kamenev Bukharin Bukharin Rykov Rykov Tomsky Tomsky

7 Stalin - strengths Genuine working-class background (mother a seamstress & washerwoman/ father a cobbler) Genuine working-class background (mother a seamstress & washerwoman/ father a cobbler) Hardworking – won a place at seminary Hardworking – won a place at seminary Admired Lenins writings (as a youth) Admired Lenins writings (as a youth) Party activist Party activist Fundraiser (raiding banks) Fundraiser (raiding banks) Reputation for toughness (man of steel) Reputation for toughness (man of steel)

8 Editor of Pravda Editor of Pravda Opportunist – 1919, used roll as Head of Peasants Inspectorate to familiarise himself with workings of govt. Opportunist – 1919, used roll as Head of Peasants Inspectorate to familiarise himself with workings of govt. Careerist – rapid promotion to Orgburo, Politburo & General Sec. Careerist – rapid promotion to Orgburo, Politburo & General Sec. Stalin - strengths

9 Stalin - weaknesses October Revolution – played little part October Revolution – played little part Antagonised leading Communists, e.g. Sverdlov & Trotsky Antagonised leading Communists, e.g. Sverdlov & Trotsky Reputation for industrious mediocrity, a grey blur which flickered obscurely but left no trace (Sukhanov, 1917, died 1940 in a gulag) Reputation for industrious mediocrity, a grey blur which flickered obscurely but left no trace (Sukhanov, 1917, died 1940 in a gulag)

10 Trotsky - strengths Rivalled Lenin in intellect & charisma Great orator Popular with youth & committed Communists Superb organiser (October Revolution, Civil War) Commissar for War – strong military support

11 Trotsky - weaknesses Personal weaknesses - arrogant & aloof Personal weaknesses - arrogant & aloof Lacked political skills – didnt foster support among fellow Communist leaders Lacked political skills – didnt foster support among fellow Communist leaders Radical & potentially divisive views Radical & potentially divisive views Poor public perception – seen as outsider & lacking party loyalty Poor public perception – seen as outsider & lacking party loyalty Ill health (possibly malaria) – absent for key meetings & events (Lenins funeral) Ill health (possibly malaria) – absent for key meetings & events (Lenins funeral)

12 Zinoviev - strengths Longstanding Bolshevik – active since 1903 Longstanding Bolshevik – active since 1903 Close to Lenin – arrived in Petrograd with Lenin, April 1917 Close to Lenin – arrived in Petrograd with Lenin, April 1917 Party Sec. in St Petersburg – able to build powerbase Party Sec. in St Petersburg – able to build powerbase Chairman of Comintern Chairman of Comintern Member of Politburo Member of Politburo Good orator Good orator

13 Zinoviev - weaknesses Opposed armed uprising in Oct Opposed armed uprising in Oct Disagreed with Lenin about formation of new govt. – exclusion of other socialists Disagreed with Lenin about formation of new govt. – exclusion of other socialists Lacked popular appeal – E.H.Carr, weak, vain & ambitious Lacked popular appeal – E.H.Carr, weak, vain & ambitious Not an intellectual Not an intellectual

14 Kamenev - strengths Active member of Bolshevik Party since 1905 Worked closely with Lenin from Major contributor to party doctrine Party Sec. in Moscow Commissar for Foreign Trade Member of Politburo Moderate E.H.Carr, Intellectually superior to Stalin & Zinoviev

15 Kamenev - weaknesses Opposed Lenins April Theses Opposed Lenins April Theses Opposed armed uprising of October 1917 Opposed armed uprising of October 1917 Wanted socialist coalition govt. Wanted socialist coalition govt. E. H. Carr, lacked vision E. H. Carr, lacked vision

16 Bukharin - strengths Appealed to youth Appealed to youth Major figure in party before 1917 Major figure in party before 1917 Close to Lenin – called him the golden boy of the Bolshevik Party, the favourite of the whole Party Close to Lenin – called him the golden boy of the Bolshevik Party, the favourite of the whole Party Contributor to Pravda Contributor to Pravda Member of Politburo Member of Politburo Intellectual & epicurean Intellectual & epicurean

17 Bukharin - weaknesses Led opposition to Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Led opposition to Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Criticised Lenin & Trotsky over trade union debate Criticised Lenin & Trotsky over trade union debate Lacked political skills Lacked political skills

