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Intervention planning Using strategies and tactics.

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1 Intervention planning Using strategies and tactics

2 Strategies are long-terms plans of action designed to address a specific problem; tactics are short- term activities undertaken as part of a change-oriented strategy.

3 There are three primary types of strategies and tactics Collaboration. Developing a consensus among a variety of different groups. Campaign. Engaging in activities to bring opponents to the bargaining table. Contest or confrontation. Targeting opponents in order to produce social change.

4 Linking Intervention Models to Strategies and Tactics ModelCommunity Development Social ActionSocial PlanningTransformative Model Primary Strategy CollaborationContest/ Campaign Problem-solvingPopular education TacticsCapacity building Consensus Education Persuasion Empowerment Bargaining Negotiation Demonstrations Mild Coercion Mobilizing Lobbying Politics Fact gathering Data analysis Citizen participation Negotiation Developing a critical consciousness Transforming oneself Taking action to transform society Action System Residents Group Representatives Constituents Participants Constituents Govt. agencies Partner groups Members of oppressed groups Target System Same as target system Power elite Decision makers Communities Decision makers Oppressors

5 Choice of Strategies &Tactics (adopted from Brager, et al., 1987) GoalResponseMode of Intervention Mutual Adjustments or rearrangement of Resources ConsensusCollaboration Redistribution of resources DifferenceCampaigns Change in social, cultural, or economic, or political status & power DissensusContest or disruption; civil disobedience; Reconstruction of the entire system InsurrectionNonviolent, civil disobedience: Violence

6 The choice of strategies and tactics should Be made through dialogue between the organizer and constituents. Be culturally appropriate and incorporate culturally relevant terms, activities, and symbols. Be appropriate and relevant to the lives and experience of participants/beneficiaries. Be flexible in design incorporating different strategies as the situation demands.

7 Organizers should first choose strategies/tactics that require a low level of intensity and then if they dont work escalate the level of intensity of the tactics used. Low |____|____| High Collaboration Campaign Contest

8 Intervention plans include Goals (broad statements of what we want to achieve Objectives (time-limited, measurable statements about the steps we will take to achieve goals)/ Resources needed to carry out the plan Identification of action and target systems Identification of the model (s) of practice used. Identification of strategies and tactics Evaluation criteria (outcome and processes

9 Examples of objectives and evaluation criteria Close two crack houses. Evaluation criteria: the number of houses closed. Increase parental involvement in the local elementary school by 50%. Evaluation criteria: pre and post test measures of the number of parents attending parent student conferences.

10 Steps in the intervention plan design process Problem identification Establish a structure and process to include participants in intervention planning Recruit participants Complete a problem assessment Conduct background research on target system; complete an analysis of power resources associated with target and action systems. Develop goals. Assess ethical implications as well as the benefits and risks associated with each option. Develop objectives and evaluation criteria Write intervention plan Implement plan and make modifications as needed. Conduct an evaluation. If successful, celebrate; if unsuccessful, repeat previous steps after assessment to find out why you failed.

11 Importance of documentation and case notes Need to keep careful records of internet research, interview data, meetings, research data, and decisions made. You do not want to keep reinventing the wheel i.e. finding information or forgetting that decisions have already been made. Organizers engage in praxis – action and reflection to see if actions are appropriate or successful or if they need to be modified. Organizers need to have a way to evaluate their own practice and discuss issues with supervisors. Records of consultations with constituents should be reviewed at subsequent meetings so that decisions can be made and consensus developed. Analyses of decision-making processes are important for understanding how decisions are made, who will make them, the power held by decision-makers, and how decisions can be influenced. This is the community organization equivalent of process recordings. Minutes should be written up for all committee, board, and community meetings.

12 IMPORTANT!!! Do not trust any decision-making process in which notes or minutes are not taken Make sure that if you engage in negotiations with decision-makers that you write up your understanding of the meeting and share it with the decision-maker and with constituents. Make sure that all decision- makers agree with the write-up.

13 Questions for class discussion Can you identify some social movements and the cultural symbols associated with them? Identify disruptive tactics. When should they be used? Are civil disobedience and other disruptive tactics ethical? What types of strategies and tactics are appropriate for use by social workers? How would you resolve the Hitler dilemma?

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