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The Globe Theatre Other theatres of the era Rivalry of acting companies Acting in Shakespeares time Closing of theatres Questionable morality of theatre.

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Presentation on theme: "The Globe Theatre Other theatres of the era Rivalry of acting companies Acting in Shakespeares time Closing of theatres Questionable morality of theatre."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Globe Theatre Other theatres of the era Rivalry of acting companies Acting in Shakespeares time Closing of theatres Questionable morality of theatre world Origin of the Romeo and Juliet story Early productions of Romeo and Juliet Natural Order: class system Monarchy (succession) Formation of Church of England (Henry VIII) History of Catholicism in England Elizabeth I as patron of the arts Transition to James I Elizabeth vs. Mary King James Bible Significance of astrology in daily life Love/marriage in Shakespeares time Clothing Fencing

2 The English Renaissance An opulent renaissance of art and culture took place in England during the early 16 th and 17 th Centuries. An opulent renaissance of art and culture took place in England during the early 16 th and 17 th Centuries. –16 th Century=1500s –17 th Century=1600s Poetry, drama, philosophy, and science flourished during this period. Poetry, drama, philosophy, and science flourished during this period.

3 Elizabeth I Queen of England from 1558 to Queen of England from 1558 to The time of her reign is known as the Elizabethan Era. The time of her reign is known as the Elizabethan Era.

4 James I Succeeded Elizabeth I Succeeded Elizabeth I Reigned over England until Reigned over England until The time of his reign is known as the Jacobean Era. The time of his reign is known as the Jacobean Era.

5 William Shakespeare April 23, 1564 (?) - April 23, 1616

6 Early Life Born in Stratford, England Born in Stratford, England On the banks of the Avon River Son of a glove-maker Christening – April 26, 1564 Christening – April 26, 1564 Third of eight children Third of eight children Nov Married Anne Hathaway Nov Married Anne Hathaway –8 years older than he May 1583 – child Susanna baptized May 1583 – child Susanna baptized (you do the math) Living in London (1589) Living in London (1589)

7 Popular Entertainer Actor Actor Director Director Writer Writer Partner Partner Contemporaries recognized his genius Contemporaries recognized his genius Modern-day examples of people who act, direct, write, and own: Mel Brooks, Robert Redford, Tyler Perry, Kevin Smith… Modern-day examples of people who act, direct, write, and own: Mel Brooks, Robert Redford, Tyler Perry, Kevin Smith…

8 Business Man Acting, writing, directing paid the bills Acting, writing, directing paid the bills Real wealth – his share of the ticket receipts. Real wealth – his share of the ticket receipts. –Part owner of the acting company –Part owner of the theater (Globe) (think Houston Astros owner) - did send money home to his wife - bought one of the largest homes in Stratford for his family - bought respectability – coat-of-arms

9 Criticisms of Shakespeare Education was limited Education was limited - had church bells (not invented until medieval times in Rome) Didnt travel and see the world Didnt travel and see the world –Never visited Italy; mistakes in plays Knew little of foreign languages Knew little of foreign languages Commoner Commoner –Wrote of intimate details that would have been unknown to him

10 Popular Entertainment No cinema, no television, no football No cinema, no television, no football –Wealthy people hired musicians, actors, dancers and fencers –Everyone else had to find entertainment: In London, it was Theater Today: Go to a movie, then a bar or nightclub Then: Go to a play, then a tavern

11 Wrong Side of the River The lifestyles of the rich and famous The lifestyles of the rich and famous -Fun to watch and read about Theaters were disreputable Theaters were disreputable –Banned from London –Built outside city limits (across the Thames River) –Southwark (Red-light district) Prostitutes, charlatans, actors Prostitutes, charlatans, actors Women prohibited from acting: immoral Women prohibited from acting: immoral –Boys played female characters

12 The Globe First Globe burned in 1613 Second Globe torn down by Puritans in 1644 Circular outdoor theater – 100 feet across Wooden O Stage 50x25, jutted out into audience Groundlings – those who stood on the ground around the stage – paid the least Galleries – seats that formed the walls of the theater – extra fee Box seats – cost even more 3,000 attendees Most money spent on costumes, not setFirst Globe burned in 1613 Second Globe torn down by Puritans in 1644 Circular outdoor theater – 100 feet across Wooden O Stage 50x25, jutted out into audience Groundlings – those who stood on the ground around the stage – paid the least Galleries – seats that formed the walls of the theater – extra fee Box seats – cost even more 3,000 attendees Most money spent on costumes, not set