18 Rykov - strengths Working class background Chairman of Vesenkha Chairman of Sovnakom Strong speaker Supporter of NEP & opponent of War Communism

19 Rykov - weaknesses Personal weaknesses – alcoholic Personal weaknesses – alcoholic Too outspoken Too outspoken Lacked political acumen Lacked political acumen

20 Tomsky - strengths Important figure in trade union movement – active member of metalworkers union Important figure in trade union movement – active member of metalworkers union Chairman of Central Council of Trade Unions Chairman of Central Council of Trade Unions Working-class background Working-class background

21 Tomsky - weaknesses Lacked senior position within party Lacked senior position within party Opposed Lenin over trade union debate (1920) Opposed Lenin over trade union debate (1920)

22 Your task Your task Ignore what you might know about who succeeded Lenin after his death. In 1924 who was the most likely candidate. Write a judgement paragraph, using detailed factual evidence to support your answer.

23 Read the soundbites by the leadership contenders and decide who is speaking. starter activity Soundbites

24 What were the main issues in the leadership struggle?

25 Your task Your task Read p Summarise the key issues surrounding the leadership contest. Use the following headings to help structure your notes: Read p Summarise the key issues surrounding the leadership contest. Use the following headings to help structure your notes: Nature of leadership Nature of leadership NEP and industrialisation NEP and industrialisation Permanent Revolution versus Socialism in One Country Permanent Revolution versus Socialism in One Country

26 Nature of leadership Collective leadership or rule by committee Collective leadership or rule by committee Reversal of centralisation process of Civil War Reversal of centralisation process of Civil War Fear of dictatorship Fear of dictatorship Fear of Trotsky (Commander of Red Army, Commissar for War) Fear of Trotsky (Commander of Red Army, Commissar for War) Need for a moderate candidate Need for a moderate candidate To what extent were Russians justified in thinking there might be a dictatorship?

27 NEP and industrialisation Consensus on need to industrialise Consensus on need to industrialise Concern over negative effects of NEP – rich superclass, property dealing, land speculation, gambling, prostitution Concern over negative effects of NEP – rich superclass, property dealing, land speculation, gambling, prostitution Arguments over next stage of NEP Arguments over next stage of NEP High unemployment High unemployment Wages out of step with price increases Wages out of step with price increases Re-emergence of food shortages Re-emergence of food shortages Peasants beginning to hoard produce again Peasants beginning to hoard produce again

28 What do we mean by left and right-wing politics? How would this apply to the Communist Party? Who would be on the left and who would be on the right?

29 NEP and industrialisation Disagreement over when & how to end NEP experiment Disagreement over when & how to end NEP experiment Trotsky, Zinoviev & Kamenev (left): end NEP, militarisation of labour, forced requistioning of grain Trotsky, Zinoviev & Kamenev (left): end NEP, militarisation of labour, forced requistioning of grain Bukharin, Rykov & Tomsky (right): continue NEP, develop consumer economy to encourage manufacturing industry Bukharin, Rykov & Tomsky (right): continue NEP, develop consumer economy to encourage manufacturing industry

30 Permanent Revolution versus Socialism in One Country Permanent Revolution Permanent Revolution Hard-line Communism – militarisation of labour, collective farming etc Hard-line Communism – militarisation of labour, collective farming etc Trotsky Trotsky Needed international support -world Communist revolution required Needed international support -world Communist revolution required Socialism in one country Moderate Communism – flexible response to USSRs needs Stalin Nationalist appeal

31 Your task Your task In the light of your research into the key issues of the leadership contest, which of the candidates do you now think was most likely to succeed? Write a short judgement paragraph explaining your reasons using detailed, factual evidence.

32 Your task Your task Study chart 9C on p. 142 and list the ways Stalin built up his power base. Which was the most important?

