2Teaching Dyslexic students in the English Language Classroom Donatella FitzgeraldOxford University PressGood afternoon every one.Thank you for coming back after lunch! My name is Donatella Fitzgerald and I work for Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford and currently has an editorial department working closely with teachers in schools all over the world to create materials for students with special needs.It is important to state that research into dyslexia is on-going and sophisticated. This session does not attempt to enter into this discussion, but aims to highlight difficulties and to provide some teaching tips for students who may be disadvantaged in ways described by the term dyslexia.So let’s begin with a quiz to revise some of the areas covered by the speakers this morning:HANDOUT 1 QUIZ: DISTRIBUTE QUIZ
3Quiz Work in pairs to answer the questions! Prizes!!! Work in pairs and answer the questions to the Quiz. There will be prizes for the most correct answers.
4Answers 1. a) Greek : dys (meaning poor or inadequate) lexis (meaning words or language)b) a slight disorder of the brain that causes difficulty in reading and spelling, for example but does not affect intelligence. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 8° edition)GO THROUGH THE ANSWERS ON POWERPOINTShow oaldA ) show word origin from OALD cdromb) Show OALD definition from cd rom. Click on pronunciation and show meaning of word.HANDOUT 2: ANSWER KEY
5Famous people with dyslexia HANDOUT 2: FAMOUS PEOPLE WITH DYSLEXIA: tom Cruise, Robbie wiliams, Yeats, Richard Branson, Agatha Christie, Churchill. Also remember Henry Winkler OBE Distribute handout 2
71 – c2 – a3 – b4. British Dyslexic Association:‘There is no magic age’.
86: 5% of school age children in Italy (approx 350,000 students) 5: all are indicators6: 5% of school age children in Italy (approx 350,000 students)7 b) lower case8 c) mind maps d) Listen and ReadRead Answers from Dyslexia KEY4. According to the British Dyslexic Association, “There is no magic age when it appropriate to assess for dyslexia, although an assessment can be more detailed where some levels of literacy are a factor. Specialist intervention at a young age is always recommended to enable the child to fully access the curriculum. At a later age, this will be harder to achieve. Leaving a child to fail can be very harmful psychologically. The word "dyslexia" literally means difficulty with words. The condition results in problems with letter-sound associations leading to difficulties in reading, writing, and spelling. No two dyslexics have the same learning problems, nor is the condition age-related or indicative of low intelligence.In Italy, 350,000 students between the ages of 6 and 19 are dyslexic which is about 5% of school age students.This is roughly 1 student for every class of 120 students.Throughout school, students with dyslexia may have been assumed to be lazy, immature, unintelligent, or unmotivated. Often this leads Ts to think they are less able SS, however this is not the case. Dyslexia has nothing to do with intellectual ability.In Italy, more SS are being identified as having dyslexia than ever before. This is due to 2 factors, better diagnosis and also the fact that if a S is identified as having special needs, then the state must provide a specialist T for that S. This is not the case with dyslexic SS.5. All of them are possible indicators that the child may be dyslexic, however there may be other reasons for these things happening and this is not meant to be a checklist for dyslexia.6. In Italy, roughly 350,000 students between the ages of 6 and 19 are dyslexic which is about 5% of school age students or 1/20 students.7b. Although some studies have shown that very young dyslexic preschoolers learn capital/upper case letters letters easier than small/lower case letters, most dyslexic experts agree that using only capital or upper case letters for whole words makes it much harder for the dyslexic to read as dyslexics learn to recognise words partly by shape. For example the word “train” has the shape of an old-fashioned steam train but the word “TRAIN” is merely rectangular like every other word in upper case letters.According to the British Dyslexic Association, the most widely recommended handwriting style is called continuous cursive. Its most important feature is that each letter is formed without taking the pencil off the paper – and consequently, each word is formed in one, flowing movement.The key advantages to this system are:By making each letter in one movement, children’s hands develop a ‘physical memory’ of it, making it easier to produce the correct shape;Because letters and words flow from left to right, children are less likely to reverse letters which are typically difficult (like b/d or p/q);There is a clearer distinction between capital letters and lower case;The continuous flow of writing ultimately improves speed and spelling.8. c) Mind maps: Mind Mapping helps with dyslexia as it makes use of images, colour, shape, size and symbols to map out information in a way that is easier to comprehend.d) Listen and Read: Listening and following the text can help improve reading skills.