13 Understanding Shakespeare Understanding his world helps to understand his plays Understanding his world helps to understand his plays

14 Wills World Themes Themes Central themes are universal and unchanging –Lust, greed, ambition, jealousy, cowardice, loyalty, honor, love, pride, basic human emotions Attitudes about royalty and birthright today are different, however. Attitudes about royalty and birthright today are different, however.

15 Wills World Natural Order (theory) Natural Order (theory) –Kings were kings; peasants were peasants –Born into a class; married within your class; lived your life by your class –Might move up slightly if extremely successful –Social position a consequence of birth

16 Wills World Natural Order, continued Natural Order, continued In practice, change did occur, but large- scale changes invited disaster –Marriages were arranged –Marriages for politics, avoid war, not for love

17 Wills World Natural Order, continued Natural Order, continued –If you mess around with Natural Order, expect earthquakes, plagues, and storms (often an omen in plays) –Kings were to act as kings; servants as servants

18 Wills World Natural Order (continued) Natural Order (continued) –God –Angels –Mankind Kings Kings Princes Princes Gentry Gentry Merchant (middle) Merchant (middle) Peasants Peasants Slaves Slaves –Animals Kings received their right to rule from God; to oppose the king was to oppose God. Plays often centered around desire of dukes, earls, etc. not peasants (upset the natural order too much)

19 Wills World Titles of Nobility Titles of Nobility –King/Queen –Princes/Princesschildren of monarch –Duke/Duchess – next highest –Earl, Thane, Count/Countess – ruled a county –Baron/Baroness - Lord or Lady –Knight – lowest member of aristocracy

20 Wills World Nature versus nurture Nature versus nurture –Some behavior was inborn Birth fixed your social status and your character traits Birth fixed your social status and your character traits Bastards Bastards –People of noble birth acted nobly –People born illegitimately acted illegitimately.

21 Religion Religion –In the U.S., separation of church and state –Back then, the two were not easily separated integral role as background in Wills plays integral role as background in Wills plays –Shakespeare was born in a newly protestant country that was rooted in Catholicism –Shakespeare buried in a church, rare for actor Wills World

22 Body and Mind Body and Mind –Medicine was simplistic; believed in humors: –Black bile; phlegm; blood, yellow bile Good health required a balance of the four Good health required a balance of the four Imbalance of the four dictated ones personality Imbalance of the four dictated ones personality –Melancholic, phlegmatic (lethargic), sanguine (Jovial), or choleric (angry). Hes in a bad humor. Astrology was a part of everyday life Astrology was a part of everyday life – People believed the stars controlled their lives.

23 Wills World Racial Prejudice Racial Prejudice –Not politically correct –Jews, blacks, anyone else who did not fit the English mold faced discrimination –Shakespeare grew up in this environment –Plays reflect the society

24 Shakespeares Play Structure Five Acts Five Acts –First act: introduces the characters and sets up the story –Second act: expands the story –Third act: pivotal act. –Fourth act: action unfolds; plans collide –Fifth Act: brings all the pieces together; heroes learn their lesson

25 Shakespeares Language

26 English Old English Old English –Anglo/Saxon; German influence –Beowulf

27 Old English 5 th – 11 th Centuries Hwät! we Gâr-Dena in geâr-dagum þeód-cyninga þrym gefrunon, hû þâ äðelingas ellen fremedon. Oft Scyld Scêfing sceaðena þreátum. Hwät! we Gâr-Dena in geâr-dagum þeód-cyninga þrym gefrunon, hû þâ äðelingas ellen fremedon. Oft Scyld Scêfing sceaðena þreátum. From Beowulf From Beowulf

28 Old English 5 th – 11 th Centuries Lo! the Spear-Danes' glory through splendid achievements. The folk-kings' former fame we have heard of, How princes displayed then their prowess- in-battle. Oft Scyld the Scefing from scathers in numbers Lo! the Spear-Danes' glory through splendid achievements. The folk-kings' former fame we have heard of, How princes displayed then their prowess- in-battle. Oft Scyld the Scefing from scathers in numbers