33 Party Secretary Controlled business of Politburo (policy making body of Communist Party) Controlled business of Politburo (policy making body of Communist Party) Controlled agendas & discussions Controlled agendas & discussions Controlled information sent out to party members Controlled information sent out to party members Stalin with his wife Nadya

34 Positions in Orgburo & Secretariat Orgburo (Party administration department) Controlled appointments within Party Placed supporters in key positions Made appointments & dispensed favours to regional party secretaries

35 Control of Party Organisation Controlled selection of party delegates to annual congresses where policy decided and Central Committee chosen Controlled selection of party delegates to annual congresses where policy decided and Central Committee chosen Deliberately chose delegates hostile to opponents, e.g. Trotsky (1924 congress) Deliberately chose delegates hostile to opponents, e.g. Trotsky (1924 congress) Stalins position attracted powerful supporters, e.g. Zinoviev & Kamenev Stalins position attracted powerful supporters, e.g. Zinoviev & Kamenev

36 Control of Party Membership Purged party of radical elements, e.g. students & soldiers Supervised Lenin Enrolment (1924/5) doubling membership to 1 million New membership were non- ideological & poorly educated, drawn to Stalins nationalist policies

37 How did Stalin actually become leader?

38 Your task Your task Even today politics is defined by those who are on the right and those who are on the left. What do these terms mean for politicians today? What do you think they meant for politicians in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution? The House of Commons starter activity

39 Two wings of Communist Party Zinoviev Kamenev Bukharin

40 Two wings of Communist Party Left Wing Individuals like Zinoviev, Kamenev Individuals like Zinoviev, Kamenev Liked Trotsky but didnt want a dictatorship Liked Trotsky but didnt want a dictatorship Liked traditional Bolshevik ideals Liked traditional Bolshevik ideals Suspicious of NEP & return of capitalism Suspicious of NEP & return of capitalism Permanent Revolution Permanent Revolution Right Wing Individuals like Bukharin Liked NEP Liked industrialisation & expansion of Russian economy Socialism on one country

41 Your task Your task Create a timeline showing achievements and set backs. Mark on the timeline any points at which his career might have been stopped when Lenin was alive or during the power struggle. Successes Failures

42 Stalins six steps to power! 1. Before Lenins funeral Stalin tricks Trotsky into not coming. People think Trotsky cant be bothered to turn up. Stalin, meanwhile, makes a stirring speech praising Lenin and saying he was Lenins disciple. Why was it so important to be seen at Lenins funeral?

43 2. May 1924, just before 13 th Party Congress, Central Committee decided not to publish Lenins testament, as it contained criticisms of them as well as Stalin & may have overly favoured Trotsky What sorts of criticisms do you think Lenin might have made of Stalin?

44 3. In 1924, 13 th Party Congress, Zinoviev & Kamenev join forces with Stalin to defeat Trotsky. Stalin (party secretary) packs Congress with supporters. Trotsky lost the vote due to his support for ban on factions and soon his job as Commissar for the War. Why was Commissar for War such a powerful post within the Politburo?

45 , Zinoviev & Kamenev attack Trotsky on his support for Lenin. Trotsky publishes Lessons of October challenging their loyalty to 1917 Revolution. Stalin sits back & watches opponents destroy each other. Stalin played a very clever political game. Why didnt his rivals do the same?

46 , Stalin turns on Zinoviev & Kamenev, joining forces with Bukharin and the right of the party attracted by nationalist Socialism in One Country policy. Stalin supporters pack the Congress and Zinoviev and Kamenev lose vote of no confidence & their jobs in the Politburo. Trotsky, Kamenev & Zinoviev form United Opposition movement and in 1927 expelled from party. Stalin played a very clever political game. Why didnt his rivals do the same?

47 , Stalin attacks Bukharin and supporters of the NEP. Proposes rapid industrialisation & militarised labour (views of the left he has smashed!) Bukharin, Rykov & Tomsky out-voted, expelled from Politburo What were the main risks in expelling these men from the Communist Party?

48 By 1929, his 50 th birthday, Stalin was undisputed leader of the USSR. What do you think Stalins next steps would be in further securing his position?

49 What happened to Trotsky?

50

51 Discussion Discussion Do you think Trotsky was partly to blame for his own death?

52 Your task Your task Read the sources and identify reasons they provide as to why Stalin eventually became leader. Use the table below to guide you. Importance of control of party PoliciesStalins personal characteristi cs Weaknesses of opponents Luck

53 Your task Your task List the reasons why Stalin succeeded to the leadership of the party and the reasons why Trotsky failed. List the reasons why Stalin succeeded to the leadership of the party and the reasons why Trotsky failed. What evidence would you use to support these judgements? What evidence would you use to support these judgements? Write an essay entitled, Why did Stalin rather than Trotsky emerge as the leader of the USSR in Write an essay entitled, Why did Stalin rather than Trotsky emerge as the leader of the USSR in 1929.


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