9Today`s workshop The effects of Dylexia Associated issues Dyslexia at schoolHow teachers can help dyslexic students at school:Which activities help dyslexic students learn: Practical ideasSupport from Oxford University PressThis morning you have examined Dyslexia in Italy and detail on what is dyslexia. We are now going to examine the effects of dyslexia on our students and dyslexia at school. We will look at how teachers can help dyslexic students at school with some practical examples especially created by Oxford University Press to go along side the Oxford coursebooks that you use.
10The effects of Dyslexia Core difficulty: word recognition, reading, fluency, spelling and writingProblems in classroom, workplaceAffect a person’s self imageDemotivate studentsThe impact that dyslexia has is different for each person and depends on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of instruction or remediation. The core difficulty is with word recognition and reading fluency, spelling, and writing. Some dyslexics manage to learn early reading and spelling tasks, especially with excellent instruction, but later experience their most debilitating problems when more complex language skills are required, such as grammar, understanding textbook material, and writing essays.People with dyslexia can also have problems with spoken language. They may find it difficult to express themselves clearly, or to fully comprehend what others mean when they speak. Such language problems are often difficult to recognize, but they can lead to major problems in school, in the workplace, and in relating to other people. The effects of dyslexia can often reach well beyond the classroom.Dyslexia can also affect a person’s self-image. Students with dyslexia often end up feeling “dumb” and less capable than they actually are. After experiencing a great deal of stress due to academic problems, a student may become discouraged about continuing in school so it is important that teachers are aware of how they can help and encourage dyslexic students.
11A teacher sent the following note home with a six-year-old boy: "He is too stupid to learn."That boy was Thomas A. Edison... Always be careful what you write on school reports
12dysorthography dysgraphia EFFECTS OF DYSLEXIA Students who are dyslexic, often have other associated issues like:dys’graphia: problems with writing, especially handwriting but also coherence, regardless of the ability to read.dysorthography: problems with spelling mistakes when writing. Confusing, omititing an inverting letters and syllables amongst other things.dyscalculia: problems in understanding numbers, doing sums and calculations,All of these have nothing to do with the SS level of intelligence.dysgraphia
13Recognizing dyslexic students Students have difficulties in:Learning words/letters/soundsSpelling football/futbol , mirrored letters or reversed (p-b-d-g-w-n-m)Reading/word recognition, misreads e.g. “look” and “lock”, “house” and “horse”.PronunciationLearning sequences of words/letters
14The brain Left hemisphere More analytical Right hemisphere Visual creativeThe brain is divided up into two parts. The right side is the more visual creative side and the left side is more analytical. We are slightly biased to one side. Traditional education makes more demands of the left side and dyslexic students strengths are more concentrated to the right side. Dyslexic students will be random, impulsive sensitive thinkers.
15Dyslexia at school Strengths centred at the centre of the brain. Dyslexic students are often at a disadvantage in a traditional educational environment. Dyslexic students’ strengths are centred in the right hemisphere of the brain, the side that deals more with visual activities and plays a role in putting things together. The left hemisphere tends to be the more analytical part; dyslexic students may be random, impulsive, sensitive thinkers, whereas school tends to emphasize the left hemisphere concerned with reading, writing, spelling, dealing with symbols – letters, numbers, musical notation – learning phonics, following instructions, listening carefully, responding accurately and putting things in order. The earlier students are given activities which build a sound foundation for these type of skills, the better chance they will have to learn.
16What areas of learning do dyslexic students need help with? 1. Reading2.Work in pairs and answer the question: think of the issues dyslexic students may have. For example reading.PAIR WORKWhat areas of learning do dyslexic students need help in?