29 Middle English Middle English Middle English –French influence –William the Conqueror/Battle of Hastings in 1066 –The Canterbury Tales

30 Middle English 11 th – 15 th Centuries Ye seken lond and see for your wynnynges, As wise folk ye knowen all th'estaat Of regnes; ye been fadres of tydynges And tales, bothe of pees and of debaat. Ye seken lond and see for your wynnynges, As wise folk ye knowen all th'estaat Of regnes; ye been fadres of tydynges And tales, bothe of pees and of debaat. (The Man of Law's Tale) (The Man of Law's Tale)

31 Middle English 11 th – 15 th Centuries You seek land and sea for your winnings, As wise folk you know all the estate Of kingdoms; you be fathers of tidings, And tales, both of peace and of debate. You seek land and sea for your winnings, As wise folk you know all the estate Of kingdoms; you be fathers of tidings, And tales, both of peace and of debate.

32 Early Modern English Modern English Modern English –Shakespeares English is considered Modern but it is still older than todays version –King James version of the Bible

33 Languages Change Languages change over time Languages change over time –Word order can be different Only his gift is in devising impossible slanders Only his gift is in devising impossible slanders His only gift is in devising impossible slanders –Words come in/out of use thou; ye; thine –Word meaning changes

34 Formal vs. Familiar Three different ways to say you Three different ways to say you –You –Thou –Ye How these words are used tells us about the character and relationship

35 Formal vs. Familiar Thou – informal, used among friends, to address children or servants, God Thou – informal, used among friends, to address children or servants, God –(think Bible: written for the commoner) –Thou/thee Dost thou knoweth who speaketh to thee? Dost thou knoweth who speaketh to thee? Do you know who speaks to you? Do you know who speaks to you? You – formal, to address a stranger, or someone of higher station You – formal, to address a stranger, or someone of higher station Ye – plural form (you all; yall) Ye – plural form (you all; yall)

36 Formal vs. Familiar Thy & thine are possessives of thou Thy & thine are possessives of thou –Thy before consonants: Thy book –Thine before vowels: Thine apple Lovers and friends use thou Lovers and friends use thou Thee : used in the objective case Thee : used in the objective case –I gave the book to thee.

37 Verbs Thou art: you are Thou art: you are Thou hast: you have Thou hast: you have –With thou you add a t, st,or est to the verb –Thou shalt, thou canst, thou dost, thou knowest, thou wilt Shakespeare mixes his verbs: Shakespeare mixes his verbs: –Ist/is; hath/has Sometime you have to add eth: knoweth Sometime you have to add eth: knoweth

38 Contractions Istis it Istis it tit tit tisit is tisit is oerover oerover eerever eerever neernever neernever Alterdalteredread the same Alterdalteredread the same

39 Common Words A: he A: he An, and: if An, and: if Anon: soon Anon: soon Brave: courageous, but also splendid Brave: courageous, but also splendid Conceit: thought Conceit: thought Cousin, coz: relative or close friend Cousin, coz: relative or close friend Cuckold: husband of an unfaithful wife Cuckold: husband of an unfaithful wife Cur: dog Cur: dog Fain: gladly Fain: gladly Forsooth: truth Forsooth: truth

40 Common Words Gaol: jail Gaol: jail Hap; haply: perhaps Hap; haply: perhaps Hence: away from here Hence: away from here Hither: here Hither: here Mistress: can be applied to any woman Mistress: can be applied to any woman Sirrah: addresses a man or boy of low station Sirrah: addresses a man or boy of low station Tarry: wait Tarry: wait Thence: away from here Thence: away from here Troth: faith Troth: faith Welkin: sky Welkin: sky Wench: girl or young woman Wench: girl or young woman Wherefore: why Wherefore: why Whither: where to? Whither: where to?

41 Playing with Words Puns Puns – double meanings Malapropisms Malapropisms –Using words incorrectly Slapstick Slapstick –Physical humor Comic Interludes Comic Interludes –Funny moments/scenes Bawdiness Bawdiness –Dirty but not filthy (coarse) Innuendo Innuendo –Subtle jokes with a sexual connotation


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