17Dyslexic students need strategies to help with: ReadingWritingSpellingDealing with symbolsLettersNumbersMusical notationLearning phonicsFollowing instructionsListening carefullyResponding accurately and putting things in orderHANDOUT 3: What areas of learning do Dyslexic students need help with?5. Dyslexia at schoolDyslexic students are often at a disadvantage in a traditional educational environment. Dyslexic students’ strengths are centred in the right hemisphere of the brain, the side that deals more with visual activities and plays a role in putting things together. The left hemisphere tends to be the more analytical part; dyslexic students may be random, impulsive, sensitive thinkers, whereas school tends to emphasize the left hemisphere concerned with reading, writing, spelling, dealing with symbols – letters, numbers, musical notation – learning phonics, following instructions, listening carefully, responding accurately and putting things in order. The earlier students are given activities which build a sound foundation for these type of skills, the better chance they will have to learn.
18How can teachers help dyslexic students at school? Adequate help and encouragement in developing learning strategiesGive exact and short instructions.Adopt a multisensory approach to teachingApply an individual approach.Don’t teach similar things one after the otherLet student learn by doing.Dyslexic students can do very well at school, if they are given adequate help and encouragement in developing learning strategies to help them overcome the effects of dyslexia. This includes adopting a multisensory approach to learning which can help dyslexic students achieve better results in their studiesHANDOUT 3Give out strategies and principles and go through these and tick which ones you already do.
19“if the dyslexic child does not learn the way you teach, can you teach him the way he learns?” H.T Chasty – consultant in learning abilities and difficulties
20A student with dyslexia can be a positive, contributing, and valued class memberis an intelligent person who does not learn in the same way as otherslearns by doing
21Students with dyslexia have difficulty in English in the following areas: ReadingLearning new vocabularyGrammarWritingSpeakingConfidenceDyslexic students can do very well at school, if they are given adequate help and encouragement in developing learning strategies to help them overcome the effects of dyslexia. This includes adopting a multisensory approach to learning which can help dyslexic students achieve better results in their studies.Students with Dyslexia may have difficulties in the following areas of language learning:ReadingLearning new vocabularyGrammarWritingSpeakingConfidenceThis is also because a dyslexic student has problems with processing the phonology of a language. Difficulties arise because these students have problems distinguishing sound differences in a word and in sequencing them thereafter. This difficulty in sequencing elements of language can also impact on understanding and producing grammatical structures. In other words, students with dyslexia have difficulties with specific language skills, particularly reading and often experience difficulties with other language skills as well such as spelling, writing, and pronouncing words. Today we will look at each of these areas and I will provide practical activities to help the teacher and student developed by Oxford University Press which is a department of the University of Oxford and as such has many editors focusing on creating materials for students with special needs all over the world.
22Reading and secondary school Speed of readingScanningDictionariesReading for gistReading for detailsConfuse similar words sun\sonBy secondary school (especially Superiore) some dyslexic students may have developed strategies for reading but they may have difficulties with their speed of reading, comprehension and crucially, technique. The teacher needs to monitor the students with the following tasks:Scanning for specific detail in dictionaries, reference books and on internet search engines.Reading for gist.Reading for detail when answering comprehension questions or following instructions.Learning new vocabularyIt is difficult for dyslexic students to remember vocabulary and expression and how individual words are formed. Regular and fun activities to revise vocabulary are important. Audio books can also help students and word lists with audio in text books can help them too.We will examine practical activities and techniques to encourage students to approach words systematically. Reading aloud as a whole class activity is good and audio recordings of texts help too. Quiet reading takes a dyslexic student more time as they often don`t understand what they are reading or misunderstanding the meaning of the whole text because of confusing similar words eg son and sun.
23A window MarkerA window marker for reading helps dyslexic students with reading. The student should hold it in such a position that the world that is being read appears in the opening (window).
24Reading Dyslexia friendly text Thick paper Matt/not glossy Cream/soft pastel (blue or pink)Plain font eg. Arial or comic sansFont size pointAvoid green/red/pink difficult for colour blinded studentsBy secondary school (especially Superiore) some dyslexic students may have developed strategies for reading but they may have difficulties with their speed of reading, comprehension and crucially, technique. The teacher needs to monitor the students with the following tasks:Scanning for specific detail in dictionaries, reference books and on internet search engines.Reading for gist.Reading for detail when answering comprehension questions or following instructions.Learning new vocabularyIt is difficult for dyslexic students to remember vocabulary and expression and how individual words are formed. Regular and fun activities to revise vocabulary are important. Audio books can also help students and word lists with audio in text books can help them too.We will examine practical activities and techniques to encourage students to approach words systematically.
26Grammar Grammar tables Colour coding (always use the same colours). Grammar often causes problems for dyslexic students. As with vocabulary regular revision is important and clear explanations of structures will help dyslexic students. The speaker will illustrate some useful tips for teachers when teaching grammar items to classes with dyslexic students. Some helpful things may be to encourage students to produce grammar tables themselves to demonstrate the patterns in syntax. Use colour coding for various elements of a sentence. Make sure you always use the same colour for example blue for verbs and green for nounds and red for prepositions and that you don,t change colour because you run out of chalk for example.
29The alphabet Difficulty in learning sequences Draw letters on your backPlastic lettersPutting words in alphabetical orderAlphabet ruler: for using dictionariesDyslexic students have difficulty in learning sequences for example the alphabet. There fore they need more time and more repetition than the rest of the pupils.
30An alphabet rulerThe alphabet ruler can help with using dictionaries and alphabetical order.
31Vocabulary Poor memory Revision techniques Memo: vocabulary notebook Learn words as a morphological chainRoad signs (lower case)Word cardsIt is difficult for dyslexic students to remember vocabulary and expressions and how individual words are formed. They have pictoral memories so the shape of the word can help. Students have poor memory. Difficulty to learn things in sequences i.e. numbers and months so give more time to these.
36Writing Problems planning work Spelling Go through their plan orally Key wordsMind mapsThe same systematic and structured approach recommended for vocabulary and grammar also applies to writing. Students should be encouraged to plan their work and teachers can select materials which provide well-structured tasks. It is difficult to get dyslexic students to correct work and spot mistakes.
37Speaking Whole class activities:drills and choral repetition Do not pick on a dyslexic student individuallyStudents with Dyslexia have problems in recalling vocabulary and working out syntax and this creates difficulty with speaking English. Some techniques such as whole class activities and drilling where nobody is singled out can build confidence in a dyslexic student. There are many games which can help students and today we will look at some of these.
38Confidence Introduce strategies into everyday class activities. Digital books can helpMost of all students need to feel supported if they are to confidently pursue their language learning and this is especially true for the dyslexic student. Without drawing attention to problems in front of their peers, strategies should be introduced into everyday classroom activities.Digital books can also help students in Scuola Secondaria 1 grado and 2 grado
39Apply a multi-sensory approach Look, listen sayListen and singLook, point and sayListen and colourListen and doPlay the game
40Oxford Test Makers Change font of tests Use strutturati exercises Reduce number of exercisesPrint on pale blue/pink/cream paper
41Homework Difficulty in copying Write on the board carefully Write in the same placeGive enough homework to practice the concept: but not too much!A homework diaryA homework buddy (facebook)As teachers most of us have been guilty of scribbling down homework on the board in the last minutes of the lesson while the students are leaving the room.
42My Digital Book supporting dyslexic language learners All course components with audioZoom-in function of all pagesSounds chartThe alphabet with audioNumbers with audioWordlists with audioColour-coded sections
43www.oup.com/elt/oxforditalysupport 2012 All our special needs material will be available on a single website.
44A student with dyslexia can be a positive, contributing, and valued class member;is an intelligent person who does not learn in the same way as others;learns by doing.
45If you can dream it, you can do it. - Walt Disney As we said before and this is perhaps the fundamental consideration for a teacher, Dyslexia does not affect intelligence. I will leave you a quote from one of the most famous dyslexic learners of all time who has made a huge contribution to young children’s lives all over the world.